To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Focus in this chapter is on petroleum industry local content requirements for affected Canadian Indigenous peoples. Though Canada is a developed country, these indigenous nations are in a position analogous to developing countries affected by oil and gas development. Canada’s constitution, as judicially interpreted, recognizes and affirms indigenous peoples’ “aboriginal and treaty rights” that include the right to consultation and accommodation concerning proposed oil and gas development likely to affect them adversely. This duty to consult is typically discharged and implemented by means of impact benefit agreements (IBAs) between developers and indigenous nations, and enforceable conditions on government approvals of projects, including oil sands facilities and interjurisdictional pipelines, issued following public processes. The conclusion is that timing changes in government consultation would improve the effectiveness these IBA tools.
Rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in primary care is a growing concern and a threat to community health. The rise of AMR can be slowed down if general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) could work as a team to implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs for optimal use of antimicrobial(s). However, the evidence supporting a GP pharmacist collaborative AMS implementation model (GPPAS) in primary care remains limited.
With an aim to design a GPPAS model in Australia, this paper outlines how this model will be developed.
This exploratory study undertakes a systematic review, a scoping review, nationwide surveys, and qualitative interviews to design the model. Medical Research Council (MRC) framework and Normalization Process Theory are utilized as guides. Reviews will identify the list of effective GPPAS interventions. Two AMS surveys and paired interviews of GPs and CPs across Australia will explore their convergent and divergent views about the GPPAS interventions, attitudes towards collaboration in AMS and the perceived challenges of implementing GPPAS interventions. Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS 2.0) model and factor analyses will guide the structure of GPPAS model through identifying the determinants of GPPAS uptake. The implementable GPPAS strategies will be selected based on empirical feasibility assessment by AMS stakeholders using the APEASE (Affordability, Practicability, Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, Acceptability, Side-effects and safety, Equity) criteria.
The GPPAS model might have potential implications to inform how to better involve GPs and CPs in AMS, and, to improve collaborative services to optimize antimicrobial use and reduce AMR in primary care.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to COVID-19 with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplemental materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
The Syriac term yaṣrā, “inclination,” “urge,” “wilfulness,” and its use in Syriac texts, has not until recently been the subject of any detailed study, and this is perhaps surprising not only because of its interest for an understanding of early Syriac Christian thought, but also for its potential contribution to discussions of the origins and development of Jewish concepts of the yeṣer.
The direct carbonate procedure for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating of submilligram samples of biogenic carbonate without graphitization is becoming widely used in a variety of studies. We compare the results of 153 paired direct carbonate and standard graphite 14C determinations on single specimens of an assortment of biogenic carbonates. A reduced major axis regression shows a strong relationship between direct carbonate and graphite percent Modern Carbon (pMC) values (m = 0.996; 95% CI [0.991–1.001]). An analysis of differences and a 95% confidence interval on pMC values reveals that there is no significant difference between direct carbonate and graphite pMC values for 76% of analyzed specimens, although variation in direct carbonate pMC is underestimated. The difference between the two methods is typically within 2 pMC, with 61% of direct carbonate pMC measurements being higher than their paired graphite counterpart. Of the 36 specimens that did yield significant differences, all but three missed the 95% significance threshold by 1.2 pMC or less. These results show that direct carbonate 14C dating of biogenic carbonates is a cost-effective and efficient complement to standard graphite 14C dating.
Benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription rates have increased over the past decade in the United States. Available literature indicates that sociodemographic factors may influence diagnostic patterns and/or prescription behaviour. Herein, the aim of this study is to determine whether the gender of the prescriber and/or patient influences BZD prescription.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Florida Medicaid Managed Medical Assistance Program from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. Eligible recipients ages 18 to 64, inclusive, enrolled in the Florida Medicaid plan for at least 1 day, and were dually eligible. Recipients either had a serious mental illness (SMI), or non-SMI and anxiety.
Total 125 463 cases were identified (i.e., received BZD or non-BZD prescription). Main effect of patient and prescriber gender was significant F(1, 125 459) = 0.105, P = 0 .745, partial η2 < 0.001. Relative risk (RR) of male prescribers prescribing a BZD compared to female prescribers was 1.540, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [1.513, 1.567], whereas the RR of male patients being prescribed a BZD compared to female patients was 1.16, 95% CI [1.14, 1.18]. Main effects of patient and prescriber gender were statistically significant F(1, 125 459) = 188.232, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.001 and F(1, 125 459) = 349.704, P < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.013, respectively.
Male prescribers are more likely to prescribe BZDs, and male patients are more likely to receive BZDs. Further studies are required to characterize factors that influence this gender-by-gender interaction.
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has proven itself as an effective tool in the treatment of intracranial lesions. Image-guided high dose single fraction treatments have the potential to deliver ablative doses to tumours; however, treatment times can be long. Flattening filter free (FFF) beams are available on most modern linacs and offer a higher dose rate compared to conventional flattened beams which should reduce treatment times. This study aimed to compare 6 MV FFF and 10 MV FFF to a 6 MV flattened beam for single fraction dynamic conformal arc SRS for a Varian Truebeam linac.
Materials and methods:
In total, 21 individual clinical treatment plans for 21 brain metastases treated with 6 MV were retrospectively replanned using both 6 MV FFF and 10 MV FFF. Plan quality and efficiency metrics were evaluated by analysing dose coverage, dose conformity, dose gradients, dose to normal brain, beam-on-time (BOT), treatment time and monitor units.
FFF resulted in a significant reduction in median BOT for both 6 MV FFF (57·9%; p < 0·001) and 10 MV FFF (76·3%; p < 0·001) which led to reductions in treatment times of 16·8 and 21·5% respectively. However, 6 MV FFF showed superior normal brain dose sparing (p < 0·001) and dose gradient (p < 0·001) compared to 10 MV FFF. No differences were observed for conformity.
6 MV FFF offers a significant reduction in average treatment time compared to 6 MV (3·7 minutes; p = 0·002) while maintaining plan quality.
This study compared the level of education and tests from multiple cognitive domains as proxies for cognitive reserve.
The participants were educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. We examined independent and interactive effects of education, baseline cognitive scores, and MRI measures of cortical gray matter change on longitudinal cognitive change.
Baseline episodic memory was related to cognitive decline independent of brain and demographic variables and moderated (weakened) the impact of gray matter change. Education moderated (strengthened) the gray matter change effect. Non-memory cognitive measures did not incrementally explain cognitive decline or moderate gray matter change effects.
Episodic memory showed strong construct validity as a measure of cognitive reserve. Education effects on cognitive decline were dependent upon the rate of atrophy, indicating education effectively measures cognitive reserve only when atrophy rate is low. Results indicate that episodic memory has clinical utility as a predictor of future cognitive decline and better represents the neural basis of cognitive reserve than other cognitive abilities or static proxies like education.
To describe epidemiologic and genomic characteristics of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large skilled nursing facility (SNF), and the strategies that controlled transmission.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
Cohort study during March 22–May 4, 2020 of all staff and residents at a 780-bed SNF in San Francisco, California.
Contact tracing and symptom screening guided targeted testing of staff and residents; respiratory specimens were also collected through serial point prevalence surveys (PPS) in units with confirmed cases. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2; whole genome sequencing (WGS) characterized viral isolate lineages and relatedness. Infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions included restricting from work any staff who had close contact to a confirmed case; restricting movements between units; implementing surgical face masking facility-wide; and recommended PPE (isolation gown, gloves, N95 respirator and eye protection) for clinical interactions in units with confirmed cases.
Of 725 staff and residents tested through targeted testing and serial PPS, twenty-one (3%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive; sixteen (76%) staff and 5 (24%) residents. Fifteen (71%) were linked to a single unit. Targeted testing identified 17 (81%) cases; PPS identified 4 (19%). Most (71%) cases were identified prior to IPC intervention. WGS was performed on SARS-CoV-2 isolates from four staff and four residents; five were of Santa Clara County lineage and the three others were distinct lineages.
Early implementation of targeted testing, serial PPS, and multimodal IPC interventions limited SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the SNF.
Antibiotics are among the most common medications prescribed in nursing homes. The annual prevalence of antibiotic use in residents of nursing homes ranges from 47% to 79%, and more than half of antibiotic courses initiated in nursing-home settings are unnecessary or prescribed inappropriately (wrong drug, dose, or duration). Inappropriate antibiotic use is associated with a variety of negative consequences including Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), adverse drug effects, drug–drug interactions, and antimicrobial resistance. In response to this problem, public health authorities have called for efforts to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing in nursing homes.
We use comparable 2005 and 2018 population data to assess threats driving the decline of lion Panthera leo populations, and review information on threats structured by problem tree and root cause analysis. We define 11 threats and rank their severity and prevalence. Two threats emerged as affecting both the number of lion populations and numbers within them: livestock depredation leading to retaliatory killing of lions, and bushmeat poaching leading to prey depletion. Our data do not allow determination of whether any specific threat drives declines faster than others. Of 20 local extirpations, most were associated with armed conflicts as a driver of proximate threats. We discuss the prevalence and severity of proximate threats and their drivers, to identify priorities for more effective conservation of lions, other carnivores and their prey.
More than 50% of women with clinically apparent infection after mastectomy did not meet the 2020 National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for surgical site infection (SSI). Implant loss was similar whether the 2020 NHSN SSI definition was met or not, suggesting equivalent adverse outcomes regardless of restriction to the surveillance definition.
Nutrition during the periconceptional period influences postnatal cardiovascular health. We determined whether in vitro embryo culture and transfer, which are manipulations of the nutritional environment during the periconceptional period, dysregulate postnatal blood pressure and blood pressure regulatory mechanisms. Embryos were either transferred to an intermediate recipient ewe (ET) or cultured in vitro in the absence (IVC) or presence of human serum (IVCHS) and a methyl donor (IVCHS+M) for 6 days. Basal blood pressure was recorded at 19–20 weeks after birth. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after varying doses of phenylephrine (PE). mRNA expression of signaling molecules involved in blood pressure regulation was measured in the renal artery. Basal MAP did not differ between groups. Baroreflex sensitivity, set point, and upper plateau were also maintained in all groups after PE stimulation. Adrenergic receptors alpha-1A (αAR1A), alpha-1B (αAR1B), and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) mRNA expression were not different from controls in the renal artery. These results suggest there is no programmed effect of ET or IVC on basal blood pressure or the baroreflex control mechanisms in adolescence, but future studies are required to determine the impact of ET and IVC on these mechanisms later in the life course when developmental programming effects may be unmasked by age.
In 2012, the American Heart Association and the American Academy of Paediatrics released a scientific statement with guidelines for the evaluation and management of the neurodevelopmental needs of children with CHD. Decades of outcome research now highlight a range of cognitive, learning, motor, and psychosocial vulnerabilities affecting individuals with CHD across the lifespan. The number of institutions with Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Follow-Up Programmes and services for CHD is growing worldwide. This manuscript provides an expanded set of neurodevelopmental evaluation strategies and considerations for professionals working with school-age children with CHD. Recommendations begin with the referral process and access to the evaluation, the importance of considering medical risk factors (e.g., genetic disorders, neuroimaging), and the initial clinical interview with the family. The neurodevelopmental evaluation should take into account both family and patient factors, including the child/family’s primary language, country of origin, and other cultural factors, as well as critical stages in development that place the child at higher risk. Domains of assessment are reviewed with emphasis on target areas in need of evaluation based on current outcome research with CHD. Finally, current recommendations are made for assessment batteries using a brief core battery and an extended comprehensive clinical battery. Consistent use of a recommended assessment battery will increase opportunities for research collaborations, and ultimately help improve the quality of care for families and children with CHD.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) can be used to periodically assess hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function, and appears correlated with prolonged exposure to stress.
Serial assessment (at Baseline, Week 6 and Week 12) of participants (n = 35) with anxiety disorders by psychopathological rating scales, with assays of HCC and levels of peripheral anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Patients underwent antidepressant treatment for an initial 6 weeks, followed by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor-2 (COX-2) inhibitor (celecoxib) augmentation or ‘treatment as usual’ for a further 6 weeks.
At Baseline (n = 35), HCC was elevated in patients with single-episode but not recurrent-episode anxiety disorders, mean IL-12p70 levels were low, and mean TNF-α levels were elevated. Following 6 weeks of antidepressant treatment (n = 33), mean HCC was within the normal range but mean IL-2 level was low. Celecoxib augmentation (n = 18) was associated with a reduction in anxiety symptoms and normalisation of mean IL-2 levels.
Small sample size. Not all participants were assessed at all time points.
Serial assessment of HCC is practicable in patients with anxiety disorders. These preliminary findings warrant further investigation in larger samples.