Ion assisted reaction (IAR), which was firstly presented in 1995 MRS Fall meeting, has been reviewed for the surface modifications of polymer and ceramics. The reaction is assisted by energetic ions from 0.5 to 1.5 keV, doses 1014 to 1017 ions/cm2, and blowing rate of oxygen 0 ∼ 8 ml/min. Hydrophilic surfaces of polymers (wetting angle < 20° and surface energy 60 ∼ 70 erg/cm2) have been accomplished by the reaction, and an improvement of wettability and an increment of the surface energy are mainly due to the polar force and hydrophilic functional groups such as C=O, (C=O)-O, C-O, etc., without surface damage. The IAR was also applied on aluminum nitride in an O2 environment and AMON on AIN is formed by the Ar+ irradiation. The improvement of bond strength of Cu films on the AIN surface resulted from the interface bonds between Cu and the surface layers. Comparisons between the conventional surface treatments and the IAR are described in terms of physical bombardment, surface damage, functional group, and chain mobility in polymer.