To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Description: Semiconductor physics contains a rich body of theory and working designs. However, their material properties seem to be reaching their limits. Perovskite oxides on the other hand have abundant physical properties, but are still under active investigation. The advent of RHEED-monitoring of pulsed laser deposition allows for the fabrication of structures with single unit cell (4 Å) thick layers. In this way we may be able to fabricate quantum well structures for both applications and fundamental investigations. Superlattices of the Mott insulator LaTiO3 (LTO) and the band gap insulator SrTiO3 (STO) form such a structure. The superlattices are metallic, both as-grown and post-annealed . This has been attributed to the existence of metallic states at the interfaces between LTO and STO . At these interfaces the electron density is found to extend about 10 Å into the STO. However, theoretically, the required length scale for quantum confinement is of the order of 4 Å. A possible way to increase this confinement is to use a buffer material with a larger band gap than that of LTO (similar to semiconductor band gap engineering) and/or with a lower dielectric constant . LaAlO3 (LAO) is such a material (ΔELAO = 5.6 eV vs. ΔESTO = 3.2 eV, εLAO = 24 vs. εSTO = 300). Here we report on the growth of LTO/LAO superlattices on STO substrates. As-grown superlattices of LTO/LAO are metallic, while post-annealing turns them insulating. This may be explained from a disorder-order transition in a 2D Mott-Hubbard model . XPS and EELS measurements of the titanium valence show interesting differences for LTO layers close to and far away from the sample surface. The former, for thin LAO capping layers, show the presence of Ti4+ while the latter only have Ti3+. Hard XPS of samples with varying capping layer thickness shows an exponential dependence of the Ti3+ contents on a length scale of about 5 unit cells.  A. Ohtomo et al., Nature 419, 378-380 (2002).  S. Okamoto & A.J. Millis, Phys. Rev. B 70, 075101 (2004).  D. Heidarian & N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 126401 (2004).
We report the investigation on the properties of a novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te and its effectiveness in fabricating MoTe2. The vapor pressure of the precursor was obtained by measuring the pressure as a function of its temperature in a sealed chamber. As a result it showed a high vapor pressure of 552.1 Pa at room temperature. The decomposition of the precursor was also investigated using DFT calculation. It was shown that the most likely reaction during the course of the decomposition of (i-C3H7)2Te is (i-C3H7)2Te → H2Te + 2 C3H7. The effectiveness of the precursor on the fabrication of MoTe2 was also investigated. Sputter-deposited MoO3 was tellurized in a quartz-tube furnace at the temperature up to 440°C. The resulting film showed that the 80% of the original MoO3 was tellurized to form MoTe2. It was also shown that further optimization of tellurization is required in order to prevent formation of metal Mo and elemental Te.
The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed brackish water basin where sea ice occurs annually. The sea-ice study discussed here was conducted as a Finnish-Japanese cooperative research programme entitled "Ice Climatology of the Okhotsk and Baltic Seas’’ to investigate the structure and properties of the brackish ice in the Baltic Sea. Ice, snow and water samples were collected at Santala Bay, near the mouth of the Gulf of Finland, once a week from 20 January to 12 April 1999. The salinity and oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the samples were measured. The ice samples were analyzed stratigraphically. The ice was composed of a granular upper layer, occupying approximately one-third of the entire ice thickness, and underlying columnar ice toward the bottom. The crystallography structure and δ18O values reveal that the granular ice consisted of two layers with different origins, i.e. snow ice and superimposed ice. The fraction of snow relative to the total thickness was estimated. The limited data show a significant contribution of the snow cover to the sea-ice development. The salinity of the granular ice was higher than that of the columnar ice, implying that the mechanism of entrapment of brine may be different between the two ice types.
We report the synthesis of MoS2(1-x)Te2x by co-sputtering deposition and effect of mixture on its bandgap. The deposition was carried out at room temperature, and the sputtering power on individual MoS2 and MoTe2 targets were varied to obtain films with different compositions. Investigation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Mo-Te and Mo-S bonds after post-deposition annealing (PDA), and one of the samples exhibited composition ratio of Mo:S:Te = 1:1.2:0.8 and 1:1.9:0.1 achieving 1:2 ratio of metal to chalcogen. Bandgap of MoS1.2Te0.8 and MoS1.9Te0.1 was evaluated with Tauc plot analysis from the extinction coefficient obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The obtained bandgaps were 1.0 eV and 1.3 eV. The resulting bandgap was lower than that of bulk MoS2 and higher than that of bulk MoTe2 suggesting mixture of both materials was achieved by co-sputtering.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were fabricated by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using (t-C4H9)2S2 and the effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and atmosphere on the formation were investigated in order to achieve high-speed low-temperature MoS2 film formation. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, it was confirmed that c-axis orientation of the pre-deposited Mo film has a significant involvement in the crystal orientation after the reaction low temperature sulfurization annealing and we successfully obtained 3 nm c-axis oriented MoS2 thin film. From the S/Mo ratios in the films, it was revealed that the sulfurization reaction proceeds faster with increase in the sulfurization temperature and the gas flow rate. Moreover, the sulfurization under the H2 atmosphere promotes decomposition reaction of (t-C4H9)2S2, which were confirmed by XPS and density functional theory (DFT) simulation.
Although presently classified as a SU UMa-type dwarf nova, WZ Sge is well known as one of the most peculiar objects in that it shows only superoutbursts with exceptional duration and amplitude, and no normal outbursts. Furthermore, on its decline from the 1978 outburst, WZ Sge showed a deep temporal dip. All of these characteristics have puzzled both theoreticians and observers.
The dwarf nova AL Com was photometrically observed during the outburst in 1995 April, which occurred for the first time since 1975. The striking similarity of AL Com to WZ Sge, as demonstrated by the present observation (Fig. 1), provides plenty of material in interpreting the enigmatic nature of WZ Sge-type dwarf novae.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), one of the transition-metal dichalcogenides, is a 2-dimensional semiconducting material that has a layered structure. Owing to excellent optical and electronic properties, the ultra-thin MoS2 film is expected to be used for various devices, such as transistors and flexible displays. In this study, we investigated the physical and chemical properties of sputtered-MoS2 film in the sub-10-nm region by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the results of Raman spectroscopy investigations, we observed two Raman modes, E12g and A1g, in the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. As the thickness of the MoS2 film decreased, the peak frequency difference between E12g and A1g modes increased. From the XPS investigations, we confirmed sulfur reductions from the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. Therefore, we considered that the sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 film affected the Raman peak positions. Moreover, we performed the additional sulfurization of sputtered-MoS2 films. From the XPS and Raman investigations, the quality of the sputtered-MoS2 films was improved by the additional sulfurization.
A fully coherent free electron laser (FEL) seeded with a higher-order harmonic (HH) pulse from high-order harmonic generation (HHG) is successfully operated for a sufficiently prolonged time in pilot user experiments by using a timing drift feedback. For HHG-seeded FELs, the seeding laser pulses have to be synchronized with electron bunches. Despite seeded FELs being non-chaotic light sources in principle, external laser-seeded FELs are often unstable in practice because of a timing jitter and a drift between the seeding laser pulses and the accelerated electron bunches. Accordingly, we constructed a relative arrival-timing monitor based on non-invasive electro-optic sampling (EOS). The EOS monitor made uninterrupted shot-to-shot monitoring possible even during the seeded FEL operation. The EOS system was then used for arrival-timing feedback with an adjustability of 100 fs for continual operation of the HHG-seeded FEL. Using the EOS-based beam drift controlling system, the HHG-seeded FEL was operated over half a day with an effective hit rate of 20%–30%. The output pulse energy was
at the 61.2 nm wavelength. Towards seeded FELs in the water window region, we investigated our upgrade plan to seed high-power FELs with HH photon energy of 30–100 eV and lase at shorter wavelengths of up to 2 nm through high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) at the energy-upgraded SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS) accelerator. We studied a benefit as well as the feasibility of the next HHG-seeded FEL machine with single-stage HGHG with tunability of a lasing wavelength.
The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ⩾50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
Most of the research on silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits has been focused on applications for telecommunication. By using the large refractive index of silicon, compact complex photonic functions have been integrated on a silicon chip. However, the transparency of silicon up to 8.5 μm enables the use of the platform for the mid infrared wavelength region, albeit limited by the absorption in silicon oxide from 4 μm on. This could lead to a whole new set of integrated photonics circuits for sensing, given the distinct absorption bands of many molecules in this wavelength region. These long wavelength integrated photonic circuits would preferably need broadband or widely tunable sources to probe these absorption bands.
We propose the use of nonlinear optics in silicon wire waveguides to generate light in this wavelength range. Nonlinear interactions in just a few cm of silicon wire waveguides can be very efficient as a result of both the high nonlinear index of silicon and the high optical confinement obtained in these waveguides. We demonstrate the generation of a supercontinuum spanning from 1.53 μm up to 2.55 μm in a 2 cm dispersion engineered silicon nanowire waveguide by pumping the waveguide with strong picoseconds pulses at 2.12 μm . Furthermore we demonstrate broadband nonlinear optical amplification in the mid infrared up to 50 dB  in these silicon waveguides. By using this broadband parametric gain a silicon-based synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is constructed . This OPO is tunable over 70 nm around a central wavelength of 2080 nm.
Finally, we also demonstrate the use of higher order dispersion terms to get phase matching between optical signals at very different optical frequencies in silicon wire waveguides. In this way we demonstrate conversion of signals at 2.44 μm to the telecommunication band with efficiencies up to +19.5 dB . One particularly attractive application of such wide conversion is the possibility of converting weak signals in the mid-IR to the telecom window after which they can be detected by a high-sensitivity telecom-band optical receiver.
Semiconductor-based thermistors are very attractive sensor materials for uncooled thermal infrared (IR) bolometers. Very large scale heterogeneous integration of MEMS is an emerging technology that allows the integration of epitaxially grown, high-performance IR bolometer thermistor materials with pre-processed CMOS-based integrated circuits for the sensor read-out. Thermistor materials based on alternating silicon (Si) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) epitaxial layers have been demonstrated and their performance is continuously increasing. Compared to a single layer of silicon or SiGe, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) can be strongly enhanced to about 3 %/K, by using thin alternating layers. In this paper we report on the optimization of alternating Si/SiGe layers by advanced physically based simulations, including quantum mechanical corrections. Our simulation framework provides reliable predictions for a wide range of SiGe layer compositions, including concentration gradients. Finally, our SiGe thermistor layers have been evaluated in terms of low-frequency noise performance, in order to optimize the bolometer detectivity.
Terahertz (THz) imaging technique has attracted much attention in recent years, because the technique can be applied to many application fields such as nondestructive analysis and imaging method through optically opaque materials. A THz real-time imaging equipment (Terahertz Camera) considered increasingly important in the future has been developed. We report a THz video rate imaging system consisting of a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) light source as a THz illuminator, and a Si-technology based un-cooled micro-bolometer focal-plane array (an infrared detector common in thermal cameras). We also describe two applications of our imaging system: stand-off imaging for search and rescue in a fire disaster, and label-free biomaterial detection.
The potential of chemically derived graphene as a solution-processable transparent conductive film has been explored. Synthesis of amine-functionalized graphene oxide was intended for its utilization in layer-by-layer assembly. Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide was utilized to fabricate graphene based thin film in a scalable and highly reproducible way. It was found that optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the film decreases with an increase in number of LBL cycles in a reproducible way. The sheet resistance of LBL-assembled GO film improves by an order of magnitude at the same optical transparency due to more homogeneous coverage and better stacking of graphene flakes. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential for a large-scale deposition of chemically derived graphene.
The concept of THz detection based on excitation of plasma waves in two-dimensional electron gas in Si FETs is one of the most attractive ones, as it makes possible the development of the large-scale integrated devices based on a conventional microelectronic technology including on-chip antennas and readout devices integration. In this work we report on investigations of Terahertz detectors based on low-cost silicon technology field effect transistors. We show that detectors, consisting of a coupling antenna and a n-MOS field effect transistor as rectifying element, are efficient for THz detection and imaging. We demonstrate that in the atmospheric window around 300 GHz, these detectors can achieve a record noise equivalent power below 10 pW/Hz0.5 and a responsivity above 90 kV/W once integrated with on-chip amplifier. We show also that they can be used in a very wide frequency range: from ∼0.2 THz up to 1.1 THz. THz detection by Si FETs pave the way towards high sensitivity silicon technology based focal plane arrays for THz imaging.
In this paper recent advances in terahertz-wave generation in graphene are reviewed. First, fundamental basis of the optoelectronic properties of graphene is introduced. Second, nonequilibrium carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in optically or electrically pumped graphene is described to introduce a possibility of negative dynamic conductivity in a wide terahertz range. Third, recent theoretical advances toward the creation of current-injection graphene terahertz lasers are described. Fourth, unique terahertz dynamics of the two-dimensional plasmons in graphene are described. Finally, the advantages of graphene materials and devices for terahertz-wave generation are summarized.
We report our main results on the development of un-cooled microbolometers based on hydrogenated amorphous Germanium-Silicon (a-GexSiy:H) thermo-sensing films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). Our research has been conducted to improve both, the structure of the devices (pixels) and the performance characteristics of the amorphous Germanium-Silicon thermosensing films.
Our motivation is to produce microbolometers with much better performance characteristics (larger thermal coefficient of resistance, larger conductivity and better stability) than those available in commercial microbolometer arrays, based on boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H,B).
As part of our latest research, we also report the study of what we believe is the next generation of thermosensing films based on Silicon and Geranium amorphous films with embedded nanocrystals in the amorphous matrix (polymorphous films). Those materials have several advantages over amorphous, as a lower defect density, better stability and better transport properties.
The mid-infrared wavelength region offers a plethora of possible applications ranging from sensing, medical diagnostics and free space communications, to thermal imaging and IR countermeasures. Hence group IV mid-infrared photonics is attracting more research interest lately. Sensing is an especially attractive area as fundamental vibrations of many important gases are found in the 3 to 14 μm spectral region. To realise group IV photonic mid-infrared sensors several serious challenges need to be overcome. The first challenge is to find suitable material platforms for the mid-infrared. In this paper we present experimental results for passive mid-infrared photonic devices realised in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), silicon-on-sapphire (SOS), and silicon on porous silicon (SiPSi). Although silicon dioxide is lossy in most parts of the mid-infrared, we have shown that it has potential to be used in the 3-4 μm region. We have characterized SOI waveguides with < 1 dB/cm propagation loss. We have also designed and fabricated SOI passive devices such as MMIs and ring resonators. For longer wavelengths SOS or SiPSi structures could be used. An important active device for long wavelength group IV photonics will be an optical modulator. We present relationships for the free-carrier induced electro-refraction and electro-absorption in silicon in the mid-infrared wavelength range. Electro-absorption modulation is calculated from impurity-doping spectra taken from the literature, and a Kramers-Kronig analysis of these spectra is used to predict electro-refraction modulation. We have examined the wavelength dependence of electro-refraction and electro-absorption, and found that the predictions suggest longer-wave modulator designs will in many cases be different than those used in the telecom range.