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TiO2 nanomaterials with platelet or nanosheet morphologies can offer improved properties for photocatalytic applications, but established methods to produce them typically require structure-directing agents since anatase-phase TiO2 does not have a layered structure. In the present work, the preparation of TiO2 nanosheets by the chemical oxidation of TiS2 nanosheets is demonstrated. Electrochemical exfoliation of bulk TiS2 into TiS2 nanosheets, followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C for 14 h is performed. The results show that polycrystalline TiO2 nanosheets with the anatase structure are formed, and that the nanosheet morphology can still be maintained after the hydrothermal treatment. The TiO2 nanosheets show good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue, but the performance is negatively affected by the residual carbon black that was needed in the TiS2 electrode to enable electrochemical exfoliation. These results show that conversion of TiS2 nanosheets to TiO2 nanosheets is a promising synthetic strategy but highlights how the interfacial properties of the obtained materials could be affected by ancillary components in the preparation method.
The Chinese Solar and Geophysical Data (CSGD) was first issued at the Beijing Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (now the headquarter of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) in 1971, when China’s satellite-industry was booming. CSGD covers the observational data (observations of the sunspots, solar flares, solar radio bursts, ionospheric storm and geomagnetic storm) from a couple of domestic observatories and the forecast data. The compiler of CSGD still keeps the data exchange with other institutes worldwide. The type of the dataset includes texts, tables, figures and so on. Up to now, we have electronized all the historic archives, making them easily accessible to people who are interested in them.
Brief cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is an emerging treatment for
schizophrenia in community settings; however, further trials are needed,
especially in non-Western countries.
To test the effects of brief CBT for Chinese patients with schizophrenia
in the community (trial registration: ChiCTR-TRC-13003709).
A total of 220 patients with schizophrenia from four districts of Beijing
were randomly assigned to either brief CBT plus treatment as usual (TAU)
or TAU alone. Patients were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and at
6- and 12-month follow-ups by raters masked to group allocation.
At the post-treatment assessment and the 12-month follow-up, patients who
received brief CBT showed greater improvement in overall symptoms,
general psychopathology, insight and social functioning. In total, 37.3%
of those in the brief CBT plus TAU group experienced a clinically
significant response, compared with only 19.1% of those in the TAU alone
group (P = 0.003).
Brief CBT has a positive effect on Chinese patients with schizophrenia in
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Toxoplasmosis affects a third of the global population and is of particular concern for immunologically compromised individuals. Toxoplasmosis induces host physiological events ranging from immunological to metabolic responses across multiple biological compartments. To understand the sequence of host responses during acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection, eight male BALB/c mice were infected with 2000 T. gondii ME49 tachyzoites with a further eight uninfected mice used as controls. Plasma cytokines status, urinary metabolic profiling and fecal microbial profiles were characterized to monitor temporal variation related to T. gondii infection. The results showed elevated serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-12p40 and necrosis factor-α during acute phase of infection with concomitant perturbation in host energy metabolism and host-gut microbiome co-metabolism of phenolics and a shift in microbial composition. However, the differences were less pronounced during the putative chronic phase of infection with elevated IFN-γ, differences in urinary N-acetyls and O-acetyls of glycoproteins with no shift in gut microbial composition. Structural equation modelling on the current data showed host immune responses as the main driver for changes observed in urinary metabolites and gut microbial composition. Such an approach can be applied to other models of infectious diseases to aid understanding of host–pathogen interactions and potential biomarker discovery.
Twin studies have lacked statistical power to apply advanced genetic modelling techniques to the search for cognitive endophenotypes for bipolar disorder.
To quantify the shared genetic variability between bipolar disorder and cognitive measures.
Structural equation modelling was performed on cognitive data collected from 331 twins/siblings of varying genetic relatedness, disease status and concordance for bipolar disorder.
Using a parsimonious AE model, verbal episodic and spatial working memory showed statistically significant genetic correlations with bipolar disorder (rg = |0.23|–|0.27|), which lost statistical significance after covarying for affective symptoms. Using an ACE model, IQ and visual-spatial learning showed statistically significant genetic correlations with bipolar disorder (rg = |0.51|–|1.00|), which remained significant after covarying for affective symptoms.
Verbal episodic and spatial working memory capture a modest fraction of the bipolar diathesis. IQ and visual-spatial learning may tap into genetic substrates of non-affective symptomatology in bipolar disorder.
On 1996 May 10, the All-Sky Monitor aboard RXTE revealed that Cyg X-1 started a transition from its hard state to soft state (Cui 1996). Throughout this interesting episode, snapshots were taken with more sensitive detectors on ASCA, RXTE, and CGRO to monitor the temporal and spectral variability of the source over a broad energy range.
During the period, work on the problem of the Earth’s rotation has continued to expand and increase its scope. The total number of institutions engaged in the determination of the Earth’s rotation parameters (ERP) by different techniques has been increased significantly. The rotation of the Earth is currently measured by classical astrometry, Doppler and laser satellite tracking, laser ranging of the Moon, and radio interferometry. Several long time series of the ERP are available from most of these techniques, in particular, those made during the Main Campaign of the MERIT project. The various series have been intercompared and their stability, in the time frame of years to days, has been estimated for the purposes of establishing a new conventional terrestrial reference system (COTES). On the other hand, the difficulties of maintaining a regular operation for laser ranging to the Moon (LLR) have been recognized. It resulted in the proposal to organize an one-month campaign of observations in 1985 in order to complement the COTES collocation program and to allow additional intercomparisons with other techniques.
Malaysia introduced graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on all tobacco packages in 2009. We aimed to examine if implementing GHWLs led to stronger warning reactions (e.g., thinking about the health risks of smoking) and an increase in subsequent quitting activities; and to examine how reactions changed over time since the implementation of the GHWLs in Malaysia and Thailand where GHWL size increased from 50–55% in 2010. Data came from six waves (2005–2014) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey. Between 3,706 and 4,422 smokers were interviewed across these two countries at each survey wave. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses (i.e., thinking about the health risks and being more likely to quit smoking), forgoing cigarettes, and avoiding warnings. The main outcome was subsequent quit attempts. Following the implementation of GHWLs in Malaysia, reactions increased, in some cases to levels similar to the larger Thai warnings, but declined over time. In Thailand, reactions increased following implementation, with no decline for several years, and no clear effect of the small increase in warning size. Reactions, mainly cognitive responses, were consistently predictive of quit attempts in Thailand, but this was only consistently so in Malaysia after the change to GHWLs. In conclusion, GHWLs are responded to more frequently, and generate more quit attempts, but warning wear-out is not consistent in these two countries, perhaps due to differences in other tobacco control efforts.
This study aimed to explore adenoid regrowth after transoral power-assisted adenoidectomy down to the pharyngobasilar fascial surface.
Transoral adenoidectomy down to the pharyngobasilar fascia surface was performed on 39 patients under endoscopic guidance, using a power-assisted system. The operation time, amount of blood loss and iatrogenic injury, presence of complications, and success and regrowth rates were recorded to assess the feasibility, safety and effectiveness of our surgical technique.
In this adenoidectomy procedure, the pharyngobasilar fascia was left intact. The estimated blood loss was 5–50 ml (mean 15 ml), and the success rate was 97.3 per cent. Early complications occurred in 2.3 per cent of patients, while no long-term complications occurred in the cohort. No regrowth was found in the follow-up assessments, which were performed for 18–36 months after surgery.
Adenoid regrowth was rare after adenoidectomy down to the pharyngobasilar fascial surface. The pharyngobasilar fascia can therefore be considered a surgical boundary for adenoidectomy.
In the past few years, smart grid (SG) has attracted much interest from governments, power companies, and research institutes [1–3]. Compared to the traditional power grid, by employing advanced information technologies (IT), SG can achieve better reliability and stability, higher energy efficiency, higher penetration of renewable energy (RE), and lower greenhouse gas emission [3, 4]. Sensor and actuator networks (SANETs) play a key role in realizing these advantages. Compared to sensor networks, SANETs can not only sense the environment, but also react to it. This characteristic makes SANETs an essential enabling technology for various monitoring and control applications. However, to properly design an effective SANETs for SG, we must overcome many challenges.
ASANET is a network of nodes which sense and react to their environment. Compared to traditional sensor networks, which focus on sensing, SANETs can be used for both monitoring and control purposes. With a SANET, closed-loop control can be achieved to support more powerful applications.
Major actors in a SANET include sensors, actuators, controllers, and communication networks. Sensors are components or devices to measure and convert physical properties into electrical signals and/or data. Controllers perform calculations on the sensed data and make control decisions. Actuators execute the control decisions, convert electrical signals into physical phenomena (e.g., displays) or actions (e.g., switches). Different actors in a SANET may be physically separated or located in a single device. Actors in a SANET communicate with each other through communication networks, operating diverse kinds of protocols and media, to enable collaboration among nodes and interaction between nodes and the surrounding environment. SANET actors and the closed-loop control are shown in Figure 13.1.
Due to its outstanding thermal and chemical stability, single-crystal sapphire is a crucial material for high-temperature optical sensing applications. The potential for using hydrogen ion implantation to fabricate stable, high temperature optical waveguides in single crystal sapphire is investigated in this work. Hydrogen ions were implanted in c-plane sapphire with energies of 35 keV and 1 MeV and fluences 1016-1017/cm2. Subsequent annealing was carried out in air at temperatures ranging from 500˚C to 1200˚C. Complementary techniques were used to characterize the samples, including ellipsometry and prism coupling to examine optical properties, Rutherford backscattering/ion channeling for crystal defects, and nuclear reaction analysis for hydrogen profiling. Several guiding modes were observed in H-implanted (1 MeV) samples annealed above 800˚C through prism coupling, and a maximum index modification of 3% was observed in the 35 keV samples and 1% in the 1 MeV samples through ellipsometry, with the 1 MeV index variation being confirmed through prism coupling. The possible causes of the index modifications, such as H related defects, as well as implications for tailoring the refractive index of sapphire are discussed.
The p-type conduction in transparent Ga-doped SnO2 thin films was realized and its two origins were discerned through comparison experiments associated with growth conditions, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. All the experiment results suggest that the adsorbed oxygen both in the grain boundaries and at the surfaces is another origin of the net hole conduction in the polycrystalline thin films. This mechanism provides a fairy well explanation for the growth temperature dependence of the p-type conductivities of the films. It also offers a useful guide to better the properties of p-type conducting oxide thin films.
We have used photoluminescence excitation and photocurrent spectroscopy to investigate the electronic properties of InxGa1-xAs/GaAs strained layer quantum wells and superlattices. In quantum wells, sharp excitonic transitions between discrete energy levels are observed both in excitation and near flatband photocurrent spectra whereas superlattices show heavy-hole to conduction miniband transitions at the Brillouin mini-zone centre and edge, directly giving the electron miniband width. Applying a longitudinal electric field to the quantum wells produces a red shift of the excitons due to the quantum confined Stark effect, while in superlattices, photocurrent spectra at finite applied electric fields show for the first time in this system, the effects of Wannier-Stark quantization. The analysis of the spectra provides a precise determination of the band offset.
Ion backscattering and channeling techniques have been employed to measure the etching rate of amorphous and single crystal Si by XeF2 under similar conditions.Both (100) Si on sapphire and (111) Si on spinel showed higher etching rates compared to amorphous Si.However, measurements of the etching rate using a Si cell aligned to the axis and along the planes under similar conditions did not show appreciable difference in the etching rate compared to the etching rate with random orientation of the cell.Presence of the analyzing 4He+ beam during etching enhances the etching rate to twice the value when compared to post etching analysis with the same beam.The enhancement of the etching rate due to ion induced decomposition of XeF2 have been considered in the explanation of the experimental results.