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In this work, we have theoretically investigated a model for the poly(2-methoxy-5(2'- ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) photodegradation based on structural models for MEH-PPV oligomers in vacuum and in solvent (chloroform). We investigated how the incorporation of oxygen and breaking of vinyl double bonds affect the absorption spectra. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data if we assume that the incorporation of carbonyl group is the main mechanism associated with the photodegradation processes.
People with psychotic disorders face impairments in their global functioning and their quality of life (QoL). The relationship between the two outcomes has not been systematically investigated. Through a systematic review, we aim to explore the presence and extent of associations between global functioning and QoL and establish whether associations depend on the instruments employed.
In May 2016, ten electronic databases were searched using a two-phase process to identify articles in which associations between global functioning and QoL were assessed. Basic descriptive data and correlation coefficients between global functioning and QoL instruments were extracted, with the strength of the correlation assessed according to the specifications of Cohen 1988. Results were reported with reference to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and PRISMA standards. A narrative synthesis was performed due to heterogeneity in methodological approaches.
Of an initial 15 183 non-duplicate articles identified, 756 were deemed potentially relevant, with 40 studies encompassing 42 articles included. Fourteen instruments for measuring global functioning and 22 instruments for measuring QoL were used. Twenty-nine articles reported linear associations while 19 assessed QoL predictors. Correlations between overall scores varied in strength, primarily dependent on the QoL instrument employed, and whether QoL was objectively or subjectively assessed. Correlations observed for objective QoL measures were consistently larger than those observed for subjective measures, as were correlations for an interviewer than self-assessed QoL. When correlations were assessed by domains of QoL, the highest correlations were found for social domains of QoL, for which most correlations were moderate or higher. Global functioning consistently predicted overall QoL as did depressive and negative symptoms.
This review is the first to explore the extent of associations between global functioning and QoL in people with psychotic disorders. We consistently found a positive association between global functioning and QoL. The strength of the association was dependent on the QoL instrument employed. QoL domains strongly associated with global functioning were highlighted. The review illustrates the extensive array of instruments used for the assessment of QoL and to a lesser extent global functioning in people with psychotic disorders and provides a framework to understand the different findings reported in the literature. The findings can also inform the future choice of instruments by researchers and/or clinicians. The observed associations reassure that interventions for improving global functioning will have a positive impact on the QoL of people living with a psychotic disorder.
In the southern Gulf of Mexico, the spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari) is the second most frequently caught batoid in small-scale fisheries off Campeche. Ecological aspects of this ray are unknown in this region, hampering the understanding of the relationship between its distribution and prey availability in the fishing area. In order to study the feeding habits of this batoid and characterize its potential prey in the study area, stomachs and intestines of 154 specimens (68 females and 86 males) were analysed. The results indicated that A. narinari near Campeche is a specialist and selective predator that feeds mainly on gastropods (92.7% IRI), with no significant differences in the diet found between sexes, size groups, or between stomach and intestine contents. In addition, the results indicated that the most important prey species in the diet were among the most common benthic species in three of the four sampling transects positioned in or adjacent to fishing areas for rays. These most important prey species were Strombus pugilis (53.33% IRI) and Americoliva reticularis (25.6% IRI). Other prey species included Lobatus costatus (5.6% IRI) and Petrochirus diogenes (3.6% IRI). This study suggests that this widely distributed ray species feeds in Campeche's coastal waters and that the study of its potential prey increases the understanding of ecological aspects of the species, which emphasizes the added importance of monitoring fishery impacts on prey species (e.g. the conch fishery off Campeche) to help support integrated assessment and management of fisheries.
We have studied the structural and morphological properties on the pyrochlore (Er2-x Srx)Ru2O6 system, for x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.15. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-state reaction (SR) and sol-gel acrylamide polymerization (SGAP). Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to follow the thermal transformations such as reagents decomposition, phase transformation, chemical stability, and volatilization of organic material of samples. The reagents and synthesized products by the different methods of synthesis were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). All samples crystallize Er2Ru2O6 PDF (72-7620) in the cubic unit cell with Fd
m (No. 227) space group and form a solid solution up to x = 0.15. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows considerable variations and similitudes in sizes, very few phases and shapes of polycrystals can be observed. Polycrystalline samples prepared by solid-state reaction (SR) present a grain size varies between 77 nm to 250 nm.
In the present investigation, nanostructured ceramic HfN coatings were deposited onto silicon (100) wafer by magnetron sputtering DC method, from a metallic Hf target. The deposition process followed by a similar pattern as the multilayer film deposition, using cycles with the nitrogen gas turned on for 90 s and turned off for 15 s; four sets of samples were obtained using 5, 10, 15 and 20 cycles. The X ray diffraction (XRD) identified the presence of two different cubic crystalline phases of HfN, corroborated by Rietveld analysis. The Vickers hardness test showed that the hardness values increases with more cycles, due to a higher compressive stress evaluated by Stoney formula. All samples were investigated with no visible fracture until 10 grf for the 5 cycles sample; however, no fractures were visible at all for the 15 and 20 cycle samples for that given load, instead fractures started to appear at 25grf for the 10 and 15 cycles coating. Eventually it is distinguished that, the thickness and morphology of the coatings were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy FE-SEM. As well as, the thickness increased from 0.4 µm to almost 1.33 µm as the number of cycles also increased, where we can observe the formation of columnar growth, moreover it is possible to distinguish the formation of two different clusters which might be related to different phases.
Terbium and ytterbium co-doped aluminum oxynitride thin films were grown onto silicon substrates using radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. Aluminum oxynitride samples doped with 4.6 at. % of Yb3+ and co-doped with 0.4 at. % of Tb3+ were obtained. The prepared samples were annealed from 150°C to 850°C in steps of 100°C. By using energy dispersive X-ray analysis we measured the sample composition and the doping concentration. The emission intensities at different annealing temperatures were characterized using photoluminescence measurements upon excitation at 325 nm. The 5D4 → 7F5 main transition of Tb3+ and the characteristic near infrared emission at 980 nm of Yb3+ were recorded. In order to study the luminescence behavior of the samples in terms of a down conversion process, we have plotted the integrated areas of the main transition peaks versus the annealing temperature.
Objectives: The present study examined differences in neurocognitive outcomes among non-Hispanic Black and White stroke survivors using the NIH Toolbox-Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB), and investigated the roles of healthcare variables in explaining racial differences in neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke. Methods: One-hundred seventy adults (91 Black; 79 White), who participated in a multisite study were included (age: M=56.4; SD=12.6; education: M=13.7; SD=2.5; 50% male; years post-stroke: 1–18; stroke type: 72% ischemic, 28% hemorrhagic). Neurocognitive function was assessed with the NIHTB-CB, using demographically corrected norms. Participants completed measures of socio-demographic characteristics, health literacy, and healthcare use and access. Stroke severity was assessed with the Modified Rankin Scale. Results: An independent samples t test indicated Blacks showed more neurocognitive impairment (NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite T-score: M=37.63; SD=11.67) than Whites (Fluid T-score: M=42.59, SD=11.54; p=.006). This difference remained significant after adjusting for reading level (NIHTB-CB Oral Reading), and when stratified by stroke severity. Blacks also scored lower on health literacy, reported differences in insurance type, and reported decreased confidence in the doctors treating them. Multivariable models adjusting for reading level and injury severity showed that health literacy and insurance type were statistically significant predictors of the Fluid cognitive composite (p<.001 and p=.02, respectively) and significantly mediated racial differences on neurocognitive impairment. Conclusions: We replicated prior work showing that Blacks are at increased risk for poorer neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke than Whites. Health literacy and insurance type might be important modifiable factors influencing these differences. (JINS, 2017, 23, 640–652)
To assess quality of life of children and teenagers with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, according to the evidence of infection by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11, compared with healthy volunteers and patients with chronic otitis media.
Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0.
Patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and their parents reported lower quality of life than healthy subjects (p < 0.01), but similar quality of life to patients with chronic otitis media. Those with human papillomavirus type 11 showed the lowest scores among all participants (p < 0.05).
Young Mexican patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and their parents perceive a poor quality of life, and they may experience limitations in interactions with their peers. Infection by human papillomavirus type 11 may increase the impact of the disease on quality of life.
Congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries in the absence of structural heart disease account for a small but interesting percentage of cardiac lesions in children. Their presentation may vary from incidental identification to aborted/sudden cardiac death. Patients with aborted sudden death episodes will require significant support if they develop extensive ischaemic myocardial injury. Ultimately, surgical repair should be carried out as soon as haemodynamic stability is attained and the neurological status is evaluated. The aims of this article were to provide a review of congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries most commonly seen in children in the ICU as well as to review the current critical-care management thereof.
This paper presents the optimum design of a PID controller for the Adaptive Torsion Wing (ATW) using the genetic algorithm (GA) optimiser. The ATW is a thin-wall, two-spar wingbox whose torsional stiffness can be adjusted by translating the spar webs in the chordwise direction inward and towards each. The reduction in torsional stiffness allows external aerodynamic loads to deform the wing and maintain its shape. The ATW is integrated within the wing of a representative UAV to replace conventional ailerons and provide roll control. The ATW is modelled as a two-dimensional equivalent aerofoil using bending and torsion shape functions to express the equations of motion in terms of the twist angle and plunge displacement at the wingtip. The full equations of motion for the ATW equivalent aerofoil were derived using Lagrangian mechanics. The aerodynamic lift and moment acting on the aerofoil were modelled using Theodorsen’s unsteady aerodynamic theory. The equations of motion are then linearised around an equilibrium position and the GA is employed to design a PID controller for the linearised system to minimise the actuation power require. Finally, the sizing and selection of a suitable actuator is performed.
The effect of the insecticide endosulfan on the predatory efficiency of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on the eggs of tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was measured with Holling’s disc equation. Though the type II functional response was maintained in C. carnea exposed to endosulfan, the functional response parameters: attack rate (a′), handling time (Th), total handling time (Tht), searching time (Ts), and search efficiency (E) were affected for both prey offered. The predator took more time to identify, pursue, capture, consume, and digest the prey, and in general, the efficiency of the predator as a biological control agent was adversely affected.
Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of infections such as amoebic keratitis (AK), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and cutaneous lesions. The mechanisms involved in the establishment of infection are unknown. However, it is accepted that the initial phase of pathogenesis involves adherence to the host tissue. In this work, we analysed surface molecules with an affinity for epithelial and neuronal cells from the trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. We also investigated the cellular mechanisms that govern the process of trophozoite adhesion to the host cells. We first used confocal and epifluorescence microscopy to examine the distribution of the A. castellanii actin cytoskeleton during interaction with the host cells. The use of drugs, as cytochalasin B (CB) and latrunculin B (LB), revealed the participation of cytoskeletal filaments in the adhesion process. In addition, to identify the proteins and glycoproteins on the surface of A. castellanii, the trophozoites were labelled with biotin and biotinylated lectins. The results revealed bands of surface proteins, some of which were glycoproteins with mannose and N-acetylglucosamine residues. Interaction assays of biotinylated amoebae proteins with epithelial and neuronal cells showed that some surface proteins had affinity for both cell types. The results of this study provide insight into the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of the Acanthamoeba infection process.
Bismuth has been used as an antimicrobial agent for treating gastrointestinal disorders, and has been used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of the present study was to analyze the antimicrobial activity of different Bi compounds against opportunistic pathogens. Ten bismuth compounds were tested with three different concentrations (60, 30 and 10%), against pure cultures of the following bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results show that Bismuth subsalicylate, Bismuth trioxide and Bismuth subgallate had a good antibacterial activity however, Bismuth subsalicylate was the most effective in the inhibition of the four bacterial strains tested. In this study we confirm the antibacterial properties of Bi-based compounds for other bacteria than H. pylori.
Several European countries have timely all-cause mortality monitoring. However, small changes in mortality may not give rise to signals at the national level. Pooling data across countries may overcome this, particularly if changes in mortality occur simultaneously. Additionally, pooling may increase the power of monitoring populations with small numbers of expected deaths, e.g. younger age groups or fertile women. Finally, pooled analyses may reveal patterns of diseases across Europe. We describe a pooled analysis of all-cause mortality across 16 European countries. Two approaches were explored. In the ‘summarized’ approach, data across countries were summarized and analysed as one overall country. In the ‘stratified’ approach, heterogeneities between countries were taken into account. Pooling using the ‘stratified’ approach was the most appropriate as it reflects variations in mortality. Excess mortality was observed in all winter seasons albeit slightly higher in 2008/09 than 2009/10 and 2010/11. In the 2008/09 season, excess mortality was mainly in elderly adults. In 2009/10, when pandemic influenza A(H1N1) dominated, excess mortality was mainly in children. The 2010/11 season reflected a similar pattern, although increased mortality in children came later. These patterns were less clear in analyses based on data from individual countries. We have demonstrated that with stratified pooling we can combine local mortality monitoring systems and enhance monitoring of mortality across Europe.
There has been much interest in the last few years on materials reinforced with nanometer scale particles. These so-called nanocomposites can exhibit hybrid properties derived from its components. One of the most promising nanocomposites is that based on polymers reinforced with single-layered carbon sheets named graphene. The reason is that graphene can significantly improve the physical properties of the polymeric material once it is completely dispersed in the matrix. In this work nylon/graphene nanocomposites were prepared starting from the synthesis of graphite oxide (GO). Direct oxidation of graphite powder was utilized to produce GO. That is, the oxidation reaction produced graphite layers with functional groups containing oxygen. The aim was to increase the polarity of GO to enable a good dispersion in polar solvents. Then, nylon/graphene nanocomposites were prepared by reducing GO in the presence of nylon. Finally, non-woven membranes, with nanometer sized filaments, of nylon/graphene were electrospun. The morphology and microstructure of the nanocomposites was investigated via electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.
In this research, we describe the electrospinning processing of polylactic acid (PLA) and the influence of silver nanoparticles on the morphology and microstructure of produced non woven membranes thus produced. The PLA was electrospun from a chloroform solution and a filamentary and granular morphology was obtained, the filaments having an average diameter of 1.25 μm, When silver nanoparticles (of ca. 12 nm size) were incorporated, the filaments diameter was reduced to an average of 0.65 μm, and the density of beads was also reduced. The membranes were rather amorphous, as revealed by X-ray scattering, presumably due to the quenching process associated with the electrospinning process. Water contact angle measurements showed that silver nanoparticles induced significant hidrophobicity in the membranes as neat PLA membrane had a contact angle of 54° and PLA/Ag membrane exhibited an angle of 115°.