To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article explores the growing interface between social media and academic publishing. We discuss how the British Journal of Psychiatry (BJPsych) and other scientific journals are engaging with social media to communicate in a digital world. A growing body of evidence suggests that public visibility and constructive conversation on social media networks can be beneficial for researchers and clinicians, influencing research in a number of key ways. This engagement presents new opportunities for more widely disseminating information, but also carries risks. We note future prospects and ask where BJPsych should strategically place itself in this rapidly changing environment.
Declaration of interest
J.R.H., J.F.H. and D.T. are on the editorial board of the BJPsych. D.T. runs its social media arm.
Identifying routes of transmission among hospitalized patients during a healthcare-associated outbreak can be tedious, particularly among patients with complex hospital stays and multiple exposures. Data mining of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential to rapidly identify common exposures among patients suspected of being part of an outbreak.
We retrospectively analyzed 9 hospital outbreaks that occurred during 2011–2016 and that had previously been characterized both according to transmission route and by molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates. We determined (1) the ability of data mining of the EHR to identify the correct route of transmission, (2) how early the correct route was identified during the timeline of the outbreak, and (3) how many cases in the outbreaks could have been prevented had the system been running in real time.
Correct routes were identified for all outbreaks at the second patient, except for one outbreak involving >1 transmission route that was detected at the eighth patient. Up to 40 or 34 infections (78% or 66% of possible preventable infections, respectively) could have been prevented if data mining had been implemented in real time, assuming the initiation of an effective intervention within 7 or 14 days of identification of the transmission route, respectively.
Data mining of the EHR was accurate for identifying routes of transmission among patients who were part of the outbreak. Prospective validation of this approach using routine whole-genome sequencing and data mining of the EHR for both outbreak detection and route attribution is ongoing.
The north-west European population of Bewick’s Swan Cygnus columbianus bewickii declined by 38% between 1995 and 2010 and is listed as ‘Endangered’ on the European Red List of birds. Here, we combined information on food resources within the landscape with long-term data on swan numbers, habitat use, behaviour and two complementary measures of body condition, to examine whether changes in food type and availability have influenced the Bewick’s Swan’s use of their main wintering site in the UK, the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens. Maximum number of Bewick’s Swans rose from 620 in winter 1958/59 to a high of 7,491 in winter 2004/05, before falling to 1,073 birds in winter 2013/14. Between winters 1958/59 and 2014/15 the Ouse Washes supported between 0.5 and 37.9 % of the total population wintering in north-west Europe (mean ± 95 % CI = 18.1 ± 2.4 %). Swans fed on agricultural crops, shifting from post-harvest remains of root crops (e.g. sugar beet and potatoes) in November and December to winter-sown cereals (e.g. wheat) in January and February. Inter-annual variation in the area cultivated for these crops did not result in changes in the peak numbers of swans occurring on the Ouse Washes. Behavioural and body condition data indicated that food supplies on the Ouse Washes and surrounding fens remain adequate to allow the birds to gain and maintain good body condition throughout winter with no increase in foraging effort. Our findings suggest that the recent decline in numbers of Bewick’s Swans at this internationally important site was not linked to inadequate food resources.
Legionnaires’ disease (LD) incidence in the USA has quadrupled since 2000. Health departments must detect LD outbreaks quickly to identify and remediate sources. We tested the performance of a system to prospectively detect simulated LD outbreaks in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA. We generated three simulated LD outbreaks based on published outbreaks. After verifying no significant clusters existed in surveillance data during 2014–2016, we embedded simulated outbreak-associated cases into 2016, assigning simulated residences and report dates. We mimicked daily analyses in 2016 using the prospective space-time permutation scan statistic to detect clusters of ⩽30 and ⩽180 days using 365-day and 730-day baseline periods, respectively. We used recurrence interval (RI) thresholds of ⩾20, ⩾100 and ⩾365 days to define significant signals. We calculated sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for daily analyses, separately for each embedded outbreak. Two large, simulated cooling tower-associated outbreaks were detected. As the RI threshold was increased, sensitivity and negative predictive value decreased, while positive predictive value and specificity increased. A small, simulated potable water-associated outbreak was not detected. Use of a RI threshold of ⩾100 days minimised time-to-detection while maximizing positive predictive value. Health departments should consider using this system to detect community-acquired LD outbreaks.
Effective integrated weed management in agricultural landscapes depends on the ability to identify and manage processes that drive weed dynamics. The current study reports the effects of grazing management and crop rotation strategies on the seedbank and emerged weed flora in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) experiment during a 12-year period under no-tillage in sub-tropical southern Brazil. During winter, Italian ryegrass cover crops were grazed by sheep: grazing management treatments included two stocking methods (continuous and rotational) and two forage allowances (10 and 20 kg of herbage dry matter available per 100 kg animal live weight). During summer, the crop rotation treatments involved either soybean-maize or soybean-soybean in succession with winter-grazed cover crops. The treatments were part of a factorial randomized complete block design. Treatment effects were evaluated on the weed seedbank and emerged weed flora populations during winter-grazed cover crop and summer crop growth as well as during the harvest phase. The current results demonstrate that crop rotation and grazing management exhibited interactive effects on the determination of weed outcomes in an ICLS. However, overall, compared with moderate forage allowance, high forage allowance during the winter-grazed cover crop caused lower emerged weed flora in subsequent crops (20% reduction during crop growth and 90% reduction at crop harvest) and 48% reduction in seedbank size. High forage allowance promoted more residue from winter-grazed cover crop biomass, which remained during the summer crop phases and probably resulted in a physical barrier to weed emergence.
This paper reports on: (1) an evaluation of a common elements treatment approach (CETA) developed for comorbid presentations of depression, anxiety, traumatic stress, and/or externalizing symptoms among children in three Somali refugee camps on the Ethiopian/Somali border, and (2) an evaluation of implementation factors from the perspective of staff, lay providers, and families who engaged in the intervention.
This project was conducted in three refugee camps and utilized locally validated mental health instruments for internalizing, externalizing, and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Participants were recruited from either a validity study or from referrals from social workers within International Rescue Committee Programs. Lay providers delivered CETA to youth (CETA-Youth) and families, and symptoms were re-assessed post-treatment. Providers and families responded to a semi-structured interview to assess implementation factors.
Children who participated in the CETA-Youth open trial reported significant decreases in symptoms of internalizing (d = 1.37), externalizing (d = 0.85), and posttraumatic stress (d = 1.71), and improvements in well-being (d = 0.75). Caregivers also reported significant decreases in child symptoms. Qualitative results were positive toward the acceptability and appropriateness of treatment, and its feasibility.
This project is the first to examine a common elements approach (CETA: defined as flexible delivery of elements, order, and dosing) with children and caregivers in a low-resource setting with delivery by lay providers. CETA-Youth may offer an effective treatment that is easier to implement and scale-up versus multiple focal interventions. A fullscale randomized clinical trial is warranted.
The Star Centre is a national astronomy and space science base which
facilitates public access to news and information
promotes public awareness, interest, enjoyment and understanding.
The Star Centre meets these twin aims by providing an information service which can be accessed in a variety of ways and by offering a menu of public observing events.
The concept of a national astronomy base developed as part of the Centre for Science Educations growing portfolio of initiatives in both the formal education sector and the wider umbrella of the Public Understanding of Science. In December 1996 the Star Centre was launched with the aid of a Royal Society COPUS development grant and matching funding from Sheffield Hallam University.
Black Rapids Glacier is a 40 km long surge-type glacier in the central Alaska Range. In spring 1997 a wireline drill rig was set up at a location where the measured surface velocities are high and seasonal and annual velocity variations are large. The drilling revealed a layer of subglacial “till”, up to 7 m thick, that is believed to be water-saturated. At one location a string of instruments, containing three dual-axis tiltmeters and one piezometer, was successfully introduced into the till. The tiltmeters monitored the inclination of the borehole at the ice–till interface and at 1 and 2 m into the till, for 410 days. They showed that no significant deformation occurred in the upper 2 m of the till layer, and no significant amount of the basal motion was due to sliding of the ice over the till. The measured surface velocity at the drill site is about 60 m a−1, of which 20–30 m a can be accounted for by ice deformation. Almost the entire amount of basal motion, 30–40 m a−1, was taken up at a depth of > 2 m in the till, possibly in discrete shear layers, or as sliding of till over the underlying bedrock. We propose that the large-scale mobilization of such till layers is a key factor in initiating glacier surges.
Glacier response to climate can be characterized by a single time-scale when the glacier changes sufficiently slowly. Then the derivative of volume with respect to area defines a thickness scale similar to that of Jóhannesson and others, and the time-scale follows from it. Our version of the time-scale is different from theirs because it explicitly includes the effect of surface elevation on mass-balance rate, which can cause a major increase in the time-scale or even lead to unstable response. The time constant has a dual role, controlling both the rate and magnitude of response to a given climate change. Data from South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A., illustrate the ideas, some of the difficulty in obtaining accurate values for the thickness and time-scales, and the susceptibility of all response models to potentially large errors.
When a mass balance is computed using an outdated map, that computation does not reveal the actual mass change. But older maps often must be used for practical reasons. We present a method by which, with a few additional measurements each year, a mass balance computed with an outdated map can be transformed into an actual mass change. This is done by taking into account the influence of changes in areal extent and changes in the surface elevation of the glacier since the map was made. This method is applied to South Cascade Glacier, Washington, U.S.A., as an example. The computed cumulative mass balance from 1970 to 1997 would have been 16% too negative if the 1970 map had not been updated. While the actual volume change of a glacier is relevant to hydrological studies, the change that would have occurred on a constant (or static) surface is more relevant to certain glacier dynamics problems and most climate problems. We term this the reference-surface balance and propose that such a balance, which deliberately omits the influence of changes in area and surface elevation, is better correlated to climatic variations than the conventional one, which incorporates those influences.
Monitoring of nesting beaches is often the only feasible and low-cost approach for assessing sea turtle populations. We investigated spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle nesting activity monitored over 17 successive years in the Lamu archipelago, Kenya. Community-based patrols were conducted on 26 stretches of beach clustered in five major locations. A total of 2,021 nests were recorded: 1,971 (97.5%) green turtle Chelonia mydas nests, 31 (1.5%) hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata nests, 8 (0.4%) olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea nests and 11 (0.5%) unidentified nests. Nesting occurred year-round, increasing during March–July, when 74% of nests were recorded. A stable trend in mean annual nesting densities was observed in all locations. Mean clutch sizes were 117.7 ± SE 1 eggs (range 20–189) for green turtles, 103 ± SE 6 eggs (range 37–150) for hawksbill turtles, and 103 ± SE 6 eggs (range 80–133) for olive ridley turtles. Curved carapace length for green turtles was 65–125 cm, and mean annual incubation duration was 55.5 ± SE 0.05 days. The mean incubation duration for green turtle nests differed significantly between months and seasons but not locations. The hatching success (pooled data) was 81.3% (n = 1,841) and was higher for in situ nests (81.0 ± SE 1.5%) compared to relocated nests (77.8 ± SE 1.4%). The results highlight the important contribution of community-based monitoring in Kenya to sustaining the sea turtle populations of the Western Indian Ocean region.
We employed a commercial wireline drill rig to investigate the subglacial conditions of Black Rapids Glacier, a well-studied surge-type glacier in the central Alaska Range. The four main goals were: to assess the capabilities of the commercial drilling industry for sampling subglacial material, to investigate the basal morphology, to determine the subglacial geology and to emplace borehole instruments. The drilling was done in an area where seasonal and secular variations in speed are large, and where seismic studies suggested the presence of a till layer. Four holes were drilled at three locations to a maximum depth of 620 m. Three holes yielded samples of basal ice and till, although recovery of the latter was generally poor. Bedrock was sampled in one or possibly two of the holes. In the area sampled, t he glacier is underlain by a till layer some 4–7 m thick, confirming the seismic interpretation. It consists of a sandy matrix at least 20–30% of which comprises larger clasts. Limited samples of the matrix indicate that near the top of the till the porosity is 40%, and t hat some of the pore water is frozen. Geologic studies suggest that the drilling area lies to the north of the Denali Fault, a major tectonic boundary followed by the glacier, and that most of the till is locally derived with transport distances of <2 km.
The Munda languages of South Asia exhibit sound symbolism in their use of mimetic reduplication, to which they devote a surprisingly large percentage of their lexicons, typically upwards of ten percent. We present an extensive empirical typology of mimetic reduplication in seven Munda languages: Ho, Kera Mundari, Kharia, Mundari, Remo (Bondo), Santali, and Sora (Savara). Munda Mimetic forms can depict sensory qualities of sound, space, movement, texture, smell, taste, temperature, feelings, and sensations. The typology of mimetic reduplication in Munda varies across syntactic class, semantic domain and phonological form. This can shed light on the breadth of diverse structures in Munda languages, and may also be extrapolated to other languages and other examinations of reduplication and/or mimesis. This work provides a wealth of data to researchers of mimesis and reduplication, challenging the definition of what it means for forms to be sound-symbolic or reduplicated.
Jakobshavns Isbræ is a large, fast-moving ice stream/outlet glacier in West Greenland which ends at a floating, calving front. It drains about 6.5% of the area of the Greenland ice sheet. Studies of its surface morphology are described in this paper. The surface is relatively steep (0.01–0.03) and the thickness is large (up to 2600 m along the center line (Clarke and Echelmeyer, 1989)), indicating very high driving stresses (200–300 kPa). The ice stream is about 6 km wide and 85–90 km long, all of which is in an area of surface melting. The base of the ice stream, and of much of the drainage area, is below sea level. Marginal crevasse zones have a width on the order of the width of the ice stream itself. Unique surficial features are ice blisters and lakes; the latter have a sequence of ogive-like features on their floating ice cover which can be used to determine velocity. There is a pinning point near the terminus which may act as a stabilizing influence, possibly playing a role in halting, at least temporarily, a recent retreat of the terminus. Ice-thickness estimates at the terminus lead to a flux which is less than previously assumed by others (e.g. Bindschadler, 1984; Pelto and others, 1989) when estimating Jakobshavns Isbræ’s drainage basin to be nearly in balance.
The driving stresses on Jakobshavns Isbræ are an order of magnitude higher than those of the ice streams of West Antarctica. Its crevasse patterns are much less localized. Its relatively unconfined terminus is more comparable to that of relatively unbuttressed ice streams such as Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers than it is to other West Antarctic ice streams which terminate in large, confined ice shelves.
A surge of West Fork Glacier, a temperate glacier in the Susitna Basin of the Alaska Range, began soon after the end of the 1987 melt season and terminated on 6 July 1988. Reconnaissance measurements of balance, elevation and speed had been made from 1981 to 1983. Daily measurements of surface speed at two points 9 km apart and of the characteristics of the stream draining the glacier were begun during the surge and continued through the following year. The maximum displacement of the ice during the surge was about 4 km; the maximum change in surface elevation was about 120 m. Between the time of the start of detailed observations on 12 February 1988 and the onset of a complex termination phase during the last month of the surge, the speed was almost constant, and the water discharge was totally free of turbidity, indicating that no basal water was escaping from the glacier. During the termination phase, sharp changes in speed occurred, almost simultaneously at the two observation sites; each deceleration event was accompanied by high sediment concentration and high water discharge. This behavior is similar to that observed on Variegated Glacier during its 1982-83 surge. The mechanism of triggering (related to surface water input and the disruption of the internal drainage system) and the cause of the fast motion were probably the same for both surges, even though there are substantial differences in size and mass-balance characteristics.
Characteristics of the hydrology and motion of Black Rapids and Fels Glaciers, Alaska, were observed from 1986 to 1989. Hydrological measurements included stage, electrical conductivity and suspended-sediment concentration in the discharge stream of each glacier, and were made at 0.5–1 h intervals continuously through most of the melt seasons. Variations in the glacier speed were monitored through the full year at a number of locations along the length of each glacier using time-lapse photography (1 d time resolution), strain meters (0.5–1 h resolution) and seismometers set up to count acoustic emissions. Both glaciers show similar seasonal, diurnal and short-term event changes in hydrological discharges and ice speed. The hydrological behavior is analyzed in terms of a “fast” sub-system composed of surface streams, moulins and large tunnels with discharge that responds rapidly and a “slow” sub-system composed of heterogeneous small passageways through the ice and distributed over the bed that maintain approximately uniform discharge over a day. The liming and amplitude of water discharge in the diurnal cycle indicate that roughly 10–40% of the water is routed directly into the fast system. The remaining 90–60% of the water enters the slow system. Dilution of the solute discharged from the slow system by the variable discharge in the fast system results in changes in water discharge and solute concentration that are approximately equal in relative amplitude and inversely related. A small time lag from discharge maximum (minimum) to solute minimum (maximum) suggests that the fast system is confined to roughly the lowermost 30–40% of the full glacier length. The residence time of water in the fast system is short compared to 1 d. The slow system contains both short- and long-residence time passages. Characteristics of the diurnal cycles are somewhat variable through the melt season, but no systematic evolutionary patterns were discerned even though large changes in the mean discharges of water and solutes occur, which suggests parallel evolution of the variables that control the response of the fast system. Events were characterized by contemporaneous increases in suspended-sediment concentration in the discharge water and distinct changes in straining on the glaciers. Events caused by-increases in melt or precipitation related to weather and events related to release from reservoirs internal to the glaciers could be distinguished based on the changes in electrical conductivity of the discharge water. The correlated changes in sediment discharge and motion of the glaciers indicate that the events were associated with temporary modifications of the slow passages distributed over the bed that allowed enhanced sliding and access of basal water flow to erosion products. Hydrological differences between Black Rapids and Fels Glaciers can be explained by differences in the size of the glaciers. If there is a difference in bed structure that explains the difference in dynamics (surge — Black Rapids Glacier - versus non-surge - Fels Glacier), it does not affect the hydrological parameters that were observed.
The rate of margin migration of an ice stream can be determined using repeat measurements of the surface velocity profile within the marginal shear zone. The method relies on the assumption that the velocity profile is a characteristic feature of the margin, and that this profile is shifted laterally as the margin migrates. Application of the method to Ice Stream B, Antarctica, indicates that the southern margin is moving outward into the inland ice at a rate of at least 9.7 ± 1.1 m a−1.