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As the pathophysiology of Covid-19 emerges, this paper describes dysphagia as a sequela of the disease, including its diagnosis and management, hypothesised causes, symptomatology in relation to viral progression, and concurrent variables such as intubation, tracheostomy and delirium, at a tertiary UK hospital.
During the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, 208 out of 736 patients (28.9 per cent) admitted to our institution with SARS-CoV-2 were referred for swallow assessment. Of the 208 patients, 102 were admitted to the intensive treatment unit for mechanical ventilation support, of which 82 were tracheostomised. The majority of patients regained near normal swallow function prior to discharge, regardless of intubation duration or tracheostomy status.
Dysphagia is prevalent in patients admitted either to the intensive treatment unit or the ward with Covid-19 related respiratory issues. This paper describes the crucial role of intensive swallow rehabilitation to manage dysphagia associated with this disease, including therapeutic respiratory weaning for those with a tracheostomy.
This article challenges the argument of John Moles that Luke's preface (1.1–4) resembles a Greek decree more than any other type of writing. Although Moles is not the first to recognise the supposed decree-like features in Luke's preface, he goes further by arguing that the preface is intentionally structured like a decree for the author's rhetorical aim. In this article, I demonstrate that Moles’ argument goes too far and that Luke's preface simply displays features conventional to prefaces of historiographical writing – despite common structural patterns of preface writing and decree formulae – and is not layered with additional rhetorical meaning.
The development of nutritional strategies to improve microbial homeostasis and gut health of piglets post-weaning is required to mitigate the high prevalence of post-weaning diarrhea and subsequent growth checks typically observed during the weaning transition. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing piglet creep and nursery feed with a yeast-derived mannan-rich fraction (MRF) on piglet growth performance, cecal microbial profiles, and jejunal morphology and gene expression. Ten litters of piglets (n=106) were selected on postnatal day (PND) 7 and assigned to diets with or without MRF (800 mg/kg) until weaning (n=5 litters/treatment; initial weight 3.0±0.1 kg). On PND 21, 4 piglets per litter (n=40) were selected and weaned into the nursery where they remained on their respective diets until PND 42. A two-phase feeding program was used to meet nutrient requirements, and pigs were switched from phase 1 to phase 2 on PND 28. Feed intake and piglet weights were recorded on PND 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On PND 28 and 42, ten piglets per treatment were euthanized to collect intestinal tissue and digesta. Piglets supplemented with MRF had 21.5% greater (P<0.05) average daily feed intake between PND 14-21. However, MRF supplementation did not affect piglet growth performance compared to control. On PND 28, jejunal villus height was 16.8% greater (P<0.05) in piglets consuming MRF supplemented diets. Overall microbial community structure in cecal digesta on PND 28 tended to differ in pigs supplemented with MRF (P=0.076; analysis of similarities (ANOSIM)) with increased (P<0.05) relative abundance of Paraprevotellaceae genera YRC22 and CF231, and reduced (P<0.05) relative abundance of Sutterella and Prevotella. Campylobacter also tended to reduce (P<0.10) in MRF supplemented piglets. On PND 28 differential gene expression in jejunal tissue signified an overall effect of supplementing MRF to piglets. Downstream analysis of gene expression data revealed piglets supplemented with MRF had enriched biological pathways involved in intestinal development, function and immunity, supporting the observed improvement in jejunal villus architecture on PND 28. On PND 42 there was no effect of MRF supplementation on jejunal morphology or overall cecal microbial community structure. In conclusion, supplementing Actigen™, a MRF, to piglets altered cecal microbial community structure and improved jejunal morphology early post-weaning on PND 28, which is supported by enrichment of intestinal development pathways.
The study objective was to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in the nares and oropharynx of healthy persons and identify any risk factors associated with such S. aureus colonisation. In total 263 participants (177 adults and 86 minors) comprising 95 families were enrolled in a year-long prospective cohort study from one urban and one rural county in eastern Iowa, USA, through local newspaper advertisements and email lists and through the Keokuk Rural Health Study. Potential risk factors including demographic factors, medical history, farming and healthcare exposure were assessed. Among the participants, 25.4% of adults and 36.1% minors carried S. aureus in their nares and 37.9% of adults carried it in their oropharynx. The overall prevalence was 44.1% among adults and 36.1% for minors. Having at least one positive environmental site for S. aureus in the family home was associated with colonisation (prevalence ratio: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07–1.66). The sensitivity of the oropharyngeal cultures was greater than that of the nares cultures (86.1% compared with 58.2%, respectively). In conclusion, the nares and oropharynx are both important colonisation sites for healthy community members and the presence of S. aureus in the home environment is associated with an increased probability of colonisation.
The aim of this feasibility trial was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the locally adapted Group Problem Management Plus (PM+) intervention for women in the conflict affected settings in Swat, Pakistan.
This mixed-methods study incorporated a quantitative component consisting of a two arm cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial, and qualitative evaluation of the acceptability of the Group PM+ to a range of stakeholder groups. For the quantitative component, on average from each of the 20 Lady Health Workers (LHWs) catchment area (20 clusters), six women were screened and recruited for the trial with score of >2 on the General Health Questionnaire and score of >16 on the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. These LHW clusters were randomised on a 1 : 1 allocation ratio using a computer-based software through a simple randomisation method to the Group PM+ intervention or Enhanced Usual Care. The Group PM+ intervention consisted of five weekly sessions of 2 h duration delivered by local non-specialist females under supervision. The primary outcome was individual psychological distress, measured by levels of anxiety and depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 7th week after baseline. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), general psychological profile, levels of functioning and generalised psychological distress. Intervention acceptability was explored through in-depth interviews.
The results show that lay-helpers with no prior mental health experience can be trained to achieve the desired competency to successfully deliver the intervention in community settings under supervision. There was a good intervention uptake, with Group PM+ considered useful by participants, their families and lay-helpers. The outcome evaluation, which was not based on a large enough study to identify statistically significant results, indicated statistically significant improvements in depression, anxiety, general psychological profile and functioning. The PTSD symptoms and depressive disorder scores showed a trend in favour of the intervention.
This trial showed robust acceptance in the local settings with delivery by non-specialists under supervision by local trained females. The trial paves the way for further adaptation and exploration of the outcomes through larger-scale implementation and definitive randomised controlled trials in the local settings.
This study aimed to assess head and neck cancer patient satisfaction with the use of a touch-screen computer patient-completed questionnaire for assessing Adult Co-morbidity Evaluation 27 co-morbidity scores prior to treatment, along with its clinical reliability.
A total of 96 head and neck cancer patients were included in the audit. An accurate Adult Co-morbidity Evaluation 27 co-morbidity score was achieved via patient-completed questionnaire assessment for 97 per cent of participants.
In all, 96 per cent of patients found the use of a touch-screen computer acceptable and would be willing to use one again, and 62 per cent would be willing to do so without help. Patients were more likely to be willing to use the computer again without help if they were aged 65 years or younger (χ2 test; p = 0.0054) or had a performance status of 0 or 1 (χ2 test; p = 0.00034).
Use of a touch-screen computer is an acceptable approach for assessing Adult Co-morbidity Evaluation 27 scores at pre-treatment assessment in a multidisciplinary joint surgical–oncology clinic.
Acute alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for suicide, therefore
investigating factors associated with alcohol-related self-harm warrant
To investigate the influence of prescribed psychotropic medications on
the odds of co-ingesting alcohol preceding or during intentional efforts
A cross-sectional analysis of consecutive hospital presentations
following intentional self-poisoning was conducted. A total of 7270
patients (4363 women) aged 18–96 were included.
The odds of alcohol co-ingestion were increased in those not prescribed
any medication (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 99% CI 1.10–1.46, P50.001) and in
impulsive self-poisonings (OR= 1.39, 99% CI 1.11–1.74, P50.001). Odds
were decreased in those prescribed anticonvulsants (OR = 0.69, 99% CI
0.51–0.93), antipsychotics (OR = 0.55, 99% CI 0.45–0.66) and
antidepressants (OR = 0.87, 99% CI 0.77–0.99).
Findings indicate that being medicated for a psychiatric illness may
reduce the likelihood of alcohol consumption during times of acute
distress, hence perhaps may reduce the risk of intentional
The history of the feed industry is pertinent in terms of understanding how and why certain practices have evolved. Some of these practices have been superseded by modern, more natural alternatives, for example the traditional use of antibiotics in feed. In other cases, such as inorganic minerals, more natural versions akin to those found in plant and animal materials are available, although these new initiatives are still being taken up globally. Research continues to increase our knowledge and understanding of nutrient balance and digestion, and in some species this is more advanced than others. The following paper represents the first complete history of the feed industry, its major milestones, and projects how it might continue to utilise new technology developments to improve animal feeding practices.
Caregivers’ nutrition knowledge and attitudes may influence the variety of foods available in the household and the quality of children’s diets. To test the link, this study collected data on caregivers’ (n 608) nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes as well as the diets of their household and of their 2–5-year-old children in twelve rural communities nested in the three main agro-ecological zones of Ghana. Household foods and children’s animal source foods (ASF) consumed in the past 7 d were categorised into one of fourteen and ten groups, respectively. About 28 % of caregivers believed that their children needed to be fed only 2–3 times/d. Reasons for having adult supervision during child meal times, feeding diverse foods, prioritising a child to receive ASF and the perceived child benefits of ASF differed across zones (P<0·001). Households with caregivers belonging to the highest tertile of nutrition knowledge and attitude scores consumed more diverse diets compared with those of caregivers in the lowest tertile group (11·2 (sd 2·2) v. 10·0 (sd 2·4); P<0·001). After controlling for the effect of agro-ecological zone, caregivers’ nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes positively predicted household dietary diversity and the frequency and diversity of children’s ASF intakes (P<0·001). The number of years of formal education of caregivers also positively predicted household dietary diversity and children’s ASF diversity (P<0·001). A key component to improving child nutrition is to understand the context-specific nutrition knowledge and feeding attitudes in order to identify relevant interventions.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) recurrence in New Zealand cattle and deer herds identified as bTB-infected from 1 June 2006 to 1 November 2010. A Cox proportional hazards model identified a positive relationship between the daily hazard of bTB recurrence and: (1) the number of prior bTB episodes for two episodes [hazard ratio (HR) 3·22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·21–8·60], and for five episodes (HR 89·5, 95% CI 13·8–580), (2) more than one positive bTB case animal at the index episode (HR 2·25, 95% CI 1·19–4·25) and (3) the presence of cleared test-positives at the final test of the index episode. The proportional hazards assumption was violated for the latter variable so a time-dependent covariate was introduced. Up to 2 years post-clearance, the daily hazard of bTB recurrence was greater in herds with test-positives at the final test (HR 2·59, 95% CI 1·30–5·13), but this effect was not observed more than 2 years' post-clearance (HR 1·05, 95% CI 0·28–3·91). We conclude that unresolved infection contributes to further bTB episodes in the first 2 years after herd clearance.
Measurements of cosmic ray directional properties at about 1015 eV in both northern and southern hemispheres confirm that those particles have a unidirectional anisotropy and are flowing along the direction of our spiral arm from the inner Galactic regions. On the basis of diffusive cosmic ray flow along the Galactic arms, the power required for the Galaxy to maintain this flow is below 1030 W.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
InxGa1-xN-based LED structures were grown on digital AlxGa1-xN/GaN DBR substrate to enhance emission extraction. Same LED structure was grown on sapphire substrate as a comparison. LEDs grown on DBR substrate exhibited similar IV characteristics to that grown on sapphire substrate but emission-angle-dependent EL spectra were observed. Also, the resonant vertical cavity modes were observed in EL spectra of LEDs with DBR structure and compared to simulated results. Image processing analysis results show that light extraction of LEDs is enhanced with use of DBR substrate.
In this paper, we investigate the problem of measuring the shape of a continuum robot manipulator using visual information from a fixed camera. Specifically, we capture the motion of a set of fictitious planes, each formed by four or more feature points, defined at various strategic locations along the body of the robot. Then, utilizing expressions for the robot forward kinematics as well as the decomposition of a homography relating a reference image of the robot to the actual robot image, we obtain the three-dimensional shape information continuously. We then use this information to demonstrate the development of a kinematic controller to regulate the manipulator end-effector to a constant desired position and orientation.