Durum wheat genotypes with different responses to moisture stress were studied in a glasshouse under moisture stress and non-stress conditions to investigate differences in water use and transpiration efficiency and interrelationships among water use and transpiration efficiency and associated traits. Significantly high genotypic variability in the cumulative amount of water used before (ETba) and after (ETpa) anthesis was observed. Susceptible genotypes used higher amounts of water before anthesis and lower amounts after anthesis. In contrast, tolerant genotypes used a higher proportion of water during the post-anthesis period. Significantly high variability among the genotypes was observed for various measures of water use and transpiration efficiency, total dry matter and harvest index. Ranking of cultivars for water use efficiency based on grain yield (WUEG) and transpiration efficiency based on grain yield was consistent with ranking of cultivars for drought susceptibility indices. Drought susceptibility index was significantly but negatively correlated with harvest index, WUEG and grain yield. However, it was positively and significantly correlated with the ETba[ratio ]ETpa ratio. A high positive correlation of WUEG with harvest index and grain yield with harvest index was found. It was concluded that selection for lower ETba[ratio ]ETpa ratios up to about 0·8 could indirectly lead to improved WUEG and HI, hence improved grain yield. Selection for increased WUEG and/or grain yield would increase yield in water-limited environments.