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The Wisconsin Twin Project comprises multiple longitudinal studies that span infancy to early adulthood. We summarize recent papers that show how twin designs with deep phenotyping, including biological measures, can inform questions about phenotypic structure, etiology, comorbidity, heterogeneity, and gene–environment interplay of temperamental constructs and mental and physical health conditions of children and adolescents. The general framework for investigations begins with rich characterization of early temperament and follows with study of experiences and exposures across childhood and adolescence. Many studies incorporate neuroimaging and hormone assays.
A multi-centre, four-arm trial (the PACE trial) found that rehabilitative cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) were more effective treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) than specialist medical care (SMC) alone, when each was added to SMC, and more effective than adaptive pacing therapy (APT) when added to SMC. In this study we compared how many participants recovered after each treatment.
We defined recovery operationally using multiple criteria, and compared the proportions of participants meeting each individual criterion along with two composite criteria, defined as (a) recovery in the context of the trial and (b) clinical recovery from the current episode of the illness, however defined, 52 weeks after randomization. We used logistic regression modelling to compare treatments.
The percentages (number/total) meeting trial criteria for recovery were 22% (32/143) after CBT, 22% (32/143) after GET, 8% (12/149) after APT and 7% (11/150) after SMC. Similar proportions met criteria for clinical recovery. The odds ratio (OR) for trial recovery after CBT was 3.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64–6.88] and for GET 3.38 (95% CI 1.65–6.93), when compared to APT, and after CBT 3.69 (95% CI 1.77–7.69) and GET 3.71 (95% CI 1.78–7.74), when compared to SMC (p values ⩽0.001 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference between APT and SMC. Similar proportions recovered in trial subgroups meeting different definitions of the illness.
This study confirms that recovery from CFS is possible, and that CBT and GET are the therapies most likely to lead to recovery.
We present the results of the distribution of CO-dark H2 gas in a sample of 2223 interstellar clouds in the inner Galaxy (l=−90° to +57°) detected in the velocity resolved [CII] spectra observed in the GOT C+ survey using the Herschel HIFI. We analyze the [CII] intensities along with the ancillary HI, 12CO and 13CO data for each cloud to determine their evolutionary state and to derive the H2 column densities in the C+ and C+/CO transition layers in the cloud. We discuss the overall Galactic distribution of the [CII] clouds and their properties as a function Galactic radius. GOT C+ results on the global distribution of [CII] clouds and CO-dark H2 gas traces the FUV intensity and star formation rate in the Galactic disk.
In patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis, subglottic stenosis can develop due to active disease; however, some patients develop subglottic stenosis with no clear evidence of airway inflammation. In some cases of idiopathic subglottic stenosis, an association with gastroesophageal reflux disease has been found. Our study assessed the potential role of gastroesophageal reflux as an aetiological factor in the development of subglottic stenosis in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis.
We assessed evidence of active reflux disease, using 24-hour pH monitoring and assessment of bile salts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
Ten Wegener’s granulomatosis patients with subglottic stenosis underwent 24-hour pH monitoring and bronchoscopy and lavage of the right middle lobe. A similar number of control patients were included.
There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of bronchoalveolar bile salts in patients with subglottic stenosis (n = 2) versus control patients (zero) (p = 0.457). There was good correlation between the detection of reflux by 24-hour pH monitoring and the detection of bronchoalveolar bile salts (κ = 0.769).
In this small study of patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis, there was no evidence of an association between the development of subglottic stenosis and gastroesophageal reflux.
The Wisconsin Twin Panel utilizes the resources of state birth records to study the etiology and developmental course of early emotions, temperament, childhood anxiety and impulsivity, the autism spectrum, and related psychobiological and behavioral phenotypes. The panel currently supports 5 active research studies which involve twins from birth to early adolescence. A range of research methods are employed, including questionnaires and structured interviews with caregivers, home and laboratory-based behavioral batteries, observer ratings, child self-report, psychophysiology, neuroendocrine measures, birth records, genotyping, and cognitive testing. The panel is in the early stages of generating longitudinal findings.
During the solidification of solder joints composed of near-eutectic Sn–Ag–Cu alloys, the Sn phase grows rapidly with a dendritic growth morphology, characterized by copious branching. Notwithstanding the complicated Sn growth topology, the Sn phase demonstrates single crystallographic orientations over large regions. Typical solder ball grid array joints, 900 μm in diameter, are composed of 1 to perhaps 12 different Sn crystallographic domains (Sn grains). When such solder joints are submitted to cyclic thermomechanical strains, the solder joint fatigue process is characterized by the recrystallization of the Sn phase in the higher deformation regions with the production of a much smaller grain size. Grain boundary sliding and diffusion in these recrystallized regions then leads to extensive grain boundary damage and results in fatigue crack initiation and growth along the recrystallized Sn grain boundaries.
Near-ternary eutectic Sn–Ag–Cu alloys are leading candidates for Pb-free solders. These alloys have three solid phases: β–Sn, Ag3Sn, and Cu6Sn5. Starting from the fully liquid state in solidifying near-eutectic Sn–Ag–Cu alloys, the equilibrium eutectic transformation is kinetically inhibited. The Ag3Sn phase nucleates with minimal undercooling, but the β–Sn phase requires a typical undercooling of 15 to 30 °C for nucleation. Because of this disparity in the required undercooling for nucleation, large, platelike Ag3Sn structures can grow rapidly within the liquid phase, before the final solidification of the solder joints. At lower cooling rates, the large Ag3Sn plates can subtend the entire cross section of solder joints and can significantly influence the mechanical deformation behavior of the solder joints under thermomechanical fatigue conditions. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the Ag3Sn plate formation can be inhibited, an important factor in assuring the reliability of solder joints composed of these alloys.
Vancomycin prophylaxis for coronary artery bypass graft surgery without prosthetic valve implantation voluntarily decreased from 94% to 18% in one medical center. Median hospital stay (10 vs 9 days, P=.30) and number of postoperative infections (17.0% vs 14.3%, P=.60) did not differ among patients who received vancomycin and those who did not.
We evaluate the usefulness of 11 key epigenetic concepts from the behavior genetic research paradigm for advancing the field of developmental psychopathology. Key assumptions, empirical examples, and caveats in interpreting results are presented. We emphasize the usefulness of incorporating both dimensional (e.g., temperament trait) and categorical (e.g., diagnosis) variables, environmental measures, direct behavioral assessments, and multiple, theoretically relevant occasions of study into classic twin and family studies. We highlight contemporary techniques for identifying specific chromosomal regions associated with behavioral patterns, and the importance of considering nonmendelizing genetic influences when discerning the panorama of genetic influences on behavior.
Multiphoton excitation provides spectroscopic access to several species that are very important in flame studies, but that cannot be detected in combustion environments using conventional optical techniques. This paper describes applications of multiphoton excitation techniques for detecting such species in combustion environments, with an emphasis placed on measurements of atomic hydrogen in flames.
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