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To describe the relationship between adherence to distinct dietary patterns and nutrition literacy.
We identified distinct dietary patterns using principal covariates regression (PCovR) and principal components analysis (PCA) from the Diet History Questionnaire II. Nutrition literacy was assessed using the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument (NLit). Cross-sectional relationships between dietary pattern adherence and global and domain-specific NLit scores were tested by multiple linear regression. Mean differences in diet pattern adherence among three predefined nutrition literacy performance categories were tested by ANOVA.
Metropolitan Kansas City, USA.
Adults (n 386) with at least one of four diet-related diseases.
Three diet patterns of interest were derived: a PCovR prudent pattern and PCA-derived Western and Mediterranean patterns. After controlling for age, sex, BMI, race, household income, education level and diabetes status, PCovR prudent pattern adherence positively related to global NLit score (P < 0·001, β = 0·36), indicating more intake of prudent diet foods with improved nutrition literacy. Validating the PCovR findings, PCA Western pattern adherence inversely related to global NLit (P = 0·003, β = −0·13) while PCA Mediterranean pattern positively related to global NLit (P = 0·02, β = 0·12). Using predefined cut points, those with poor nutrition literacy consumed more foods associated with the Western diet (fried foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat, processed foods) while those with good nutrition literacy consumed more foods associated with prudent and Mediterranean diets (vegetables, olive oil, nuts).
Nutrition literacy predicted adherence to healthy/unhealthy diet patterns. These findings warrant future research to determine if improving nutrition literacy effectively improves eating patterns.
Formation of a low barrier back contact plays a critical role in improving the photoconversion efficiency of the CdTe solar cells. Incorporating a buffer layer to minimize the band bending at the back of the CdTe device can significantly lower the barrier for the hole current, improving open circuit voltage (VOC) and the fill factor. Over the past years, researchers have incorporated the both ZnTe and Te as buffer layers to improve CdTe device performance. Here we compare device performance using these two materials as buffer layers at the back of CdTe devices. We show that using Te in contact to CdTe results in higher performance than using ZnTe in contact to the CdTe. Low temperature current density-voltage measurements show that Te results is a lower barrier with CdTe than ZnTe, indicating that Te has better band alignment, resulting in less downward bending in the CdTe at the back interface, than ZnTe does.
Unplowed native grasslands are among the most endangered ecosystems in the world, due in large part to their agricultural suitability and widespread conversion to cropland. Despite this, remaining locations of these species- and carbon-rich landscapes are neither well monitored nor effectively protected. A recent spike in US prices for corn (Zea mays) and soybeans (Glycine max) intensified incentives to bring new land into production, potentially hastening the conversion of grasslands to crops. We combined satellite-based land cover data with aerial photographs and a field-based inventory of remaining native grassland (hereafter prairie) in Minnesota to assess the areas, rates, and locations of prairie conversion since 2008. Our results reveal that during 2008–2012, prairie was converted at average annual rates more than four times greater than the previous decade and a half. Corn and soybeans were the initial crops planted on 73% of converted prairie, and more than 80% of conversion occurred in recently established conservation priority zones, thereby magnifying the urgency to protect these sites. Broader land-use trends in Minnesota suggest that expansion of both croplands and developed lands continues to threaten all grasslands, including the subset that is prairie, and that the growth of developed or built-up land may be amplifying the conversion pressure exerted by agriculture, though further research is needed. Despite the small total area of prairie lost, the multi-fold increase in conversion rates and the confirmation of native habitat clearing may have substantial conservation implications, especially given the very limited prairie that remains in the region. The overall results reveal challenges for federal policies, including a loophole in the crop insurance Sodsaver provision surrounding alfalfa hay and limitations in the current enforcement of the Renewable Fuel Standard.
Hemihedrite from the Florence Lead-Silver mine in Pinal County, Arizona, USA
was first described and assigned the ideal chemical formula
based upon a variety of chemical and crystal-structure analyses. The primary
methods used to determine the fluorine content for hemihedrite were
colorimetry, which resulted in values of F that were too high and
inconsistent with the structural data, and infrared (IR) spectroscopic
analysis that failed to detect OH or H2O. Our reinvestigation
using electron microprobe analysis of the type material, and additional
samples from the type locality, the Rat Tail claim, Arizona, and Nevada,
reveals the absence of fluorine, while the presence of OH is confirmed by
Raman spectroscopy. These findings suggest that the colorimetric
determination of fluorine in the original description of hemihedrite
probably misidentified F due to the interferences from PO4 and
SO4, both found in our chemical analyses. As a consequence of
these results, the study presented here proposes a redefinition of the
chemical composition of hemihedrite to the ideal chemical formula
Hemihedrite is isotypic with iranite with substitution of Zn for Cu, and
raygrantite with substitution of Cr for S. Structural data from a sample
from the Rat Tail claim, Arizona, indicate that hemihedrite is triclinic in
space group P1, a = 9.4891(7),
b = 11.4242(8), c = 10.8155(7) Å, α =
120.368(2)°, β = 92.017(3)°, γ = 55.857(2)°, V = 784.88(9)
Å3, Z= 1, consistent with previous
investigations. The structure was refined from singlecrystal X-ray
diffraction data to R1 = 0.022 for 5705 unique observed reflections, and the ideal
was assumed during the refinement. Electron microprobe analyses of this
sample yielded the empirical chemical formula
6.00 Si1.97O34H2.16 based on 34 O
atoms and six (Cr + S + P) per unit cell.
This study evaluated the effect of an enzyme blend (xylanase, amylase and protease; XAP) in combination with a direct fed microbial (DFM) containing three strains of Bacillus spp. on intestinal histology, immune response and performance of broilers. Four dietary treatments were tested in a 2 × 2 factorial trial, including two levels of challenge (without or with coccidial infection), two levels of feed additive (with or without XAP and DFM). Diets were fed ad libitum to male Cobb500 broilers in mash feeds from 1–21 days of age, with eight replicate pens per treatment within brooder-batteries with raised wire floors and built up litter, housing six birds per pen. A mild challenge was introduced by oral gavage at day five to the challenged birds, using a six-fold concentration of coccidial vaccine. A high fibre basal diet formulated with rye and wheat middlings was used to further increase the challenge. Body weight and feed intake were measured and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated during starter (1–12 d), grower (12–21 d) and overall 1–21 days. Intestinal morphology and immune response parameters were measured on day 12 and 21. Compared to the unchallenged groups, the coccidial challenge reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG), increased FCR, reduced villus height and increased crypt depth. The challenged birds had increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β; P < 0.05) in the intestine as well as higher levels of acute phase proteins (APP, haemopexin and α−1-acid glycoprotein) in the plasma and circulating heterophils. XAP + DFM supplementation improved BWG, reduced FCR and increased energy efficiency compared to the non-supplemented groups. The combination of XAP and DFM reduced inflammatory responses such as APP compared to the challenged control group and maintained performance to a comparable level seen in the unchallenged control. The data indicate that XAP enzymes in combination with Bacillus-based DFM may reduce the damage and performance losses induced by coccidial challenge.
The heat outputs of higher burn up spent fuels (SF) create problems for disposal in mined repositories, including needs for reduced container loadings and extended pre-disposal cooling. An alternative that is less temperature sensitive is deep borehole disposal (DBD) which offers safety, cost, security and other potential benefits and could be implemented relatively quickly using currently available deep-drilling technology. We have modified our previously proposed version of DBD to be more appropriate for higher burn-up fuels by using smaller (0.36 m diameter) stainless steel containers, a smaller (0.56 m diameter) borehole, and different support matrices. We present the results of new heat-flow modelling for DBD of UO2 and MOX SF with burn ups of 55 and 65 GWd/t showing how temperatures evolve, especially on the outer surface of the containers. Consequences for the performance of the support matrices and the disposal concept are discussed. The thermal modelling indicates DBD is a viable option for higher burn-up SF and could be a practical disposal route for many combinations of fuel types, burn ups, ages and container loadings. Further, the results suggest that DBD of complete fuel assemblies, a desirable option, would be feasible and require much shorter pre-disposal cooling than necessary for disposal in mined repositories.
In 2010, an outbreak of cyclosporiasis affected passengers and crew on two successive voyages of a cruise ship that departed from and returned to Fremantle, Australia. There were 73 laboratory-confirmed and 241 suspected cases of Cyclospora infection reported in passengers and crew from the combined cruises. A case-control study performed in crew members found that illness was associated with eating items of fresh produce served onboard the ship, but the study was unable conclusively to identify the responsible food(s). It is likely that one or more of the fresh produce items taken onboard at a south-east Asian port during the first cruise was contaminated. If fresh produce supplied to cruise ships is sourced from countries or regions where Cyclospora is endemic, robust standards of food production and hygiene should be applied to the supply chain.
Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6–17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world’s humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25–0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200–7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is > 1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important, although certainly not sufficient, component of an overall strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD).
Possible origins of an epidemic of bluetongue in Cyprus in August 1977 have been analysed. First outbreaks occurred simultaneously in the south-east of the Famagusta district and on the north coast of the Kyrenia district respectively. Although the epidemic was due to type 4, which had been responsible for the previous outbreak in 1969, no evidence of persistence of virus could be found. Imports of domestic animals in the past year were not implicated since the imported cattle were introduced only to the southern part and not to the northern part of the island. Easterly, north-easterly and northerly winds during the period 11–14 August could have brought infected midges at a height of 0.5–1.5 km from Syria and Turkey, and such a movement would fit well the dates of the first outbreaks (20–25 August). Temperatures at a height of 1.5 km were 20–25 °C and at 0.5 km 30–35 °C, and with wind speeds 10–20 km h−1 the distance from Turkey and Syria would have been covered in 5–20 h. It follows that, in addition to surface winds, winds at all levels warm enough for flight should be taken into account when the possibility of disease spread by windborne midges is being assessed.
Marine fouling is a commercially important problem affecting abiotic and biotic surfaces. In this study we investigated the surface fouling on a colonial reef-building invertebrate, the bryozoan Pentapora fascialis, from the Welsh coast. We captured 300 scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of 5 colonies of the bryozoan P. fascialis in order to quantify the level of fouling on the exterior surfaces. Evidence for differential fouling was found to occur at several spatial scales, including between older and newer zooids, between proximal and distal regions of the same zooids and between colonies. The current year's growing zooids were found to have a higher level of fouling than older zooids. The difference in the mean level of fouling of proximal regions of zooids compared to distal regions was found to be significant in P. fascialis. In agreement with the differential fouling previously observed by other authors in the laminar bryozoan Flustra foliacea where the proximal region of a zooid was observed to have a higher level of fouling, the fouling coverage in P. fascialis was higher in the proximal region of zooids. A reduction of fouling on some bryozoan surfaces may be caused by production of antimicrobial compounds. Further studies of microbial fouling of a similar quantitative scale in other bryozoans could aid in the identification of novel antimicrobial agents useful for preventing microbial fouling on abiotic surfaces in the marine environment.