To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Do minority voters respond to co-racial or co-ethnic candidates? That is does the increased chance of substantive representation translate into increased participation? Here, we focus on this question among African American voters. While much of the empirical literature on this question has produced conflicting answers, recent studies suggest that minority candidates can significantly increase minority turnout. We argue that past work on this topic does not adequately account for the fact that minority voters in places with minority candidates may systematically differ in their level of participation than minority voters in places without minority candidates. In this study we address the weaknesses of previous research designs and offer a new design that exploits the redistricting process to gain additional leverage over this question. We find little evidence that African American voter turnout increases when voters are moved to African American candidates. We find some evidence that white voters, however, tend to vote at lower rates when they are represented by African American candidates.
Little is known about the association of cortical Aβ with depression and anxiety among cognitively normal (CN) elderly persons.
We conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota; involving CN persons aged ≥ 60 years that underwent PiB-PET scans and completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive diagnosis was made by an expert consensus panel. Participants were classified as having abnormal (≥1.4; PiB+) or normal PiB-PET (<1.4; PiB−) using a global cortical to cerebellar ratio. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after adjusting for age and sex.
Of 1,038 CN participants (53.1% males), 379 were PiB+. Each one point symptom increase in the BDI (OR = 1.03; 1.00–1.06) and BAI (OR = 1.04; 1.01–1.08) was associated with increased odds of PiB-PET+. The number of participants with BDI > 13 (clinical depression) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET- group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.42; 0.83–2.43). Similarly, the number of participants with BAI > 10 (clinical anxiety) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET− group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.77; 0.97–3.22).
As expected, depression and anxiety levels were low in this community-dwelling sample, which likely reduced our statistical power. However, we observed an informative albeit weak association between increased BDI and BAI scores and elevated cortical amyloid deposition. This observation needs to be tested in a longitudinal cohort study.
Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of some commonly consumed foods in the United Arab Emirates were determined with an aim of adding these values to the existing international table of GI and GL values. In all, eighteen test foods categorised into breads (n 5), entrée dishes (n 3), main dishes (n 5) and sweet dishes (n 5) were tested. For each test food, at least fifteen healthy participants consumed 25 or 50 g available carbohydrate portions of a reference food (glucose), which was tested three times, and a test food after an overnight fast, was tested once, on separate occasions. Capillary blood samples were obtained by finger-prick and blood glucose was measured using clinical chemistry analyser. A fasting blood sample was obtained at baseline and before consumption of test foods. Additional blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. The GI value of each test food was calculated as the percentage of the incremental area under the blood glucose curve (IAUC) for the test food of each participant divided by the average IAUC for the reference food of the same participant. The GI values of tested foods ranged from low (55 or less) to high (70 or more). The GI values of various breads and rice-containing dishes were comparable with previously published values. This study provides GI and GL values of previously untested traditional Emirati foods which could provide a useful guide on dietary recommendations for the Emirati population.
Voting is a fundamental part of any democratic society. But survey-based measures of voting are problematic because a substantial proportion of nonvoters report that they voted. This over-reporting has consequences for our understanding of voting as well as the behaviors and attitudes associated with voting. Relying on the “bogus pipeline” approach, we investigate whether altering the wording of the turnout question can cause respondents to provide more accurate responses. We attempt to reduce over-reporting simply by changing the wording of the vote question by highlighting to the respondent that: (1) we can in fact find out, via public records, whether or not they voted; and (2) we (survey administrators) know some people who say they voted did not. We examine these questions through a survey on US voting-age citizens after the 2010 midterm elections, in which we ask them about voting in those elections. Our evidence shows that the question noting we would check the records improved the accuracy of the reports by reducing the over-reporting of turnout.
Traditional breeding has been used to develop grain sorghum germplasm that is tolerant to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides (Inzen Technology, DuPont). Inzen sorghum carries a double mutation in the ALS gene (Val560Ile and Trp574Leu), which confers high level of tolerance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Overreliance on ALS-inhibiting herbicides for weed control during the 1990s resulted in the evolution of ALS inhibitor–resistant shattercane populations in Nebraska. According to a survey conducted in 2013, ALS inhibitor–resistant weedy Sorghum populations persist in Nebraska. The objectives of this research were to determine whether the ALS mutations present in Inzen sorghum were present in the ALS inhibitor–resistant shattercane and johnsongrass populations detected in Nebraska and northern Kansas, and whether these populations evolved ALS resistance independently. Primers specific to the Val560 and Trp574 region of the ALS gene were used to screen the populations with PCR. The Trp574Leu mutation was present in one ALS inhibitor–resistant johnsongrass population. The Val560Ile was detected in three ALS inhibitor–resistant shattercane, one susceptible shattercane, one ALS inhibitor–resistant johnsongrass, and one susceptible johnsongrass population. Moreover, Val560Ile was present in resistant and/or susceptible individuals within johnsongrass and shattercane populations that were segregating for ALS resistance, indicating that by itself the Val560Ile mutation does not confer resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. None of the populations presented both mutations simultaneously, as does Inzen sorghum. A shattercane population containing the Ser653Thr mutation was also detected. This research indicates that the ALS mutations present in Inzen sorghum already exist individually in weedy sorghum populations. Moreover, our results present strong evidence that ALS resistance in these populations evolved independently. Thus, widespread overreliance on ALS-inhibiting herbicides prior to adoption of glyphosate-tolerant crops in the 1990s exerted sufficient selective pressure on shattercane and johnsongrass populations for resistance to evolve multiple times in the Midwest. Finally, a survey of the 5′ portion of the ALS gene in more diverse wild and weedy Sorghum species was hampered by limited coverage in genomic resequencing surveys, suggesting that refined PCR-based methods will be needed to assess SNP variation in this gene region, which includes the Ala122, Pro197, and Ala205 codons known to confer ALS resistance in other species.
Toxoplasmosis affects a third of the global population and is of particular concern for immunologically compromised individuals. Toxoplasmosis induces host physiological events ranging from immunological to metabolic responses across multiple biological compartments. To understand the sequence of host responses during acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection, eight male BALB/c mice were infected with 2000 T. gondii ME49 tachyzoites with a further eight uninfected mice used as controls. Plasma cytokines status, urinary metabolic profiling and fecal microbial profiles were characterized to monitor temporal variation related to T. gondii infection. The results showed elevated serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-12p40 and necrosis factor-α during acute phase of infection with concomitant perturbation in host energy metabolism and host-gut microbiome co-metabolism of phenolics and a shift in microbial composition. However, the differences were less pronounced during the putative chronic phase of infection with elevated IFN-γ, differences in urinary N-acetyls and O-acetyls of glycoproteins with no shift in gut microbial composition. Structural equation modelling on the current data showed host immune responses as the main driver for changes observed in urinary metabolites and gut microbial composition. Such an approach can be applied to other models of infectious diseases to aid understanding of host–pathogen interactions and potential biomarker discovery.
The use of ultrasound for assessing diaphragmatic dysfunction after paediatric cardiac surgery may be under-utilised. This study aimed to evaluate the role of bedside ultrasound performed by an intensivist to diagnose diaphragmatic dysfunction and the need for plication after paediatric cardiac surgery.
We carried out a retrospective cohort study on prospectively collected data of postoperative children admitted to the paediatric cardiac ICU during 2013. Diaphragmatic dysfunction was suspected based on difficulties in weaning from positive pressure ventilation or chest X-ray findings. Ultrasound studies were performed by the paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist and confirmed by a qualified radiologist.
Out of 344 postoperative patients, 32 needed diaphragm ultrasound for suspected dysfunction. Ultrasound studies confirmed diaphragmatic dysfunction in 17/32 (53%) patients with an average age and weight of 10.8±3.8 months and 6±1 kg, respectively. The incidence rate of diaphragmatic dysfunction was 4.9% in relation to the whole population. Diaphragmatic plication was needed in 9/17 cases (53%), with a rate of 2.6% in postoperative cardiac children. The mean plication time was 15.1±1.3 days after surgery. All patients who underwent plication were under 4 months of age. After plication, they were discharged with mean paediatric cardiac ICU and hospital stay of 19±3.5 and 42±8 days, respectively.
Critical-care ultrasound assessment of diaphragmatic movement is a useful and practical bedside tool that can be performed by a trained paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist. It may help in the early detection and management of diaphragmatic dysfunction after paediatric cardiac surgery through a decision-making algorithm that may have potential positive effects on morbidity and outcome.
Objective: The adverse events (AEs) with botulinum toxin type-A (BoNTA), used for indications other than spasticity, are widely reported in the literature. However, the site, dose, and frequency of injections are different for spasticity when compared to the treatment for other conditions and hence the AEs may be different as well. The objective of this study was to summarize the AEs reported in Canada and systematically review the AEs with intramuscular botulinum toxin injections to treat focal spasticity. Methods: Data were gathered from Health Canada (2009-2013) and major electronic databases. Results: In a 4 year period, 285 AEs were reported. OnabotulinumtoxinA (n=272 events): 68% females, 53% serious, 18% hospitalization, and 8% fatalities. The type of AEs reported were – muscle weakness (19%), oropharyngeal (14%), respiratory (14%), eye related (8%), bowel/bladder related (8%), and infection (5%). IncobotulinumtoxinA (n=13): 38% females, 62% serious, and 54% hospitalization. The type of AEs reported were – muscle weakness (15%), oropharyngeal (15%), respiratory (38%), eye related (23%), bowel/bladder related (15%), and infection (15%). Commonly reported AEs in the literature were muscle weakness, pain, oropharyngeal, bowel/bladder, blood circulation, neurological, gait, and respiratory problems. Conclusion: While BoNTA is useful in managing spasticity, future studies need to investigate the factors that can minimize AEs. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the AEs can also improve guidelines for BoNTA administration and enhance outcomes.
The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and establish the proportion of people with psychosis meeting criteria for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study also aimed to identify the key lifestyle behaviours associated with increased risk of the MetS and to investigate whether the MetS is associated with illness severity and degree of functional impairment.
Baseline data were collected as part of a large randomized controlled trial (IMPaCT RCT). The study took place within community mental health teams in five Mental Health NHS Trusts in urban and rural locations across England. A total of 450 randomly selected out-patients, aged 18–65 years, with an established psychotic illness were recruited. We ascertained the prevalence rates of cardiometabolic risk factors, illness severity and functional impairment and calculated rates of the MetS, using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria.
High rates of cardiometabolic risk factors were found. Nearly all women and most men had waist circumference exceeding the IDF threshold for central obesity. Half the sample was obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) and a fifth met the criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Females were more likely to be obese than males (61% v. 42%, p < 0.001). Of the 308 patients with complete laboratory measures, 57% (n = 175) met the IDF criteria for the MetS.
In the UK, the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with psychotic illnesses is much higher than that observed in national general population studies as well as in most international studies of patients with psychosis.
Departing from accounts of minority group politics that focus on the role of group identity in advancing group members’ common interests, we investigate political decisions involving tradeoffs between group interests and simple self-interest. Using the case of black Americans, we investigate crystallized group norms about politics, internalized beliefs about group solidarity, and mechanisms for enforcing both through social pressure. Through a series of novel behavioral experiments that offer black subjects individual incentives to defect from the position most favored by black Americans as a group, we test the effects of social pressure to conform. We find that racialized social pressure and internalized beliefs in group solidarity are constraining and depress self-interested behavior. Our results speak to a common conflict—choosing between maximizing group interests and self-interest—and yet also offer specific insight into how blacks remain so homogeneous in partisan politics despite their growing ideological and economic variation.
This trial aimed to compare the guillotine technique of tonsillectomy with ‘cold steel’ dissection, the current ‘gold standard’.
A single centre, randomised, controlled trial.
One hundred children aged 3 to 11 years who were listed for bilateral tonsillectomy were recruited. Patients had one tonsil removed by each technique, and were blinded to the side. The operative time, intra-operative blood loss, haemostasis requirement and post-operative pain scores were recorded and compared.
Operative time and intra-operative blood loss were both significantly less for the guillotine technique (p < 0.001) and there was a significantly reduced haemostasis requirement (p < 0.001). Pain was also less on the guillotine side (p < 0.001). There were no tonsillar remnants or palatal trauma for either technique. There was no significant difference between techniques in the frequency of secondary haemorrhage.
This study provides level Ib evidence that guillotine tonsillectomy in children with mobile tonsils is an effective and time-efficient procedure which produces less intra-operative blood loss and post-operative pain than cold steel dissection.
High quality GaAs films have been deposited on sawtooth-patterned (0.2 μm period) Si substrates by MOCVD. Three inch diameter Si wafers were patterned using a combination of holographic lithography and wet chemical etching. A two-step deposition process was used resulting in planar films with surface morphology comparable to films deposited on unpatterned substrates. The initial low temperature nucleation layer was found to be amorphous and conformed to the patterned Si surface. Rapid thermal annealing and thermal cycle growth resulted in substantial reduction in the threading defect density. The MOCVD growth and characterization of these films and the possible mechanisms responsible for the reduction/elimination of the defects at the GaAs/Si interface are discussed.
We report record-high electron mobilities obtained in the Si/SiGe alloy system via single-junction n-type modulation-doped Si/Si0.7Ge0.9 heterostructurcs grown by the ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition technique. Peak electron mobilities as high as 1,800 cm2/Vs, 9,000 cm2/Vs and 19,000 cm2/Vs were measured at room temperature, 77K and 1.4K, respectively. These high mobilities resulted from excellent Si/SiGe interfacial properties by employing a compositional graded Si/SiGe superlattice prior to the growth of a thick S0.7Ge0.3 buffer, which brought about a dramatic reduction of the threading dislocation density in the active Si channel. Two thin phosphorous-doped layers were incorporated in the SiGe barrier and at its surface to supply electrons to the Si channel and to suppress the surface depletion, respectively. The transport properties of these heterostructurcs were determined to be those of a two dimensional electron gas at Si/SiGe heterointerfaces at low temperatures.
The present study outlines the importance of carbon active sites in controlling the kinetics of pyrolytic carbon deposition on a graphitized pitch fiber at 1025°C. Blockage of active sites with chemisorbed hydrogen retards deposition rates substantially. Removal of the chemisorbed hydrogen from the occupied sites raises deposition rates to the normal values noted on a fresh “clean” surface. The effect of surface activation prior to deposition is discussed. Activating the surface generates additional active sites and enhances the rates. However, not all the newly developed sites contribute to the kinetics. After the deposition of the first carbon layer, a fraction of those newly developed sites is instantaneously blocked and does not further contribute to subsequent deposition. The remaining fraction, along with the original sites available before activation, keeps replicating during the remaining course of deposition. That is, the disappearance of one active site after carbon deposition is associated with the generation of a new site. This trend continues up to the deposition of 60 carbon layers.