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Globally, there is an increased demand for sustainable protein sources for animal feed. Grass and forage legumes have the yield potential to become such alternatives, but the protein needs to be separated from the fibres. Red clover, white clover, lucerne and perennial ryegrass were fractionated into a green juice and a fibrous pulp in a screw-press and protein was subsequently precipitated. The nitrogen (N) and amino acid composition of the produced fractions was analysed and the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and N was evaluated using a rat digestibility trial. The aim was to determine the effect of fractionation on composition and digestibility in order to evaluate the four plants as potential protein sources for monogastrics. Protein concentrates with CP concentrations of 240 to 388 g/kg DM and fibrous pulps with CP concentrations of 111 to 216 g/kg DM were produced. The sum of all analysed amino acids was highest in the protein concentrates corresponding to a low concentration of non-protein nitrogen ranging from 4.9% to 10.4%. Only small variations were seen in the amino acid compositions of the different plants and fractions. The concentration of the essential lysine and methionine in the protein concentrate ranged from 6.27 to 6.67 g/16 g N and 1.54 to 2.09 g/16 g N for lysine and methionine, respectively. For all plants species, total tract digestibility of DM and standardised N digestibility was significantly higher in the protein concentrates (60.8% to 76.5% and 75.4% to 85.0% for DM and N, respectively) compared to pulp (21.2% to 43.4% and 52.1% to 72.5% for DM and N, respectively). Digestibility of lucerne protein concentrate (76.5% and 85.0% for DM and N, respectively) was higher than of the unprocessed plant (39.6% and 74.9% for DM and N, respectively), whereas for red and white clover no difference was found. The amino acids methionine and cysteine were limiting for pigs and broilers in all fractions regardless of plant origin, and low scores were also found for lysine. The study demonstrated great potential of using green plants as a protein source for monogastrics because of high protein content, balanced amino acid composition and high digestibility of DM and N. The effects of processing and protein precipitation were pronounced in lucerne where significantly improved digestibility was observed in the protein concentrate. The results from the study provide valuable and enhanced knowledge to the production of alternative and sustainable protein sources for monogastric feed.
When supplementing lamb diets with vitamin E, an equivalence factor of 1.36 is used to discriminate between RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. However, more recent studies suggest a need for new equivalence factors for livestock animals. The current study aimed to determine the effect of RRR- and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on α-tocopherol deposition in lamb tissues. A total of 108 Rasa Aragonesa breed lambs were fed increasing amounts of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg compound feed) or RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg compound feed) by adding them to a basal diet that contained 0.025 g/kg feed of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate as part of the standard vitamin and mineral mixture. The diets were fed for the last 14 days before slaughtering at 25.8±1.67 kg BW. Within 20 min after slaughter samples of muscle, heart, liver, brain and spleen were frozen at −20°C until α-tocopherol analysis. Increased supplementation of either vitamin E sources led to a significant increase (P < 0.001) in α-tocopherol concentration in all tissues studied. The tissue with the highest α-tocopherol concentration was the liver followed by spleen, heart and muscle. At similar supplementation levels (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 g/kg compound feed), α-tocopherol content in the selected tissues was not affected by α-tocopherol source. However, the ratios between RRR- and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate increased with the increasing α-tocopherol supplementation (at 0.25 and 1.0 g/kg compound feed), from 1.06 to 1.16 in muscle, 1.07 to 1.15 in heart, 0.91 to 0.94 in liver and 0.98 to 1.10 in spleen. The highest relative proportion of Ʃ2S (sum of SSS-, SSR-, SRS- and SRR-α-tocopherol)-configured stereoisomers was found in the liver of lambs supplemented with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate accounting for up to 35 to 39% of the total α-tocopherol retained, whereas the proportion of Ʃ2S-configured stereoisomers in the other tissues accounted for <14%. Increasing all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation was also found to affect the 2R-configured stereoisomer profile in muscle, heart and spleen with increasing proportions of RRS-, RSR- and RSS- at the cost of RRR-α-tocopherol. In all tissues, the relative proportion of all non-RRR-stereoisomers in lambs receiving RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate was lower than RRR-α-tocopherol. These results confirm that the relative bioavailability of RRR- and all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate is dose- and tissue-dependent and that a single ratio to discriminate the two sources cannot be used.
Tail biting in domestic pigs relates to a range of risk factors, primarily in the pigs’ environment. Preventive tail docking is widely used, and various experimental approaches suggest that docking reduces the risk of tail biting. However, whether the docking length affects the prevalence of tail biting outbreaks is less studied, as is how a shortened tail will affect pigs’ social behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate how three different tail docking lengths, measured at docking, as well as retained intact tails (Short: 2.9 cm; Medium: 5.7 cm; Long: 7.5 cm; and Undocked) affected tail biting risk and behaviour directed at other finisher pigs with the same docking length treatment. Tail lesions were scored weekly, as was behaviour at pen level after introduction to finisher pens and until a potential outbreak of tail biting or slaughter. Pigs from four commercial herds (258 litters) entered the study. Before the pigs entered the finisher section and data collection started, some pigs were excluded, mainly due to tail biting outbreaks in the weaner section. The risk of a tail biting outbreak differed significantly between treatments (P=0.001), with a lowered risk of a tail biting outbreak in Short pens compared with Undocked (P<0.001) and Medium (P<0.05), and was affected by herd as well (P<0.001). Pens in the Long and Undocked treatments were pooled for the behavioural analysis due to low representation, especially in the Undocked treatment. The probability of tail contacts, where a pig interacted with a pen mate’s tail, differed between docking length treatments and was highest in the Long/Undocked compared with the Short treatment (P<0.01), but docking length did not affect aggressive behaviour. Docking length affected the risk of a tail biting outbreak and the frequency of tail-directed behaviour in our participating herds, of which three reported a high prevalence of tail biting problems. Only the shortest docking length treatment (Short) reduced the tail biting risk, but did not completely prevent tail biting outbreaks.
Community-acquired bacteraemia patients (n = 2472), Denmark, 2000–2008. Albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and haemoglobin (Hb) measured 2000–2010. We assessed daily mean levels of albumin, CRP and Hb from 30 days before to 30 days after bacteraemia and correlations between albumin vs. CRP and albumin vs. Hb. In linear regression models, we evaluated the contribution of CRP, Hb, chronic and acute variables to the albumin level variations. The mean albumin level (33.6 g/l) was steady before day 1, declined to 29.3 g/l on day 1 with little increase afterward. The mean CRP increased from day −5, peaked on day 1 and declined thereafter. The mean Hb level was fairly constant during days −30/30. Albumin was inversely (R range, − 0.18/–0.47, P < 10−4) correlated with the CRP level and positively (R = 0.17–0.46, P < 10−4) correlated with the HB level. In most models, CRP was the first variable that contributed to the albumin variations, 34–70% of the full model. The sudden decrease of albumin levels, without sudden fluctuations of CRP or Hb, indicated that hypoalbuminaemia was a marker of trans-capillary leakage.
Fluid–structure interactions are ubiquitous in nature and technology. However, the systems are often so complex that numerical simulations or ad hoc assumptions must be used to gain insight into the details of the complex interactions between the fluid and solid mechanics. In this paper, we present experiments and theory on viscous flow in a simple bioinspired soft valve which illustrate essential features of interactions between hydrodynamic and elastic forces at low Reynolds numbers. The set-up comprises a sphere connected to a spring located inside a tapering cylindrical channel. The spring is aligned with the central axis of the channel and a pressure drop is applied across the sphere, thus forcing the liquid through the narrow gap between the sphere and the channel walls. The sphere’s equilibrium position is determined by a balance between spring and hydrodynamic forces. Since the gap thickness changes with the sphere’s position, the system has a pressure-dependent hydraulic resistance. This leads to a nonlinear relation between applied pressure and flow rate: flow initially increases with pressure, but decreases when the pressure exceeds a certain critical value as the gap closes. To rationalize these observations, we propose a mathematical model that reduced the complexity of the flow to a two-dimensional lubrication approximation. A closed-form expression for the pressure drop/flow rate is obtained which reveals that the flow rate
depends on the pressure drop
, sphere radius
, gap thickness
, and viscosity
, where the critical pressure
scales with the spring constant
. These predictions compared favourably to the results of our experiments with no free parameters.
Size, or its commonly used proxy live weight, is a necessary input when calculating the energy requirements of an animal. It is also a major factor in determining the intake capacity of an animal. The sole use of live weight as a determinant of size incorporates the implicit assumption that body fat and body protein mass are equivalent for the purposes of calculating energy requirements and intake capacity. Recent evidence indicates that this is not so in either case (Birnie et al., 2000; Friggens et al., 1998). The use of live weight may be acceptable where it can be reasonably assumed that there is a stable relationship between body fat and protein. However, when making breed or parity comparisons there is no reason to assume a stable relationship between body fat and protein. Meaningful comparisons can be made if live weights can be adjusted for differences in body fat content. In the applied context this means adjusting to a standard body condition score. This study provided the opportunity to examine the relationships between condition score and live weight in three breeds across three parities.
Dietary carbohydrates constitute a major fraction of the diets for pigs. The carbohydrate fraction consists of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides and two broad classes of polysaccharides – starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The carbohydrate fraction has a diverse composition in terms of constituent sugars (pentoses, hexoses, deoxysugars, etc.), glycosidic linkages (alfa or beta), size (degree of polymerisation from one to several thousand), and physical form (soluble in water, insoluble, cation and adsorbing properties). It is now evidential clear that the composition of the carbohydrate fraction influences the digestion and absorption processes of carbohydrates and other nutrients in the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract, it has a profound influence on the secretory response of the gut to feed intake, the volume flow, the mucosal architecture, the composition of the gut flora and the development of the gastrointestinal tract.
A new deep ice-core drilling site has been identified in north Greenland at 75.12° N, 42.30° W, 316 km north-northwest (NNW) of the GRIР drill site on the summit of the ice sheet. The ice thickness here is 3085 m; the surface elevation is 2919 m.The North GRIP (NGRIP) site is identified so that ice of Eemian age (115–130 ka BP,calendar years before present) is located as far above bedrock as possible and so the thickness of the Eemian layer is as great as possible. An ice-flow model, similar to the one used to date the GRIP ice core, is used to simulate the flow along the NNW-trending ice ridge. Surface and bedrock elevations, surface accumulation-rate distribution and radio-echo sounding along the ridge have been used as model input.The surface accumulation rate drops from 0.23 m fee equivalent year−1 at GRIP to 0.19 m ice equivalent year−1 50 km from GRIP. Over the following 300km the accumulation is relatively constant, before it starts decreasing again further north. Ice thicknesses up to 3250 m bring the temperature of the basal ice up to the pressure-melting point 100–250 km from GRIP. The NGRIP site islocated 316 km from GRIP in a region where the bedrock is smooth and the accumulation rate is 0.19 m ice equivalent year−1. The modeled basal ice here has always been a few degrees below the pressure-melting point. Internal radio-echo sounding horizons can be traced between the GRIP and NGRIP sites, allowing us to date the ice down to 2300 m depth (52 ka BP). An ice-flow model predicts that the Eemian-age ice will be located in the depth range 2710–2800 m, which is 285 m above the bedrock. This is 120 m further above the bedrock, and the thickness of the Eemian layer of ice is 20 m thicker, than at the GRIP ice-core site.
Mutants of Bacillus subtilis can be developed to overproduce Val in vitro. It was hypothesized that addition of Bacillus subtilis mutants to pig diets can be a strategy to supply the animal with Val. The objective was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance and blood amino acid (AA) concentrations when fed to piglets. Experiment 1 included 18 pigs (15.0±1.1 kg) fed one of three diets containing either 0.63 or 0.69 standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with a Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 1). Blood samples were obtained 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding and analyzed for AAs. In Experiment 2, 80 piglets (9.1±1.1 kg) were fed one of four diets containing 0.63 or 0.67 SID Val : Lys, or 0.63 SID Val : Lys supplemented with another Bacillus subtilis mutant (mutant 2) or its parent wild type. Average daily feed intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured on days 7, 14 and 21. On day 17, blood samples were taken and analyzed for AAs. On days 24 to 26, six pigs from each dietary treatment were fitted with a permanent jugular vein catheter, and blood samples were taken for AA analysis 0.5 h before feeding and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after feeding. In experiment 1, Bacillus subtilis mutant 1 tended (P<0.10) to increase the plasma levels of Val at 2 and 3 h post-feeding, but this was not confirmed in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, Bacillus subtilis mutant 2 and the wild type did not result in a growth performance different from the negative and positive controls. In conclusion, results obtained with the mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis were not better than results obtained with the wild-type strain, and for both strains, the results were not different than the negative control.
Access to drinking water is essential for animal welfare, but it is unclear if temporary water restriction during the night represents a welfare problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various durations of nightly restriction of water on thirst in loose housed lactating sows from day 10 to 28 of lactation. A total of 48 sows were deprived of water for either 0 h (n=12; control), 3 h (n=12; 0500 to 0800 h), 6 h (n=12; 0200 to 0800 h) or 12 h (n=12; 2000 to 0800 h). Control sows consumed 22% of their water intake during the night (2000 to 0800 h), whereas water consumption during this time was reduced to 13%, 7% and 0% in sows restricted for 3, 6 and 12 h. With increased duration of nightly water restriction a reduced latency to drink (26.8, 18.0, 5.3 and 6.7 min for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h sows; P<0.001) and an increased water intake during the 1st hour after water became accessible (2.1, 3.4, 4.7 and 5.6 l for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h sows; P<0.001) was seen. During the last 30 min before water became accessible more sows deprived of water investigated (0%, 50%, 75%,and 50% of 0, 3, 6 and 12 h sows; P<0.01) or forcefully manipulated (0%, 17%, 50% and 33% of 0, 3, 6 and 12 h sows; P<0.05) the water trough, suggesting frustration and a negative experience of thirst. When all signs of imminent water access were provided, but access was delayed by 25 min, a tendency for more of the sows deprived of water for 6 and 12 h to interact forcefully with the water trough was seen (22%, 18%, 42% and 67% of 0, 3, 6 and 12 h sows; P=0.09). Duration of water restriction did not affect water consumption on a 24-h basis, nursing behaviour or performance. In conclusion, behavioural indicators of thirst increased with increasing duration of nightly water restriction in lactating sows.
To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: ‘Standard Docked’, a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); ‘Standard Undocked’, which is the same as ‘Standard Docked’ but with no tail docking, ‘Efficient Undocked’ and ‘Enhanced Undocked’, which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per pig per day) and no tail docking. A decision tree model based on data from Danish and Finnish pig production suggests that Standard Docked provides the highest economic gross margin with the least tail biting. Given our assumptions, Enhanced Undocked is the least economic, although Efficient Undocked is better economically and both result in a lower incidence of tail biting than Standard Undocked but higher than Standard Docked. For a pig, being bitten is worse for welfare (repeated pain, risk of infections) than being docked, but to compare welfare consequences at a farm level means considering the number of affected pigs. Because of the high levels of biting in Standard Undocked, it has on average inferior welfare to Standard Docked, whereas the comparison of Standard Docked and Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked is more difficult. In Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked, more pigs than in Standard Docked suffer from being tail bitten, whereas all the pigs avoid the acute pain of docking endured by the pigs in Standard Docked. We illustrate and discuss this ethical balance using numbers derived from the above-mentioned data. We discuss our results in the light of the EU Directive and its adoption and enforcement by Member States. Widespread use of tail docking seems to be accepted, mainly because the alternative steps that producers are required to take before resorting to it are not specified in detail. By tail docking, producers are acting in their own best interests. We suggest that for the practice of tail docking to be terminated in a way that benefits animal welfare, changes in the way pigs are housed and managed may first be required.
The objective of the current experiment was to compare the effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (SyntvE), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (NatvE) or seaweed meal (Seaweed) in the presence of a Control group (no supplemental vitamin E or seaweed) on the concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma and milk, and antibody response following immunization. The hypothesis was that supplementation of dairy cows with vitamin E, regardless of its form, would increase plasma and milk α-tocopherol compared to the control diet and this incremental response would be bigger with NatvE than SyntvE. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that vitamin E, regardless of its form, will provide an improved adaptive immune response to immunization than the Control diet, and cows supplemented with Seaweed meal would produce better adaptive immune response following immunization than cows in the Control group. Twenty-four Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cows in their mid-lactation were allocated randomly to the four treatments in a replicated Latin square design. The cows were fed on a basal diet of silage and concentrate on top of which the experimental supplements were provided. Plasma and milk α-tocopherol concentrations were higher in NatvE and SyntvE groups than in the other two groups. The RRR-α-tocopherol stereoisomer was the predominant form (>0·86), in both plasma and milk, whereas the remaining part was largely made up of the other three 2R stereoisomers (RRS, RSR and RSS). In cows fed the Control, Seaweed and NatvE, the proportion of the RRR-α-tocopherol stereoisomer in plasma and milk constituted >0·97 of the total α-tocopherol. Mid-lactation NR dairy cows had higher than adequate levels of plasma α-tocopherol (9·99 mg/l) even when not supplemented with external source of vitamin E, suggesting that with a good quality silage these cows may not be at risk of vitamin E deficiency. Furthermore, the present study shows that dairy cows in mid to late lactation have preferential uptake of RRR stereoisomer of α-tocopherol compared with other stereoisomers. All cows responded well to immunization with different antigens, but there were no significant group effects of the diet on the immune response measured.
In pig production, piglets are tail docked at birth in order to prevent tail biting later in life. In order to examine the effects of tail docking and docking length on the formation of neuromas, we used 65 pigs and the following four treatments: intact tails (n=18); leaving 75% (n=17); leaving 50% (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically. The tail lengths and diameters differed at slaughter (lengths: 30.6±0.6; 24.9±0.4; 19.8±0.6; 8.7±0.6 cm; P<0.001; tail diameter: 0.5±0.03; 0.8±0.02; 1.0±0.03; 1.4±0.04 cm; P<0.001, respectively). Docking resulted in a higher proportion of tails with neuromas (64 v. 0%; P<0.001), number of neuromas per tail (1.0±0.2 v. 0; P<0.001) and size of neuromas (1023±592 v. 0 μm; P<0.001). The results show that tail docking piglets using hot-iron cautery causes formation of neuromas in the outermost part of the tail tip. The presence of neuromas might lead to altered nociceptive thresholds, which need to be confirmed in future studies.
A total of four diets with different carbohydrate composition were investigated in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with four Norwegian Coldblooded trotter horses. The objective of the present study was to increase the fermentable fibre content and reduce the starch intake of the total ration obtained by partly substituting mature hay and barley with sugar beet pulp (SBP), a soluble fibre source. The diets investigated were hay only (HAY), hay (85% of dry matter intake (DMI)) and molassed SBP (15% of DMI) (SBP), hay (68% of DMI) and barley (32% of DMI) (BAR), and hay (68% of DMI), barley (26% of DMI) and SBP (6% of DMI) (BAR+SBP). The feeding level was 18.5, 17.3, 15.7 and 15.7 g DM/kg BW per day for the HAY, SBP, BAR and BAR+SBP diets, respectively. Each diet was fed for 18 days followed by 10 days of data collection, where apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), total mean retention time (TMRT) of ytterbium-labelled hay, water balance, digestible energy (DE) intake and nitrogen balance were measured. An enzymatic chemical dietary fibre (DF) method was used to get detailed information on the composition and ATTD of the fibre fraction. Inclusion of SBP in the diet increased the ATTD of the constituent sugars galactose and arabinose (P<0.01). Feeding the HAY and SBP diets resulted in a lower TMRT owing to a higher DF intake than the BAR and BAR+SBP diets (P<0.01). There was no difference in water intake between HAY and SBP, but faecal dry matter was lower for HAY than the other diets (P=0.017), indicating that water was more tightly bound to fibre in the HAY diet. The diets were iso-energetic and provided enough DE and protein for light to moderate exercise for a 550 kg horse. In conclusion, this study showed that the DF intake had a larger effect on TMRT than partly substituting hay or barley with SBP, and that highly fermentable pectin-rich soluble DF from SBP maintains high nutrient utilization in horses.
Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some ‘alternative’ forms of pig production and certain countries do not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable substrates and feeder space affect damaging tail biting. Only epidemiological evidence was available for effects of temperature and season, and the effect of stocking density was unclear. Studies suggest that group size has little effect, and the effects of nutrition, disease and breed require further investigation. The review identifies a number of knowledge gaps and promising avenues for future research into prevention and mitigation. We illustrate the diversity of hypotheses concerning how different proposed risk factors might increase tail biting through their effect on each other or on the proposed underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible, manipulable natural materials can be of considerable benefit. Further comparative research is needed into materials, such as ropes, which are compatible with slatted floors. Also, materials which double as fuel for anaerobic digesters could be utilised. As well as optimising housing and management to reduce risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring options for reducing the genetic propensity to tail bite. If these various approaches to reduce tail biting are implemented we propose that the need for tail docking will be reduced.
Although youths in many countries have been exposed to terrorism, few studies have examined early risk and protective factors for the subsequent development of mental health problems.
To investigate the levels of post-traumatic stress in survivors of the 2011 massacre on Ut⊘ya Island compared with the general population in Norway, and to identify predictive factors.
Four hundred and ninety survivors were invited to participate. Structured face-to-face interviews were performed 4–5 months after the attack.
There were 325 study participants (response rate 66%). Survivors had been highly exposed to danger and loss. Post-traumatic stress levels were more than six times higher in survivors than in the general population. Predictors were female gender, minority ethnic status, high level of trauma exposure, pain, the loss of someone close and social support.
Survivor characteristics that can be assessed in the early aftermath of a terrorist attack strongly predict the subsequent mental health problems of exposed youths. The highly elevated symptoms observed were largely attributable to the traumatic experience and reflect the mental health costs of the terrorist attack.
Motivated by processes occurring during
sequestration in an underground saline aquifer, we examine two-dimensional convection in a finite-depth porous medium induced by a solute introduced at the upper boundary. Once dissolved, the solute concentration is assumed to decay via a first-order chemical reaction, restricting the depth over which solute can penetrate the domain. Using spectral and asymptotic methods, we explore the resulting convective mixing using linear stability analysis, computation of nonlinear steady solution branches and time-dependent simulations, as a function of Rayleigh number, Damköhler number and domain size. Long-wave eigenmodes show how deep recirculation can be driven by a shallow solute field while explicit approximations are derived for the growth of short-wave eigenmodes. Steady solution branches undergo numerous secondary bifurcations, forming an intricate network of mixed states. Although many of these states are unstable, some play an important role in organising the phase space of time-dependent states, providing approximate bounds for time-averaged mixing rates.
To investigate Acinetobacter baumannii infection, colonization, and transmission related to a long-term care facility (LTCF) providing subacute care (facility A).
We reviewed facility A and affiliated local hospital records for facility A residents with A. baumannii isolated during the period January 2009 through February 2010 and compared A. baumannii antimicrobial resistance patterns of residents with those of hospital patients. During March 2010, we implemented a colonization survey of facility A residents who received respiratory support or who could provide sputum samples and looked for A. baumannii colonization risks. Available clinical and survey isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); PFGE strains were linked with overlapping stays to identify possible transmission.
During the period January 2009 through February 2010, 33 facility A residents had A. baumannii isolates; all strains were multidrug resistant (MDR), which was a significantly higher prevalence of MDR strains than that found among isolates from hospital patients (81 [66%] of 122 hospital patient isolates were MDR; P < .001). The sputum survey found that 14 (20%) of 70 residents had A. baumannii colonization, which was associated with ventilator use (adjusted odds ratio, 4.24 [95% confidence interval, 1.06–16.93]); 12 (86%) of 14 isolates were MDR. Four facility A resident groups clustered with 3 PFGE strains and overlapping stays. One of these facility A residents also clustered with 3 patients at an affiliated hospital.
We documented substantial MDR A. baumannii infections and colonization with probable intra- and interfacility spread associated with a single LTCF providing subacute care. Given the limited infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship resources in such settings, regional collaborations among facilities across the spectrum of health care are needed to address this MDR threat.