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Cannabis use is common in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and this is associated with poor disease outcome. More insight in the cognitive-motivational processes related to cannabis use in schizophrenia may inform treatment strategies. The present study is the first known to compare implicit and explicit cannabis associations in individuals with and without psychotic disorder.
Participants consisted of 70 patients with recent-onset psychotic disorder and 61 healthy controls with various levels of cannabis use. Three Single-Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT) were used to assess ‘relaxed’, ‘active’ and ‘negative’ implicit associations towards cannabis use. Explicit expectancies of cannabis use were assessed with a questionnaire using the same words as the SC-IAT.
There were no differences in implicit associations between patients and controls; however, patients scored significantly higher on explicit negative affect expectancies than controls. Both groups demonstrated strong negative implicit associations towards cannabis use. Explicit relaxed expectancies were the strongest predictors of cannabis use and craving. There was a trend for implicit active associations to predict craving.
The findings indicate that patients suffering from schizophrenia have associations towards cannabis similar to controls, but they have stronger negative explicit cannabis associations. The strong negative implicit associations towards cannabis could imply that users of cannabis engage in a behaviour they do not implicitly like. Explicit relaxing expectancies of cannabis might be an important mediator in the continuation of cannabis use in patients and controls.
The effect of conventional process parameters on the deposition of μc-Si:H solar cells is reviewed. Then, an approach to solar cell optimization is presented in which hidden, internal parameters are adjusted rather than conventional, external process parameters. The investigation focuses on deposition at low H2 dilution ratio and low total gas flow. A hidden parameter is identified through time resolved optical emission spectroscopy on SiH emission: Transient depletion of the SiH4 source gas leads to uncontrolled deposition conditions during the first 90 s after plasma ignition. There hardly is any effect on plasma properties and deposited film properties for the remainder of deposition after the transient depletion phase. As demonstrator a 9.5 % efficient single junction μc-Si:H solar cell was deposited from a pure SiH4 flow. A reinterpretation of the role of H2 dilution is discussed.
Extended abstract of a paper presented at the Pre-Meeting Congress: Materials Research in an Aberration-Free Environment, at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004 in Savannah, Georgia, USA, July 31 and August 1, 2004.
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