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Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata (S. Wangata) is an important cause of endemic salmonellosis in Australia, with human infections occurring from undefined sources. This investigation sought to examine possible environmental and zoonotic sources for human infections with S. Wangata in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The investigation adopted a One Health approach and was comprised of three complimentary components: a case–control study examining human risk factors; environmental and animal sampling; and genomic analysis of human, animal and environmental isolates. Forty-eight human S. Wangata cases were interviewed during a 6-month period from November 2016 to April 2017, together with 55 Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) controls and 130 neighbourhood controls. Indirect contact with bats/flying foxes (S. Typhimurium controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–6.48)) (neighbourhood controls (aOR 8.33, 95% CI 2.58–26.83)), wild frogs (aOR 3.65, 95% CI 1.32–10.07) and wild birds (aOR 6.93, 95% CI 2.29–21.00) were statistically associated with illness in multivariable analyses. S. Wangata was detected in dog faeces, wildlife scats and a compost specimen collected from the outdoor environments of cases’ residences. In addition, S. Wangata was detected in the faeces of wild birds and sea turtles in the investigation area. Genomic analysis revealed that S. Wangata isolates were relatively clonal. Our findings suggest that S. Wangata is present in the environment and may have a reservoir in wildlife populations in north-eastern NSW. Further investigation is required to better understand the occurrence of Salmonella in wildlife groups and to identify possible transmission pathways for human infections.
The intense interest in production of heteroepitaxial quaternary structures of Gax In1-x Asy p1-y on InP for electro-optical telecommunications systems has Stimulated development of non-destructive techniques for their analysis. One of the most important is double axis X-ray diffractometry, a technique originally developed in the 1920s but only now coming into widespread use as a routine assessment tool. The basic theory is well treated by James and discussion of alignment errors are found in references cited by Fewster in a paper describing alignment procedures for the automated diffractometer manufactured by Bede Scientific Instruments of Durham, The application to III-V systems has been discussed by Tanner, Barnett and Bill.
Methods have been developed for autopsy tissue analysis using a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) system optimized for thin sample analysis. The system uses 2 MeV protons, thus limiting sample thickness to several milligrams per square centimeter. Calibration was accomplished with standard solutions spotted onto Nuclepore filters, which were subsequently irradiated in a uniform proton flux. X-ray yields measured with a Si (Li) detector were corrected for proton energy loss in the filter matrix as well as X-ray attenuation. Corrections for proton energy loss were determined from empirical parameters relating proton energy to X-ray cross sections. Typical filter thickness and penetration of the sample solution into the filter matrix were measured allowing calculation of proton energy attenuation and X-ray absorption corrections. The method was used in routine analyses for sixteen elements in seven types of human tissue. Accuracy was evaluated with standard reference materials and atomic absorption analyses.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The central goal of this proposal is to characterize the mechanisms that mediate success or failure of immature intestinal barrier in necrotizing enterocilitis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To do this, I will utilize stem cell derived human intestinal organoids (HIOs), an innovative model of the immature intestine, and a cohort of bacterial isolates collected from premature infants who developed NEC to interrogate the cause-effect relationship of these strains on maintenance of the intestinal barrier. I hypothesize that the epithelial response to bacterial colonization is strain-dependent and results in differences in inflammatory signaling that shape epithelial barrier function in the immature intestine. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary data shows that colonization of HIOs with different bacteria leads to species-specific changes in barrier function, and some species selectively damage the epithelial barrier while others enhance epithelial barrier function. I have identified key inflammatory signals that serve as central drivers of intestinal barrier function. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Characterization of this process is expected to substantially advance scientific understanding of early events in NEC pathogenesis and lead to new opportunities for targeted therapeutic intervention to accelerate barrier maturation or prevent hyperinflammatory reactivity in the neonatal intestine. The research proposed in this application represents an entirely novel approach to studying host-microbial interactions in the immature. Conceptually, this novel translational approach will help to define the pivotal role of colonizing bacteria in initiating epithelial inflammation in NEC patients.
Soldier operational performance is determined by their fitness, nutritional status, quality of rest/recovery, and remaining injury/illness free. Understanding large fluctuations in nutritional status during operations is critical to safeguarding health and well-being. There are limited data world-wide describing the effect of extreme climate change on nutrient profiles. This study investigated the effect of hot-dry deployments on vitamin D status (assessed from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration) of young, male, military volunteers. Two data sets are presented (pilot study, n 37; main study, n 98), examining serum 25(OH)D concentrations before and during 6-month summer operational deployments to Afghanistan (March to October/November). Body mass, percentage of body fat, dietary intake and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH), adjusted Ca and albumin concentrations were measured in the main study to better understand 25(OH)D fluctuations. Body mass and fat mass (FM) losses were greater for early (pre- to mid-) deployment compared with late (mid- to post-) deployment (P<0·05). Dietary intake was well-maintained despite high rates of energy expenditure. A pronounced increase in 25(OH)D was observed between pre- (March) and mid-deployment (June) (pilot study: 51 (sd 20) v. 212 (sd 85) nmol/l, P<0·05; main study: 55 (sd 22) v. 167 (sd 71) nmol/l, P<0·05) and remained elevated post-deployment (October/November). In contrast, PTH was highest pre-deployment, decreasing thereafter (main study: 4·45 (sd 2·20) v. 3·79 (sd 1·50) pmol/l, P<0·05). The typical seasonal cycling of vitamin D appeared exaggerated in this active male population undertaking an arduous summer deployment. Further research is warranted, where such large seasonal vitamin D fluctuations may be detrimental to bone health in the longer-term.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal research has shown that race-related stress is associated with increased depressive symptoms among racial/ethnic minorities. Rumination has long been considered a maladaptive self-regulatory response to race-related stress, and growing evidence suggests that it may be an important link in the relation between race-related stress and depression. More adaptive forms of self-regulation, such as active coping, may counteract the negative impact of rumination. We examined the influence of rumination on the relation between race-related stress and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 69) of young adult (mean age = 20 ± 1.5 years) African American women. We also considered the possible moderating effects of John Henryism, a form of persistent and determined goal striving, and vagally mediated heart rate variability, a purported biomarker of coping. Anticipatory race-related stress was indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through rumination: estimate = 0.07, 95% confidence interval [0.01, 0.16]. Both John Henryism and vagally mediated heart rate variability moderated the relationship between race-related stress and rumination; however, only John Henryism reliably influenced the indirect association between race-related stress and depression through rumination. We discuss these findings in the context of growing research examining the interplay between cultural and biological factors in the risk for poorer mental health.
The Enemy Release Hypothesis (ERH) predicts that introduced plant species can escape herbivory and therefore have a competitive advantage over native plants, which are exposed to both generalist and specialist natural enemies. In this study, the ERH was explored using the invasive alien species, Arundo donax and two native tall-statured grasses, the cosmopolitan Phragmites australis and African endemic Phragmites mauritianus in South Africa. It was predicted that A. donax would have reduced species richness of herbivores compared with the native Phragmites spp., that it would be devoid of specialist herbivores and would thus be experiencing enemy escape in the adventive range. The herbivore assemblages were determined from both field surveys and a literature review. The assumptions of the ERH were for the most part not met; 13 herbivores were found on A. donax compared with 17 on P. australis and 20 on P. mauritianus. Arundo donax had two specialist herbivores from its native range, and shared native herbivores with Phragmites spp. Although A. donax had reduced species richness and diversity compared with that found in the native distribution, it has partially re-acquired a herbivore assemblage which is similar to that found on analogous native species. This suggests that enemy release may not fully explain the invasive success of A. donax in South Africa.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) actively counter proinflammatory cascades. A deficit of SPMs is one possible mechanism through which inflammation leads to the development of atherosclerotic disease. The purpose of this study is to characterize the profiles of intermediates of SPM synthesis pathways and end-product SPMs in the plasma of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A cross-sectional sample of 52 patients with PAD was recruited at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PAD was defined as the presence of claudication symptoms and an ankle-brachial index <0.9, or a history of revascularization for claudication. Patients were excluded if they were taking immunosuppressive medications, had a severe acute illness (infection, surgery, illness, critical limb ischemia) within the last 30 days, or had severe hepatic, renal, or nonvascular inflammatory disease. Intermediates of SPM synthesis pathways and end-product SPMs were measured in plasma samples of patients by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The average age of the cohort was 69±6.3 and patient comorbidities reflected common comorbidities associated with PAD (hypertension 96%, hyperlipidemia 87%, diabetes mellitus 42%, coronary artery disease 34%). Rutherford categories, measurements of PAD symptom severity, ranged from 0 to III (0 10%, I 40%, II 27%, III 23%). Three EPA products were measured: 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), resolvin E1 (RvE1), and resolvin E2 (RvE2). 18-HEPE, an intermediate of SPM synthesis, was detectable in the plasma of every patient (median: 105 pg/mL, IQR: 54.9–195), whereas the SPM end-products, RvE1 and RvE2, were only detectable in 6 and 10 patients, respectively. In total, 7 DHA products were measured: 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA), 17-HDHA, resolvin D1 (RvD1), resolvin D2 (RvD2), protectin D1, protectin DX, and maresin 1. The intermediates 14-HDHA (median: 6546 pg/mL, IQR: 3329–12061) and 17-HDHA (median: 644 pg/mL, IQR: 340–1056) were detectable in the plasma of every patient. However, the end-products RvD1, RvD2, protectin D1, protecin DX, and maresin 1 were identified in less than half of the cohort. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We report the presence of several intermediates of SPM synthesis pathways (18-HEPE, 14-HDHA, and 17-HDHA) in every patient but the presence of SPM end-products in only a limited portion of the cohort. These results suggest that some patients with PAD may have a deficit of SPMs. Further investigation is required to better understand the role of SPMs and mediators of resolution of inflammation in PAD.
Recent findings highlight that there are prenatal risks for affective disorders that are mediated by glucocorticoid mechanisms, and may be specific to females. There is also evidence of sex differences in prenatal programming mechanisms and developmental psychopathology, whereby effects are in opposite directions in males and females. As birth weight is a risk for affective disorders, we sought to investigate whether maternal prenatal cortisol may have sex-specific effects on fetal growth. Participants were 241 mothers selected from the Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) using a psychosocial risk stratifier, so that responses could be weighted back to the general population. Mothers provided saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol, at home over 2 days at 32 weeks gestation (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening). Measures of infant birth weight (corrected for gestational age) were taken from hospital records. General population estimates of associations between variables were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal log of the area under the curve cortisol predicted infant birth weight in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term P=0.029). There was a positive and statistically significant association between prenatal cortisol in males, and a negative association in females that was not statistically significant. A sex interaction in the same direction was evident when using the waking (P=0.015), and 30-min post-waking (P=0.013) cortisol, but not the evening measure. There was no interaction between prenatal cortisol and sex to predict gestational age. Our findings add to an emerging literature that suggests that there may be sex-specific mechanisms that underpin fetal programming.
In commercial egg type chicken breeding three and four way crosses are used to produce commercial layers. The primary breeders are using closed nucleus breeding programmes, with birds kept under maximum biosecurity. All grand parents and parents are produced from a closed nucleus for the world wide demand of commercial layers. The breeding goals have been focused for several decades on increasing number of eggs per hen housed. Additional traits have become more important during the last decade, i.e. feed efficiency, internal and external egg quality and general adaptability. Prior to each selection, weights for individual traits within the selection index are adjusted to meet market demands. Breeding stock and commercial layers have to be bred to perform adequately in a variety of systems ranging from large intensive cage units to free range management under different environmental conditions world-wide.
Despite intensive selection for egg production the decrease in genetic variation observed in closed commercial lines is not yet critical. Peak production is approaching the biological limit of one egg a day. During this period genetic and phenotypic variation have been significantly reduced. But for early production (sexual maturity) and late production (persistency) genetic variation is still high. In a mating scheme avoiding full and half sib matings no serious inbreeding depression is observed. To achieve continued future genetic progress, selection pressure will shift to other traits like internal and external egg quality and perhaps behaviour traits which still respond to selection.
Primary breeders are responding to this challenge by testing pedigreed cross-line hens in a wide range of environments and housing systems while the pure-line elite stock is kept under conditions of maximum biosecurity. Marker assisted selection is already part of commercial breeding programmes. In the past, blood typing has been used to improve Marek's resistance, whereas today anonymous microsatellites which are linked to traits of economic interest are used for selection. In particular, selection between full sib males can give a major improvement.
The whole industry is getting more specialised. While the genetic potential of the birds is improved management and nutrition have also to be adapted to changing demands. The general goal for the future is to breed chickens with the ability to function well within a wider range of production conditions and do not respond to the slightest stress.
In this brief report, computed tomography perfusion (CTP) thresholds predicting follow-up infarction in patients presenting <3 hours from stroke onset and achieving ultra-early reperfusion (<45 minutes from CTP) are reported. CTP thresholds that predict follow-up infarction vary based on time to reperfusion: Tmax >20 to 23 seconds and cerebral blood flow <5 to 7 ml/min−1/(100 g)−1 or relative cerebral blood flow <0.14 to 0.20 optimally predicted the final infarct. These thresholds are stricter than published thresholds.
Rapid diagnostic technologies can assist Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) in achieving the goals of reducing unnecessary antimicrobial exposure and optimizing patient care. The Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists supports all members of the ASP team as essential components of optimal use of these technologies for management of antibiotic prescribing and cost-reduction strategies.
We analyze Sun-as-a-star observations spanning over solar cycles 22 – 24 from the ground-based network BiSON and solar cycles 23 – 24 collected by the space-based VIRGO and GOLF instruments on board the SoHO satellite. Using simultaneous observations from all three instruments, our analysis suggests that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for modifying the frequencies remained comparable between cycle 23 and cycle 24 but differ from cycle 22. Thus we infer that the magnetic layer of the Sun has become thinner since the beginning of cycle 23 and continues during the current cycle.
Using continuous observations for 22 years from ground-based network GONG and space-borne instruments MDI onboard SoHO and HMI onboard SDO, we report both global and local properties of the convection zone and their variations with time.
Pepper & Nettle's theory of the behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD) would benefit from teasing apart the conceptually distinct – although related – constructs of predictability and control. Our commentary draws from prior research conducted in the learning domain to demonstrate that predictability moderates the effects of control and independently exerts a powerful influence on outcomes relevant to the BCD.
Due to their extremely small luminosity compared to the stars they orbit, planets outside our own Solar System are extraordinarily difficult to detect directly in optical light. Careful photometric monitoring of distant stars, however, can reveal the presence of exoplanets via the microlensing or eclipsing effects they induce. The international PLANET collaboration is performing such monitoring using a cadre of semi-dedicated telescopes around the world. Their results constrain the number of gas giants orbiting 1–7 AU from the most typical stars in the Galaxy. Upgrades in the program are opening regions of “exoplanet discovery space” – toward smaller masses and larger orbital radii – that are inaccessible to the Doppler velocity technique.
An observational account of research carried out in July-August 1999 shows that grounded iceberg and related fast-ice distributions, and periodic "break-outs" of fast ice (in winter as well as at other times), have an important impact on the size and behaviour of the Mertz Glacier polynya, East Antarctica, and a smaller polynya to the east. Analysis of satellite and in situ data shows that a semi-constant "stream" of thick broken-out fast ice and other large floes from the east extends westwards from north of the glacier terminus to form a compact barrier to the net west-northwesterly export of ice formed in the polynya. An annual fast-ice promontory to the west further narrows the outlet path. As a result of this and high ice-production rates, the polynya periodically "back-fills", significantly reducing the open-water area present. Intervening "flush-outs" by synoptic storm events clear the polynya region to some extent before it back-fills again. This cycle continued from mid-March until early October in 1999, when a significant change in the regional ice drift occurred. A preliminary comparison with data from 1998 indicates that the timing and magnitude of the processes may vary interannually. Similar morphological features were also observed in 1963 (on a declassified photoreconnaissance satellite image).