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We report the implementation of two new methods of accurate comparison of lattice parameters against a silicon standard using a high resolution X-ray diffractometer. The double axis method uses a specimen rotation stage which set the limit of reproducibility (at 3 sigma) to 3 parts in 105. An application of the technique is illustrated in measurements of the zinc concentration in Cd1-xZnx Te to an accuracy of 0.1%. The triple axis technique uses beam conditioner and analyser crystals to define the incident and diffracted wave vectors. In measurement of the lattice parameters of InAs, we found a precision of 1 part in 105 and traceable accuracy of a several parts in 105.
We discuss the use of Fourier transform techniques to extract layer thickness from the interference fringes observed in high resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curves of pseudomorphic HEMT structures. The interference structure is extracted by cubic spline fitting to the extrema of the data, thereby obtaining a background envelope which is used to normalise the data. The resulting constant background is subtracted from the data and the residual Fourier transformed. Auto correlation of the residual significantly improves the result from noisy data. Satisfactory results are obtained only when the Bragg peak from the substrate is windowed out. With a limited dynamic and angular range, there is often insufficient data to separate the two closely spaced periods arising from the total layer thickness and that excluding the quantum well. The result then corresponds to the average of these two thicknesses.
This study explores whether children can learn a structural processing bias relevant to pronoun interpretation from brief training. Over three days, 42 five-year-olds were exposed to narratives exhibiting a first-mentioned tendency. Two characters were introduced, and the first-mentioned was later described engaging in a solo activity. In our primary condition of interest, the Gesture Training condition, the solo-activity sentence contained an ambiguous pronoun, but co-speech gesture clarified the referent. There were two comparison conditions. In the Gender Training condition the characters were different genders, thereby avoiding ambiguity. In the Name Training condition, the first-mentioned name was simply repeated. Ambiguous pronoun interpretation was tested pre- and post-training. Children in the Gesture condition were significantly more likely to interpret ambiguous pronouns as the first-mentioned character after training. Results from the comparison conditions were ambiguous: there was a small but non-significant effect of training, but also no significant differences between conditions.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] was recently identified in Brazil, but its resistance mechanism was unknown. This study elucidated the resistance mechanism in this species and developed a molecular marker for rapid detection of this target-site resistance trait. The resistance factor for the resistant biotype was 4.4-fold compared with the glyphosate-susceptible (GS) in greenhouse dose–response experiments. This was accompanied by a similar (4-fold) difference in the levels of in vitro and in planta shikimate accumulation in these biotypes. However, there was no difference in uptake, translocation, or metabolism of glyphosate between the GS and GR biotypes. Moreover, both biotypes showed similar values for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) copy number and transcription. Sequencing of a 330-bp fragment of the EPSPS gene identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism that led to a Pro-106-Ser amino acid substitution in the enzyme from the GR biotype. This mutation imparted a 3.8-fold increase in the amount of glyphosate required to inhibit 50% of EPSPS activity, confirming the role of this amino acid substitution in resistance to glyphosate. A quantitative PCR–based genotyping assay was developed for the rapid detection of resistant plants containing this Pro-106-Ser mutation.
The epidemiology of infectious diseases depends on many characteristics of disease progression, as well as the consistency of these processes across hosts. Longitudinal studies of infection can thus inform disease monitoring and management, but can be challenging in wildlife, particularly for long-lived hosts and persistent infections. Numerous tortoise species of conservation concern can be infected by pathogenic mycoplasmas that cause a chronic upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). Yet, a lack of detailed data describing tortoise responses to mycoplasma infections obscures our understanding of URTDs role in host ecology. We therefore monitored Mycoplasma agassizii infections in 14 captive desert tortoises and characterised clinical signs of disease, infection intensity, pathogen shedding and antibody production for nearly 4 years after initial exposure to donor hosts. Persistent infections established in all exposed tortoises within 10 weeks, but hosts appeared to vary in resistance, which affected the patterns of pathogen shedding and apparent disease. Delays in host immune response and changes to clinical signs and infection intensity over time resulted in inconsistencies between diagnostic tools and changes in diagnostic accuracy throughout the study. We discuss the implications these results have for URTD epidemiology and past and future research assessing disease prevalence and dynamics in tortoise populations.
Objectives: Studies suggest that impairments in some of the same domains of cognition occur in different neuropsychiatric conditions, including those known to share genetic liability. Yet, direct, multi-disorder cognitive comparisons are limited, and it remains unclear whether overlapping deficits are due to comorbidity. We aimed to extend the literature by examining cognition across different neuropsychiatric conditions and addressing comorbidity. Methods: Subjects were 486 youth consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation and enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Genetic Influences on Cognition. First, we assessed general ability, reaction time variability (RTV), and aspects of executive functions (EFs) in youth with non-comorbid forms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as in youth with psychosis. Second, we determined the impact of comorbid ADHD on cognition in youth with ASD and mood disorders. Results: For EFs (working memory, inhibition, and shifting/ flexibility), we observed weaknesses in all diagnostic groups when participants’ own ability was the referent. Decrements were subtle in relation to published normative data. For RTV, weaknesses emerged in youth with ADHD and mood disorders, but trend-level results could not rule out decrements in other conditions. Comorbidity with ADHD did not impact the pattern of weaknesses for youth with ASD or mood disorders but increased the magnitude of the decrement in those with mood disorders. Conclusions: Youth with ADHD, mood disorders, ASD, and psychosis show EF weaknesses that are not due to comorbidity. Whether such cognitive difficulties reflect genetic liability shared among these conditions requires further study. (JINS, 2018, 24, 91–103)
Analysis of in situ neutron powder diffraction data collected for the porous framework material Zn(hba) during gas adsorption reveals a two-stage response of the host lattice to increasing CO2 guest concentration, suggesting progressive occupation of multiple CO2 adsorption sites with different binding strengths. The response of the lattice to moderate CH4 guest concentrations is virtually indistinguishable from the response to CO2, demonstrating that the influence of host–guest interactions on the Zn(hba) framework is defined more strongly by the concentration than by the identity of the guests.
Due to the limited availability of selective herbicides to control Sumatran fleabane after soybean emergence, it is essential to develop new options that provide effective control prior to planting. A new herbicide formulation containing diclosulam+halauxifen-methyl was evaluated for effectiveness at two Sumatran fleabane plant heights (5 to 10 cm, and 10 to 50 cm) and for soybean selectivity when applied at 7 or 3 d before planting. Combined results from the two sites showed that diclosulam+halauxifen, applied either alone or in a tank mixture with glyphosate, and the tank mixture of diclosulam+2,4-D amine+glyphosate are effective at all rates tested to control Sumatran fleabane in preplant applications. Crop response was observed with applications 7 days before planting at only one of the sites. A rate-dependent crop response was observed for pre-plant applications performed 3 days before soybean planting. However, crop yield was not significantly affected for either timing across all rates. All rates tested of diclosulam+halauxifen in this study were considered safe to soybean.
The rapid spread of glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations generates concern in the agricultural production sector in Brazil. Nonetheless, there is not much information related to the frequency and dispersion of sourgrass throughout recent years. We investigated the frequency and dispersion of glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations in Brazilian agricultural regions as part of a larger-scale weed resistance monitoring study. A discriminatory rate of 960 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate was used on plants at the 2- to 3-tiller stage, originating from 2,593 populations of sourgrass sampled in 329 counties in 14 Brazilian states between 2012 and 2015. The dispersion of sourgrass populations originated in western Paraná State, next to the Paraguay border, where the first resistance case was reported. Its dispersion to the central region of Brazil, mainly in soybean-producing areas, is most likely a consequence of agricultural equipment movement and wind-mediated dispersal. Glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations were found in every geographical region across all Brazilian states tested. These data highlight the importance of an appropriate weed resistance monitoring program to track the evolution and dispersion of resistance to mitigate these issues by focusing efforts regionally and raising awareness among stakeholders in each region.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent.
To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of psychological treatment response in children with anxiety disorders (n = 980).
Presence and severity of anxiety was assessed using semi-structured interview at baseline, on completion of treatment (post-treatment), and 3 to 12 months after treatment completion (follow-up). DNA was genotyped using the Illumina Human Core Exome-12v1.0 array. Linear mixed models were used to test associations between genetic variants and response (change in symptom severity) immediately post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up.
No variants passed a genome-wide significance threshold (P=5×10–8) in either analysis. Four variants met criteria for suggestive significance (P<5×10–6) in association with response post-treatment, and three variants in the 6-month follow-up analysis.
This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts.
Evolution of magnetic structures in the region around an eruptive prominence of August 28, 1992 are examined using soft X-ray images obtained by Yohkoh. The eruption was preceded by the appearance of a large-scale soft X-ray jet which was ejected from near the root of the southern end of the prominence. Changes of magnetic geometry at the southern end of the prominence appeared to trigger the eruption. In the course of prominence eruption, helically twisted soft X-ray loops were observed around the prominence. This indicates that magnetic reconnection of a sheared arcade took place underneath the erupting prominence.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
Various foods are associated with effects against metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, their mechanisms of action are mostly unclear. Fatty acids may contribute by acting as precursors of signalling molecules or by direct activity on receptors. The medium- and long-chain NEFA receptor FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor 1, previously known as GPR40) has been linked to enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas FFA4 (free fatty acid receptor 4, previously known as GPR120) has been associated with insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory effects, and both receptors are reported to protect pancreatic islets and promote secretion of appetite and glucose-regulating hormones. Hypothesising that FFA1 and FFA4 mediate therapeutic effects of dietary components, we screened a broad selection of NEFA on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterised active compounds in concentration–response curves. Of the screened compounds, pinolenic acid, a constituent of pine nut oil, was identified as a relatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist, and its suitability for further studies was confirmed by additional in vitro characterisation. Pine nut oil and free and esterified pure pinolenic acid were tested in an acute glucose tolerance test in mice. Pine nut oil showed a moderately but significantly improved glucose tolerance compared with maize oil. Pure pinolenic acid or ethyl ester gave robust and highly significant improvements of glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the present results indicate that pinolenic acid is a comparatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist that exerts antidiabetic effects in an acute mouse model. The compound thus deserves attention as a potential active dietary ingredient to prevent or counteract metabolic diseases.
Species with physically dormant (PY) seeds make up over 25% of plant species in a number of ecologically important ecosystems around the globe, such as savannah and Mediterranean shrublands. Many of these ecosystems are subject to temporally stochastic events, such as fire and drought; but are in areas projected to experience some of the most extreme climatic changes in the future. Given the importance of PY in controlling germination timing for successful recruitment, we ask how plastic the PY trait is, and if changes to the maternal environment from climate change could alter recruitment. This review focuses on: (1) the evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in PY; (2) the genetic, maternal and environmental controls involved; and (3) the ecological consequences of (1) and (2) above. Evidence for (within-community) interspecific variation in conditions required to break PY is strong, but for intraspecific variation evidence is contradictory and limited by a paucity of studies. Identifying controllers of variation in PY is complex, there is some suggestion that conditions of the maternal environment may be important, but no consensus on the nature of effects. The implications of PY plasticity for the persistence of seed banks, species and communities under climate change are discussed. We highlight a number of key knowledge gaps, such as a lack of research estimating the components of variation in non-agricultural species, and identify a suite of seed attributes relevant to understanding the potential impacts of climate change on the population dynamics of PY species in the future.
With the collapse of presbyterian efforts to effect structural change in the Church of England in the 1590s, reformers were forced to realize that only widespread and sustained popular support could bring about further reform of the church. It is in this last decade of Elizabeth's reign that Christopher Hill sees the emergence of what he calls a “new Puritanism” designed to nurture such a broad base of support for further reform. This “new Puritanism,” which emphasized preaching and the cultivation of an individual piety rather than ecclesiastical reorganization, “with the household as its essential unit rather than the parish,” could also be described as a return to earlier values that had characterized Puritanism before the rise of the presbyterian party. Whether one chooses to interpret the trends of the late 1590s as “new” or “old,” what is important is that reformers by 1600 were making extensive use of both pulpit and press as instruments for influencing the hearts and minds of the English laity. An examination of the more frequently reprinted works of practical divinity in the first generation of the seventeenth century (which included much sermon literature) ought to reveal the themes that reformers hoped would strike a responsive chord with English readers.
Surveying such publications from the 1580s into the early 1600s, we may be surprised to find that two of the most popular works were Protestantized versions of Catholic works: Thomas Rogers's translation of De imitatione Christi (1580) and Edmund Bunny's A Booke of Christian exercise, appertaining to Resolution (1584), adapted from Robert Parsons's First Book of the Christian exercise (1582).