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School-based studies, despite the large number of studies conducted, have reported inconclusive results on obesity prevention. The sample size is a major constraint in such studies by requiring large samples. This pooled analysis overcomes this problem by analysing 5926 students (mean age 11·5 years) from five randomised school-based interventions. These studies focused on encouraging students to change their drinking and eating habits, and physical activities over the one school year, with monthly 1-h sessions in the classroom; culinary class aimed at developing cooking skills to increase healthy eating and attempts to family engagement. Pooled intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models accounted for school clusters. Control and intervention groups were balanced at baseline. The overall result was a non-significant change in BMI after one school year of positive changes in behaviours associated with obesity. Estimated mean BMI changed from 19·02 to 19·22 kg/m2 in the control group and from 19·08 to 19·32 kg/m2 in the intervention group (P value of change over time = 0·09). Subgroup analyses among those overweight or with obesity at baseline also did not show differences between intervention and control groups. The percentage of fat measured by bioimpedance indicated a small reduction in the control compared with intervention (P = 0·05). This large pooled analysis showed no effect on obesity measures, although promising results were observed about modifying behaviours associated with obesity.
To evaluate the occurrence, clinical course and outcomes of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with laboratory confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 infection.
This is a prospective cross-sectional study of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction over two months. The epidemiological and clinical outcomes studied were: age, sex, general symptoms, and olfactory and taste dysfunction.
A total of 410 coronavirus disease 2019 infected patients were included in the study, with 262 males (63.9 per cent) and 148 females (36.1 per cent). Ninety-nine patients (24.1 per cent) reported chemosensory dysfunction, of which 85 patients (20.7 per cent) reported both olfactory and taste dysfunction. Olfactory and taste dysfunction were proportionally more common in females. The mean duration of olfactory and taste dysfunction was 4.9 days, with a range of 2–15 days.
Olfactory and taste dysfunction are prevalent symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. In this study, they were more common in females than males. The occurrence of such dysfunctions is lower in the Indian population than in the European population.