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Seasonal influenza virus epidemics have a major impact on healthcare systems. Data on population susceptibility to emerging influenza virus strains during the interepidemic period can guide planning for resource allocation of an upcoming influenza season. This study sought to assess the population susceptibility to representative emerging influenza virus strains collected during the interepidemic period. The microneutralisation antibody titers (MN titers) of a human serum panel against representative emerging influenza strains collected during the interepidemic period before the 2018/2019 winter influenza season (H1N1-inter and H3N2-inter) were compared with those against influenza strains representative of previous epidemics (H1N1-pre and H3N2-pre). A multifaceted approach, incorporating both genetic and antigenic data, was used in selecting these representative influenza virus strains for the MN assay. A significantly higher proportion of individuals had a ⩾four-fold reduction in MN titers between H1N1-inter and H1N1-pre than that between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre (28.5% (127/445) vs. 4.9% (22/445), P < 0.001). The geometric mean titer (GMT) of H1N1-inter was significantly lower than that of H1N1-pre (381 (95% CI 339–428) vs. 713 (95% CI 641–792), P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in the GMT between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre. Since A(H1N1) predominated the 2018–2019 winter influenza epidemic, our results corroborated the epidemic subtype.
Background: Challenges in predicting risk of recurrence for individual patients with meningioma limits appropriate selection of patients who may benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy to delay recurrence. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a combined clinicomolecular predictor of early recurrence for individual patients with meningiomas. Methods: A methylation-based predictor of 5-year recurrence-free-survival (RFS) was developed using DNA-methylation profiles from a training cohort of 228 patients. Model performance was compared to a standard-of-care histological-based model using three independent cohorts (N=54 ;N=140; N=64 patients). Subsequently, a nomogram that integrated the methylome-based predictor with prognostic clinical factors was developed and validated. Results: The methylome-based predictor of 5-year RFS performed favorably compared to a grade-based predictor when tested using the three validation cohorts (ΔAUC=0.10, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.018) and was independently associated with RFS on multivariable Cox regression analysis (HR=3.6, 95%CI 1.8–7.2, P<0.001). A nomogram combining the methylome-predictor with clinical factors demonstrated greater discrimination for recurrence than a nomogram using clinical factors alone (ΔAUC=0.25, 95%CI 0.22–0.27) and resulted in two risk groups with distinct recurrence patterns (HR=7.7, 95%CI 5.3–11.1, P<0.001) and clinical implications. Conclusions: Our validated models provide important novel prognostic information that could be used to individualize decisions regarding post-operative therapeutic interventions in meningioma.
Ten compounds are found in the Ba0-Y203-CuOx system. High temperature (≈950-1000°C) phases identified as Ba4Y2O7 , Ba2Y2O5 , Ba3Y4O9 , BaY2O4 , Y2Cu2O5 , BaCuO2+x, Ba3YCu2OZ BaY2Cu05 and BazYCu306+x are formed in this temperature range. In addition, a new compound with composition of 2BaO:CuO, which possibly has a melting point below 950°C, was prepared at 850°C. A summary o£ the crystallographic data of these 10 phases is given. In particular, results of x-ray studies pertaining to four compounds, BazYCu306+x, which is currently the most promising high To' superconductor material, Ba2Cu03 , BaY2Cu05 , and Ba3YCu20Z are reviewed.
Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
Traumatic events are common globally; however, comprehensive population-based cross-national data on the epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the paradigmatic trauma-related mental disorder, are lacking.
Data were analyzed from 26 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. A total of 71 083 respondents ages 18+ participated. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed exposure to traumatic events as well as 30-day, 12-month, and lifetime PTSD. Respondents were also assessed for treatment in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age of onset distributions were examined by country income level. Associations of PTSD were examined with country income, world region, and respondent demographics.
The cross-national lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 3.9% in the total sample and 5.6% among the trauma exposed. Half of respondents with PTSD reported persistent symptoms. Treatment seeking in high-income countries (53.5%) was roughly double that in low-lower middle income (22.8%) and upper-middle income (28.7%) countries. Social disadvantage, including younger age, female sex, being unmarried, being less educated, having lower household income, and being unemployed, was associated with increased risk of lifetime PTSD among the trauma exposed.
PTSD is prevalent cross-nationally, with half of all global cases being persistent. Only half of those with severe PTSD report receiving any treatment and only a minority receive specialty mental health care. Striking disparities in PTSD treatment exist by country income level. Increasing access to effective treatment, especially in low- and middle-income countries, remains critical for reducing the population burden of PTSD.
To study the association between gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
We analyzed 31,526 patients with prospective collection of fecal specimens for CPE screening: upon admission (targeted screening) and during hospitalization (opportunistic screening, safety net screening, and extensive contact tracing), in our healthcare network with 3,200 beds from July 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015. Specimens were collected at least once weekly during hospitalization for CPE carriers and subjected to broth enrichment culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
Of 66,672 fecal specimens collected, 345 specimens (0.5%) from 100 patients (0.3%) had CPE. The number and prevalence (per 100,000 patient-days) of CPE increased from 2 (0.3) in 2012 to 63 (8.0) in 2015 (P<.001). Male sex (odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.15–3.18], P=.013), presence of wound or drain (3.12 [1.70–5.71], P<.001), and use of cephalosporins (3.06 [1.42–6.59], P=.004), carbapenems (2.21 [1.10–4.48], P=.027), and PPIs (2.84 [1.72–4.71], P<.001) in the preceding 6 months were significant risk factors by multivariable analysis. Of 79 patients with serial fecal specimens, spontaneous clearance of CPE was noted in 57 (72.2%), with a median (range) of 30 (3–411) days. Comparing patients without use of antibiotics and PPIs, consumption of both antibiotics and PPIs after CPE identification was associated with later clearance of CPE (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17–0.73], P=.005).
Concomitant use of antibiotics and PPIs prolonged duration of gastrointestinal colonization by CPE.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Sharper nanotips are required for application in nanoprobing systems due to a shrinking contact size with each new transistor technology node. We describe a two-step etching process to fabricate W nanotips with controllable tip dimensions. The first process is an optimized AC electrochemical etching in KOH to fabricate nanotips with a radius of curvature (ROC) down to 90 nm. This was followed by a secondary nanotip sharpening process by laser irradiation in KOH. High aspect ratio nanotips with ROC close to 20 nm were obtained. Finally we demonstrate the application of the fabricated nanotips for nanoprobing on advanced technology SRAM devices.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 January to 9 April 2012, to determine the seroprevalence of tuberculosis (TB) of all captive Asian elephants and their handlers in six locations in Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, trunk-wash samples were examined for tubercle bacillus by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For 63 elephants and 149 elephant handlers, TB seroprevalence was estimated at 20·4% and 24·8%, respectively. From 151 trunk-wash samples, 24 acid-fast isolates were obtained, 23 of which were identified by hsp65-based sequencing as non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific PCR was positive in the trunk-wash samples from three elephants which were also seropositive. Conversely, the trunk wash from seven seropositive elephants were PCR negative. Hence, there was evidence of active and latent TB in the elephants and the high seroprevalence in the elephants and their handlers suggests frequent, close contact, two-way transmission between animals and humans within confined workplaces.
Predicting which chronic rhinosinusitis patients have nasal obstruction due to reversible mucosal inflammation could prevent unnecessary surgery.
To investigate whether the change in nasal peak inspiratory flow following maximal decongestion (i.e. mucosal reversibility) at first visit predicts the response to topical steroids in chronic rhinosinusitis patients, as measured by the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test.
Prospective study of 128 consecutive new adult patients presenting with nasal obstruction due to chronic rhinosinusitis (January 2008 to July 2010). The 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test questionnaire was administered and the nasal peak inspiratory flow assessed. Following maximal nasal decongestion, the nasal peak inspiratory flow was again tested and the difference calculated. Topical steroids were administered for at least six weeks. The 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test was then repeated and the difference calculated.
Data were analysed using means and correlation studies (Spearman's rank correlation). There was no correlation between the pre- versus post-decongestion nasal peak inspiratory flow difference and the pre- versus post-steroid 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test difference, in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with or without nasal polyps.
The difference between pre- and post-decongestion nasal peak inspiratory flow does not predict chronic rhinosinusitis patients' response to topical steroids.
GaNAs and GaInNAs growths are subjects of considerable interest due to its technological importance in long wavelength lasers emitting within the optical-fiber communication wavelength window (1.31 – 1.55 m m). We study GaNAs and GaInNAs materials growth on (100) semi-insulating GaAs substrate with high nitrogen compositions (>2%) using a solid source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE) system in conjunction with a RF plasma source. GaNAs layer with high nitrogen compositions of 4.85% and 6% with good XRD peak intensities were successfully grown. GaInNAs quantum wells (QWs) were then grown with reference to the nitrogen compositions measured in the GaNAs materials to obtain nitrogen compositions > 2%. The photoluminescence (PL) peak positions of the GaInNAs QWs blueshifted after annealing at 840°C and 10min. It was found that the blueshift of PL peaks are highly dependent on nitrogen compositions.
Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of 1000Å GaNAs films grown on (100) oriented GaAs substrate by radio frequency (RF) plasma assisted solid-source molecular beam epitaxy was studied by low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Samples with nitrogen content of 13 and 2.2% have shown an overall blueshift in energy of 67.7meV and an intermediate redshift of 42.2meV in the PL spectra when subjected to RTA at 525–850°C for 10min. It is also shown that the sample, which is annealed at temperature range of 700–750°C, has the highest photoluminescence efficiency (1.7–2.1 times increase in integrated PL intensity as compared to the as-grown sample). Reciprocal space mapping of the as-grown GaNAs samples obtained by using triple-crystal HRXRD shows the presence of interstitially incorporated of N atoms with no lattice relaxation in the direction parallel to the growth surface. These results have significant implication on the growth and post-growth treatment of nitride compound semiconductor materials for high performance optoelectronics devices.
Effects of process annealing temperature on Metal-Induced-Lateral-Crystallization (MILC) growth rate and quality of MILC polysilicon formed were studied. Raman spectrum analysis was employed for material characterization. MILC polysilicon layer, which was formed by applying an optimum annealing condition together with post high temperature annealing, could be used to fabricate Thin-Film-Transistor (TFT) with considerably electrical improvements. This reflected that good quality of the polysilicon layer. It is believed that the proposed MILC formation method can be empolyed to produce large grain polysilicon on insulator (LPSOI) for advanced devices and circuits' fabrication.
A review is given on insulators (oxides and nitrides) which have been deposited on GaN to form metal-insulator (oxides and nitrides)-semiconductor (MOS or MIS) diodes with a low interfacial density of states (Dit). These insulators include AlN, SiO2, Si3N4, SiO2/Ga2O3, and Ga2O3(Gd2O3). Techniques for depositing these insulators and methods for cleaning GaN surfaces prior to the insulator deposition are discussed. Recent progress on GaN MOSFET's (with SiO2/Ga2O3, and Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as gate dielectrics) and MISFET's (with AlN as a gate dielectric) is also reviewed. When exposed to room air, GaN surface is not as robust as previously thought. Therefore, preparation of a clean GaN surface for deposition of oxides and nitrides is necessary to achieve a low Dit. By heating GaN samples in UHV to clean the surfaces followed by deposition of Ga2O3(Gd2O3) and SiO2, we have achieved a low Dit with negligible hysteretic loops in the capacitance-voltage curves
The Schottky barrier heights of single crystal NiSi2 layers on Si(111) have been studied by current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and activation energy techniques. Near ideal behavior is found for Schottky barriers grown on substrates cleaned at ∼820°C in ultrahigh vacuum. The Fermi level positions at the interfaces of single crystal type A and type B NiSi2 are shown to differ by ∼0.14 eV. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the epitaxial perfection of these suicide layers. At a cleaning temperature of 1050° C, the near surface region of lightly doped n-type Si was converted to p-type. The presence of a p-n junction was directly revealed by spreading resistance measurements and resulted in a high apparent Schottky barrier height (≥0.75 eV) which no longer bears immediate relationship to the interface Fermi level position.
We have utilized a scanning photoemission spectromicroscope with sub-micron spatial resolution to observe microscopic Fermi level pinning on the cleaved GaAs(110) surface. We present micrographs which identify pinning that is highly localized to the vicinity of a single linear cleavage step. This extends previous work utilizing scanning Kelvin probe and imaging photoelectron microscopy conducted at lower spatial resolution. A sub-monolayer coverage of In uniformly pins the surface, thus allowing us to observe only the image contrast mechanism resulting from topography. From this one can determine the spatial extent of defects near a cleavage step. Initial observations indicate that Fermi level pinning can extend from a cleavage step over the range of 2 μm. This indicates the additional presence of defects at the adjacent surfaces of the step.
AlxGal−xN films (x≤0.60) were grown on c-plane sapphire and (0001) 6H-SiC substrates using ECR plasma assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Evidence of long range ordering in the investigated AlxGal−xN films is presented. Without intentional dopants the films are semi-insulating with resistivities ranging from 103 to 105 Ω.cm. The films were doped n-type with Si and p-type with Mg. The carrier concentration in the Si doped films, as determined by Hall effect measurements, was between 1016 to 1019 cm−3. At constant Si cell temperature, the carrier concentration was found to be reduced with AlN mole fraction, consistent with the observation that the donor ionization energy increases with Al content. Correspondingly, the electron mobility decreases with Al concentration, a result attributed to alloy scattering. The Mg doped films were found to exhibit p-type conductivity by thermoelectric power measurements with resistivities varying from 3 to 30 Ω-cm.
We report on the growth and magnetic properties of single crystal Mn-doped GaN, InGaN, and AlGaN films. The III-Nitride films were grown by MOCVD, while the Mn doping was performed by solid-state diffusion of a surface Mn layer deposited by pulsed laser ablation. Mn-doped InxGa1-xN films were grown with x < 0.15, where the easy axis of magnetization rotates from in-plane to out-of-plane by changing the InxGa1-xN thickness/strain-state of the film from compressively strained to relaxed. Mn-doped AlxGa1-xN films were grown with x < 0.40 showing ferromagnetic behavior above room temperature. SQUID measurements ruled out superparamagnetism within these films. By optimizing the growth and annealing conditions of Mn-doped III-Nitrides, we have achieved Curie temperatures in the range of 228 to 500K. These ferromagnetic Mn-doped III-Nitride films exhibit hysteresis with a coercivity of 100–500 Oe. TEM analysis showed no secondary phases within these films.
Growth conditions, structural and optical properties of GaN quantum dots (QDs) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy will be examined. It will be shown that, depending on the Ga/N ratio value and on growth temperature, the growth mode of GaN deposited on AlN can be either of the Stranski-Krastanow or of the Frank-Van der Merwe type. It will be shown that vertical correlation results in a red shift and in a narrowing of the photoluminescence spectra.
Growth of Eu-doped GaN quantum dots embedded in AlN will be described. Intense photoluminescence associated with Eu has been measured, with no GaN band-edge emission, as an evidence that carrier recombination mostly occurs through rare earth ion excitation. Persistent photoluminescence of Eu-doped GaN quantum dots as a function of temperature has been put in evidence, as a further confirmation of the recombination of confined carriers through Eu ion excitation.