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Dietary insulin index directly estimates the postprandial insulin secretion potential of foods, whereas empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) assesses insulinemic potential of usual diets based on fasting plasma C-peptide, and is primarily reflective of insulin resistance. It is unknown whether these insulin-related indices are predictive of an integrated measure of insulin secretion. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis that included 293 non-diabetic men with 24-hour urinary C-peptide data from the Men’s Lifestyle Validation Study. EDIH, dietary insulin index, and dietary insulin load were calculated using validated food frequency questionnaires. We conducted multivariable-adjusted linear regression to estimate relative and absolute concentrations of 24-hour urinary C-peptide. In multivariable-adjusted models, we found a significant positive association between all three insulin-related dietary indices and 24-hour urinary C-peptide (P<0.05). Relative concentrations of 24-hour urinary C-peptide per 1-standard deviation increase in insulin-related dietary indices were: 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02, 1.23) for EDIH, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07, 1.29) for dietary insulin index and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.06, 1.27) for dietary insulin load. When we further adjusted for body mass index (BMI), the association was attenuated for EDIH, to 1.07 (95% CI, 0.98, 1.16), and remained unchanged for dietary insulin index and dietary insulin load. In conclusion, EDIH, dietary insulin index, and dietary insulin load were predictive of integrated insulin secretion assessed by 24-hour urinary C-peptide. Findings after adjustment for BMI appear to confirm the relation of EDIH to insulin resistance and dietary insulin index/load to insulin secretion; the respective constructs of the two dietary indices.
A new species of chionelasmatid sessile vent barnacle, Eochionelasmus coreana sp. nov., is described and illustrated on the basis of specimens collected from the Solitaire hydrothermal vent field in the Central Indian Ridge of the Indian Ocean. This new species is morphologically very similar to E. ohtai, the type species of the genus Eochionelasmus. However, it differs from E. ohtai in its distribution, the status of the notch on the maxillule, and the positions of rl1 and cl1 on whorls of the imbricating plates. In addition, a molecular phylogenetic tree indicated that the chionelasmatid Eochionelasmus was closely related to the waikalasmatid Waikalasma with high supporting values rather than the other chionelasmatid Chionelasmus. The new species is not only the first record of a sessile vent barnacle from outside of the Pacific Ocean, but is also the first sessile barnacle from the Indian Ocean.
We examined whether change in added sugar intake is associated with change in δ13C, a novel sugar biomarker, in thirty-nine children aged 5–10 years selected from a Colorado (USA) prospective cohort of children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Reported added sugar intake via FFQ and δ13C in erythrocytes were measured at two time points a median of 2 years apart. Change in added sugar intake was associated with change in the δ13C biomarker, where for every 1-g increase in added sugar intake between the two time points, there was an increase in δ13C of 0⋅0082 (P = 0⋅0053), independent of change in HbA1c and δ15N. The δ13C biomarker may be used as a measure of compliance in an intervention study of children under the age of 10 years who are at increased risk for type 1 diabetes, in which the goal was to reduce dietary sugar intake.
Background: Unintentional opioid overdoses in and around acute care hospitals, including in the ED, are of increasing concern. In April 2018, the Addiction Recovery and Community Health (ARCH) Team at the Royal Alexandra Hospital opened the first acute care Supervised Consumption Service (SCS) in North America available to inpatients. In the SCS, patients can consume substances by injection, oral or intranasal routes under nursing supervision; immediate assistance is provided if an overdose occurs. After a quality assurance review, work began to expand SCS access to ED patients as well. Aim Statement: By expanding SCS access to ED patients, we aim to reduce unintentional and unwitnessed opioid overdoses in registered ED patients to 0 per month by the end of 2020. Measures & Design: Between June 13-July 15, 2019, ARCH ED Registered Nurses were asked to identify ED patients with a history of active substance use who may potentially require SCS access. Nurses identified 69 patients over 43 8-hour shifts (range 0-4 patients per shift); thus, we anticipated an average of 5 ED patients per 24-hour period to potentially require SCS access. Based on this evidence of need, ARCH leadership worked with a) hospital legal team and Health Canada to expand SCS access to ED patients; b) ED leadership to develop a procedure and flowchart for ED SCS access. ED patients were able to access the SCS effective October 1, 2019. Evaluation/Results: From October 1 to December 1, 2019, the SCS had 35 visits by 23 unique ED patients. The median time spent in the SCS was 42.5 minutes (range 14.0-140.0 minutes). Methamphetamine was the most commonly used substance (19, 45.2%), followed by fentanyl (10, 23.8%); substances were all injected (91.4% into a vein and 8.6% into an existing IV). In this time period, there were zero unintentional, unwitnessed opioid poisonings in registered ED patients. Data collection is ongoing and will expand to include chief complaint, ED length of stay and discharge status. Discussion/Impact: Being able to reduce unintentional overdoses and unwitnessed injection drug use in the ED has the potential to improve both patient and staff safety. Next steps include a case series designed to examine the impact of SCS access on emergency care, retention in treatment and uptake into addiction treatment.
Introduction: Patients who present to the Emergency Department (ED) with a drug overdose often require long periods of monitoring. After their initial assessment and stabilization, they spend a significant amount of time in a high cost acute care bed in the ED for monitoring until they are medically cleared for psychiatric care or to be discharged. The shift length at this ED is a maximum of 8 hours; meaning any patients staying over 8 hours must be handed over between physicians, increasing the chance of medical errors. The objective of this study is to examine the total ED length of stay (LOS) of this patient group after physician initial assessment (PIA) to determine if there is there justification for the creation of a toxicology observation or short-stay unit for these patients. Methods: A single-centre, blinded retrospective chart review was conducted examining all adult patients presenting to the ED at an urban academic tertiary care centre with a drug overdose in 2018. Variables examined include: Disposition (home, admitted to acute care setting, admitted to non-acute care setting), time from PIA to disposition and total length of stay from PIA to discharge home or admission to hospital. The primary outcome is total length of stay in the ED after PIA.M Results: A total of 1006 patients presenting with an overdose were included. A total of 388 patients were admitted with 44% (172) having an ED LOS greater than 8 hours and 36% (138) staying 8 hours after PIA. The median [IQR] LOS in the ED for all patients was 343 minutes [191-565] while the median [IQR] time to PIA was 37 minutes [15-97]. The majority of these patients (54%) were discharged with no consulting services involved, 23% received a consult to psychiatry, 22% were consulted to internal medicine and 5% of patients were consulted to Critical Care Medicine. Conclusion: This demonstrates patients presenting to the ED with an overdose are seen in the ED by a physician quickly, however many stay in the department over 5 hours from their initial assessment in a monitored setting. While a majority of these patients are able to go home, 44% of admitted patients wait greater than 8 hours in the ED on monitors. The creation of a toxicology observation unit would be helpful for this population to increase patient safety and ease ED bed congestion.
Introduction: Despite an overall decline in opioid prescriptions in Canada, healthcare visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to opioid-related harms continue to rise for children. Clinicians urgently require high quality synthesized evidence to inform personalized decisions regarding opioid use for children. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the association between short-term therapeutic exposure to opioids and development of opioid use disorder. Methods: A medical librarian conducted a comprehensive search of 10 databases from inception to May 2019. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. Studies were eligible if they reported primary research in English or French, and study participants had short (<14 days) or non-specific duration of therapeutic exposure to opioids before age 18 years. Primary outcome was the development of an opioid use disorder; secondary outcomes included opioid addiction, dependence, misuse, and abuse. Data extraction involved two independent reviewers utilizing a standardized form. Methodological quality was assessed using the NIH tools for observational studies. Results are described narratively. Results: The search identified 4,072 unique citations; 82 were selected for review, and 17 were included (3 retrospective cohort, 4 prospective cohort, and 10 cross-sectional). All studies took place in the USA. A total of 1,562,503 participants were analyzed. Nine studies were administered in schools, 3 used administrative data. While most settings were non-specific, 1 study examined opioid use in dentistry, 1 in trauma, and 1 in organized sports. One comparative study showed an association between short-term therapeutic use and opioid misuse. Two studies showed opioid related adverse events (e.g., overdose) among cohorts exposed to short-term use. The remaining 14 studies did not specify duration of exposure; therefore, confirming whether misuse was due to short-term therapeutic exposure was not possible. Conclusion: A small number of studies in this review suggest an association between short-term opioid use and opioid misuse; however, further analysis is underway with consideration of methodological limitations of the individual studies (final results pending). Careful consideration of the risk and benefits of short-term opioid use should be undertaken prior to prescribing opioids. PROSPERO Registration Number: 122681.
Background: Since January 1, 2016 2358 people have died from opioid poisoning in Alberta. Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is the recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) and this treatment can be initiated in emergency departments and urgent care centres (EDs). Aim Statement: This project aims to spread a quality improvement intervention to all 107 adult EDs in Alberta by March 31, 2020. The intervention supports clinicians to initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals and provide rapid referrals to OUD treatment clinics. Measures & Design: Local ED teams were identified (administrators, clinical nurse educators, physicians and, where available, pharmacists and social workers). Local teams were supported by a provincial project team (project manager, consultant, and five physician leads) through a multi-faceted implementation process using provincial order sets, clinician education products, and patient-facing information. We used administrative ED and pharmacy data to track the number of visits where bup/nal was given in ED, and whether discharged patients continued to fill any opioid agonist treatment (OAT) prescription 30 days after their index ED visit. OUD clinics reported the number of referrals received from EDs and the number attending their first appointment. Patient safety event reports were tracked to identify any unintended negative impacts. Evaluation/Results: We report data from May 15, 2018 (program start) to September 31, 2019. Forty-nine EDs (46% of 107) implemented the program and 22 (45% of 49) reported evaluation data. There were 5385 opioid-related visits to reporting ED sites after program adoption. Bup/nal was given during 832 ED visits (663 unique patients): 7 visits in the 1st quarter the program operated, 55 in the 2nd, 74 in the 3rd, 143 in the 4th, 294 in the 5th, and 255 in the 6th. Among 505 unique discharged patients with 30 day follow up data available 319 (63%) continued to fill any OAT prescription after receiving bup/nal in ED. 16 (70%) of 23 community clinics provided data. EDs referred patients to these clinics 440 times, and 236 referrals (54%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Available data may under-report program impact. 5 patient safety events have been reported, with no harm or minimal harm to the patient. Discussion/Impact: Results demonstrate effective spread and uptake of a standardized provincial ED based early medical intervention program for patients who live with OUD.
Beef cattle are often fed high-concentrate diet (HCD) to achieve high growth rate. However, HCD feeding is strongly associated with metabolic disorders. Mild acid treatment of grains in HCD with 1% hydrochloric acid (HA) followed by neutralization with sodium bicarbonate (SB) might modify rumen fermentation patterns and microbiota, thereby decreasing the negative effects of HCD. This study was thus aimed to investigate the effects of treatment of corn with 1% HA and subsequent neutralization with SB on rumen fermentation and microbiota, inflammatory response and growth performance in beef cattle fed HCD. Eighteen beef cattle were randomly allocated to three groups and each group was fed different diets: low-concentrate diet (LCD) (concentrate : forage = 40 : 60), HCD (concentrate : forage = 60 : 40) or HCD based on treated corn (HCDT) with the same concentrate to forage ratio as the HCD. The corn in the HCDT was steeped in 1% HA (wt/wt) for 48 h and neutralized with SB after HA treatment. The animal trial lasted for 42 days with an adaptation period of 7 days. At the end of the trial, rumen fluid samples were collected for measuring ruminal pH values, short-chain fatty acids, endotoxin (or lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and bacterial microbiota. Plasma samples were collected at the end of the trial to determine the concentrations of plasma LPS, proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APPs). The results showed that compared with the LCD, feeding the HCD had better growth performance due to a shift in the ruminal fermentation pattern from acetate towards propionate, butyrate and valerate. However, the HCD decreased ruminal pH and increased ruminal LPS release and the concentrations of plasma proinflammatory cytokines and APPs. Furthermore, feeding the HCD reduced bacterial richness and diversity in the rumen. Treatment of corn increased resistant starch (RS) content. Compared with the HCD, feeding the HCDT reduced ruminal LPS and improved ruminal bacterial microbiota, resulting in decreased inflammation and improved growth performance. In conclusion, although the HCD had better growth performance than the LCD, feeding the HCD promoted the pH reduction and the LPS release in the rumen, disturbed the ruminal bacterial stability and increased inflammatory response. Treatment of corn with HA in combination with subsequent SB neutralization increased the RS content and helped counter the negative effects of feeding HCD to beef steers.
Archaeological research has documented the migration of Neolithic farmers onto the Tibetan Plateau by 4000 BC. How these incoming groups interacted, if at all, with local indigenous foragers, however, remains unclear. New archaeobotanical and zooarchaeological data from the Zongri site in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau suggest that local foragers continued to hunt but supplemented their diet with agricultural products in the form of millet. The authors propose that, rather than being grown locally, this millet was acquired via exchange with farmers. This article highlights how indigenous foragers engaged in complex patterns of material and cultural exchange through encounters with newly arrived farmers.
The Lagrangian-mean motion of fluid particles induced by horizontally localized small-amplitude wavepackets of vertically trapped inertia–gravity waves is computed analytically, at second order in wave amplitude, and the results are supported by direct nonlinear numerical simulations. The leading-order motion is assumed to be inertia–gravity waves, which is applicable to oceanic mesoscale flows in regions where wave activity is as strong as or stronger than the balanced flow. The analytical computation is based on time-dependent asymptotic wave–mean interaction theory, and the numerical simulation uses a Galerkin-truncated
-plane nonlinear hydrostatic Boussinesq model that retains the barotropic mode and two baroclinic modes (vertical wavenumbers 0,
), this being the minimal set on which consistent wave–mean interactions can take place. Two novel dynamical effects are revealed: First, we find that the barotropic component robustly dominates the Lagrangian-mean flow response, which is contrary to earlier findings for the same problem. Second, we discovered a new wavepacket regime in which the baroclinic mean-flow response consists of the persistent radiation of resonantly forced secondary internal waves. The latter effect occurs in an oceanically accessible parameter regime.
Elastic modulus and residual stress in freestanding ultrathin films (<100 nm) are characterized using bilayer cantilevers. The cantilevers comprise a test film and a well-characterized reference material (SU-8). When released from the substrate, residual stresses in the bilayer cantilever cause it to deflect with measurable curvatures, allowing the determination of both stiffness and residual stress of the test film. The technique does not require sophisticated mechanical test equipment and serves as a useful metrology tool for characterizing coatings immediately after fabrication in a clean room assembly line. The measured biaxial modulus and residual strain of 75 nm copper films are 211 ± 19 GPa and (7.05 ± 0.22) × 10−3, respectively. Additional experiments on the freestanding structures yield a mean Young’s modulus of 115 GPa. These properties are in close agreement with those measured from additional residual stress–driven structures developed on the same coatings by the authors.
Despite its long coastline, relatively little is known about mainland China’s intertidal communities compared to Europe and the United States, although more is known from Taiwan and Hong Kong. In general, northern areas are dominated by temperate species, with tropical species in the south and subtropical areas supporting a diversity of species from both regions. Studies of intertidal systems are in their infancy, developing since the 1930s and particularly after the 1960s with a primary focus on taxonomy and distribution patterns. While species lists and distributions have been available for mainland China since the 1930s, and more recently Taiwan and Hong Kong, many of these are outdated and recent approaches reveal many cryptic species complexes. Basic information of spatial and temporal patterns is available, but is focussed on few locations, while larger-scale or temporally replicated studies are rare, with Hong Kong being an exception. As a result, we know a lot about a few small areas, and have often used this to generalise much larger areas. This bias is even more true for studies investigating intertidal processes. Clearly, this is an under-studied region and, given the unprecedented anthropogenic pressures it faces, we may already be documenting a highly degraded intertidal system.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Introduction: Given the current opioid crisis, caregivers have mounting fears regarding use of opioid medication in their children. Since caregivers are often the gatekeepers to their children's pain management, understanding their perspectives on analgesics is essential. For caregivers of children with acute injury presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED), we aimed to determine caregivers’: a) willingness to accept opioids from emergency care providers, b) reasons for refusing opioids, and c) past experiences with opioids. Methods: A novel 31-item electronic survey was offered, via tablet device, to caregivers of children aged 4-16 years who had a musculoskeletal injury <7 days old and presented to one of two Canadian PEDs between March and November 2017. Primary outcome was caregiver willingness to accept opioids for moderate pain for their children. Results: 517 caregivers completed the survey; mean age was 40.9 +/−7 years with 70.0% (362/517) being mothers. Children included 62.2% (321/516) males with an overall mean age of 10 +/−3.6 years. 49.6% of caregivers (254/512) reported willingness to accept opioids for moderate pain that persisted after non-opioid analgesia, while 37.1% (190/512) were unsure what they would do. Only 33.2% (170/512) of caregivers stated they would accept opioid analgesia upon discharge while 45.5% (233/512) were unsure about at-home use. Caregivers were primarily concerned about side effects, overdose, addiction, and masking of diagnosis. Caregiver fear of addiction (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25) and side effects (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.42) increased the odds of rejecting opioids in the emergency department, while fears of addiction (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.32) and overdose (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.27) increased the odds of rejecting opioids for at-home use. Conclusion: Only half of caregivers reported that they would accept opioids for moderate pain, despite ongoing pain following non-opioid analgesics. Caregiver fears of addiction, side effects, overdose, and masking their child's diagnosis influence their behaviours. These findings are a first step in understanding caregiver decision-making and can guide healthcare providers in their conversations about acute pain treatment with families.
Introduction: Emergency Department (ED) visits related to substance use are rapidly increasing. Despite this, few Canadian EDs have immediate access to addiction medicine specialists or on-site addiction medicine clinics. This study characterized substance-related ED presentations to an urban tertiary care ED and assessed need for an on-site rapid-access addiction clinic (RAAC). Methods: This prospective enrollment, retrospective chart review was conducted from June to August 2018. Adult patients presenting to the ED with a known or suspected substance use disorder were enrolled by any member of their ED care team using a 1-page form. Retrospective chart review of the index ED visit was conducted and the Emergency Department Information System was used to extract information related to the visit. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to examine factors associated with recommendation for referral to a hypothetical on-site RAAC.This prospective enrollment, retrospective chart review was conducted from June to August 2018. Adult patients presenting to the ED with a known or suspected substance use disorder were enrolled by any member of their ED care team using a 1-page form. Retrospective chart review of the index ED visit was conducted and the Emergency Department Information System was used to extract information related to the visit. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to examine factors associated with recommendation for referral to a hypothetical on-site RAAC. Results: Of the 557 enrolment forms received, 458 were included in the analysis. 64% of included patients were male and 36% were female, with a median age of 35.0 years. Polysubstance use was seen in 23% of patients, and alcohol was the most common substance indicated (60%), followed by stimulants (32%) and opioids (16%). The median ED length of stay for included patients was 483 minutes, compared to 354 minutes for all-comers discharged from the ED during the study period. 28% of patients had a previous ED visit within 7 days of the index visit, and an additional 17% had a visit in the preceding 30 days. The ED care team indicated ‘Yes’ for RAAC referral from the ED for 66% of patients, for a mean of 4.3 patients referred per day during the study period. Multivariable analysis showed that all substances (except cannabis) correlated to a statistically significant increase in likelihood for indicating ‘Yes’ for RAAC referral from the ED (alcohol, stimulants, opioids, polysubstance; p < 0.05). Patients presenting to the ED with a chief complaint related to substance use were also more likely to be referred (p = 0.01). Conclusion: This retrospective chart review characterized substance-related presentations at a Canadian urban tertiary care ED. Approximately four patients per day would have been referred to an on-site RAAC had one been available. The RAAC model has been implemented in other Canadian hospitals, and collaborating with these sites to begin developing this service would be an important next step.
Introduction: Competence in procedural skills is vital within the emergency department. Challenging procedures such as cricothyroidotomy are difficult to master as they are rare and hard to train for. Additionally, common procedures such as chest tube insertions require practice to become sufficiently competent. Opportunities to hone these skills are essential in residency training. This project aimed to create instructional video modules for specific emergency medicine (EM) procedures and gauge their utility as adjunctive resources for procedural learning in the EM residency curriculum. Methods: Tutorial videos for clamshell thoracotomy, cricothyroidotomy, and chest tube insertion were filmed within a cadaver lab with step-by-step instructions. The footage was edited and overlaid with a pre-prepared audio narration using Camtasia®/Apple® Video Editing software. These videos were embedded within modules that included foundational knowledge relevant to the procedures, including anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology. The modules were peer-edited by licensed EM staff physicians and distributed to EM residents and staff physicians for analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis relied upon participants’ answers to questions and a Modified Task Value Scale, respectively. Results: Ten participants were included in the analysis, including EM residents (n = 6) and staff emergency physicians (n = 4). Qualitative feedback suggested that positive aspects of the modules included visuals, content, narration, and review of anatomy. Negative aspects included the lack of indications for procedures, technical details, real patient examples, and a speed up function. Quantitative feedback resulted in scores of 4 and above out of 5 on the Motivated Task Value Scale across all aspects for all the modules. Furthermore, analysis revealed an average score of 3.9 for inclination to access more modules such as these, and a score of 4.4 for overall perception of the modules. Conclusion: Participants found the video modules valuable to their learning, both qualitatively and quantitatively. This study was limited by a small sample size of modules and a low number of participants. Furthermore, a more detailed analysis with further measures, including self-efficacy and self-confidence, would yield more comprehensive conclusions. However, video-based modules provide an effective and easily accessible adjunctive tool to acquire skill and confidence with EM procedures, for medical learners and staff physicians.
La3+-doped BaSnO3 microtubes (La3+–BaSnO3) have been synthesized by electrospinning method, and the influence of La3+ content on the sensing properties of BaSnO3 for detection of formaldehyde vapor has been investigated. The as-prepared materials have been characterized using XRD, SEM, DSC, XPS, and UV-Vis. The La3+–BaSnO3 sample doped with 4 wt% La exhibited a response as high as 220 to formaldehyde vapor (1000 ppm concentration) along with a very low detection limit of 0.1 ppm at 270 °C, whereas at 140 °C, it exhibited a response of 80 and detection limit of 1 ppm. In addition, the sensor showed excellent selectivity of 57 to formaldehyde at 140 °C when compared with other vapors. Further, the sensor also showed good repeatability and stability over a long period of time suggesting its strong potential as a commercial formaldehyde sensor.
We summarize the findings from an interlaboratory study conducted between ten international research groups and investigate the use of the commonly used maximum separation distance and local concentration thresholding methods for solute clustering quantification. The study objectives are: to bring clarity to the range of applicability of the methods; identify existing and/or needed modifications; and interpretation of past published data. Participants collected experimental data from a proton-irradiated 304 stainless steel and analyzed Cu-rich and Ni–Si rich clusters. The datasets were also analyzed by one researcher to clarify variability originating from different operators. The Cu distribution fulfills the ideal requirements of the maximum separation method (MSM), namely a dilute matrix Cu concentration and concentrated Cu clusters. This enabled a relatively tight distribution of the cluster number density among the participants. By contrast, the group analysis of the Ni–Si rich clusters by the MSM was complicated by a high Ni matrix concentration and by the presence of Si-decorated dislocations, leading to larger variability among researchers. While local concentration filtering could, in principle, tighten the results, the cluster identification step inevitably maintained a high scatter. Recommendations regarding reporting, selection of analysis method, and expected variability when interpreting published data are discussed.