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In this work, we have theoretically investigated a model for the poly(2-methoxy-5(2'- ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) photodegradation based on structural models for MEH-PPV oligomers in vacuum and in solvent (chloroform). We investigated how the incorporation of oxygen and breaking of vinyl double bonds affect the absorption spectra. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data if we assume that the incorporation of carbonyl group is the main mechanism associated with the photodegradation processes.
Non-tuberculous mycobacterium encephalitis is rare. Since 2013, a global outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infection has been attributed to point-source contamination of heater cooler units used in cardiac surgery. Disseminated M. chimaera infection has presented many unique challenges, including non-specific clinical presentations with delays in diagnosis, and a high mortality rate among predominantly immunocompetent adults. Here, we describe three patients with fatal disseminated Mycobacterium chimaera infection showing initially non-specific, progressively worsening neurocognitive decline, including confusion, delirium, depression and apathy. Autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebrum, brain stem and spinal cord, along with granulomatous chorioretinitis. Cerebral involvement and differentiation between mycobacterial granulomas and microangiopathic changes can be assessed best on MRI with contrast enhancement. The prognosis of M. chimaera encephalitis appears to be very poor, but might be improved by increased awareness of this new syndrome and timely antimicrobial treatment.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Describe the clinical, radiological and neuropathological findings of Mycobacterium chimaera encephalitis
2.Be aware of this rare form of encephalitis, and explain its diagnosis, prognosis and management
The aim of the study was to explore the care-seeking pathway of rural women living with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and attending a tertiary health-care facility in Odisha, India.
RA is the third leading chronic health condition and causes severe pain and immense psychosocial stress. The prevalence of RA is three to four times higher in women than in men. Furthermore, in India, women delay care seeking due to the prevailing sociocultural norms. Women report more severe symptoms and greater disability; however, there is a lack of information on their care-seeking pathways.
We conducted 113 in-depth interviews among RA patients those who visited specialists at the outpatients’ Department of Rheumatology, SCB Medical College Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Cuttack, Odisha, India. The grounded theory approaches were used for data analysis.
The key findings included physical pain and psychosocial stress in relation to RA, cultural issues in relation to RA, mapping of the health-care providers for RA, the first point of cares and changes in care-seeking pathways, the perceived challenge for seeking health-care, and coping strategies of patients and social supports. This study explored that the RA patients seek care from multiple providers – untrained, trained and specialist without any gatekeeping. However, the primary health centers were the first point of care for maximum patients due to accessibility and affordability. Furthermore, follow-up care is significant to prevent complication among RA patients; the primary health centers are the gateway for keeping RA patients. Hence, the availability of RA trained providers at primary health center including interprofessional care, such as physiotherapy providers, and proper referral system is essential to convalesce care-seeking pathways.
The drive to replace scarce and expensive Pt-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has led to the development of a group of electrocatalysts composed of transition-metal ion centers coordinated with four nitrogen groups (M-N4). Among these, metal phthalocyanines (MPcs), due to low cost of preparation, highly conjugated structure as well as high thermal and chemical stability, have received a great interest. The catalytic activity of MPcs can be improved by employing conducting supports. Here, in this report, we have solvothermally synthesized graphene-supported zinc phthalocyanine nanostructures, and their ORR kinetics and mechanism have been investigated in neutral solution (pH = 7) by using the rotating disk electrode technique. The as-synthesized nanocomposite followed a 4e− reduction pathway. The onset potential (−0.04 V versus Ag/AgCl) found in this work can be comparable with other state-of-the-art material, demonstrating good performance in neutral solution. The fascinating performance leads the nanocomposite material toward future energy applications.
Pharmacological treatments targeting the neuroendocrine stress response may hold special promise in secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, findings from clinical trials have been inconsistent and the efficacy of specific drugs, their temporal window of efficacy, effective doses and the characteristics of likely treatment responders remain unclear.
Using an experimental human model of distressing involuntary memory formation, we compare the effects of two drugs that have theoretical or empirical support as secondary preventive agents in PTSD. Eighty-eight healthy women (average age: 23.5 years) received oral propranolol (80 mg), hydrocortisone (30 mg), or matched placebo immediately after viewing a ‘trauma film’. They then completed daily, time-stamped intrusion diaries for 1 week, at the end of which, voluntary memory was tested.
While neither drug affected voluntary memory for the trauma narrative, propranolol treatment was associated with 42% fewer, and hydrocortisone with 55% fewer intrusions across the week, relative to placebo. Additionally, propranolol reduced general trauma-like symptoms, and post-drug cortisol levels were negatively correlated with intrusion frequency in the hydrocortisone group.
Overall, this study shows substantial reductions in intrusive memories and preserved voluntary narrative-declarative memory following either propranolol or hydrocortisone in an experimental model of psychological trauma. As such, despite some inconsistencies in clinical trials, our findings support continued investigation of propranolol and hydrocortisone as secondary preventive agents for re-experiencing symptoms of PTSD. The findings also suggest that it is critical for future research to identify the conditions governing the preventive efficacy of these drugs in PTSD.
In this article we present the experimental data on L3-absorption spectra of metallic tin. and tin in SnO2 . We have used (i) a bent crystal spectrometer and (ii) a high resolution flat crystal spectrometer with a microfocus target as the source for the continuum radiation. We have observed a “white line” on the low energy side of the primary L3-absorption edge of Sn in SnO2. Similar “white lines” in absorption spectra were reported earlier by M. Siegbahn in rare earth elements with f-vancies, who designated such lines appearing immedlately on the low energy side of the primary absorption edge as “white lines” in absorption spectra. It is interesting to note that metallic tin does not reveal the “white line”, while Sn in SnO2 clearly revealed a sharp white line on the low energy side of the primary absorption edge.
An instrument is described which is intended to perform a dual purpose (elemental-structural) analysis consistent with the environmental conditions implied by lunar or planetary operation. The dififractometer section is based on a modified Seeman-Bohlin focusing principle in which a sharp-line focus target, a powdered sample, and a movable detector slit all lie on the focusing circle. The convolution of the projections on the focal circle, of a narrow receiving slit on the detector, the line focus target, combined with a high dispersion produce higher resolution and intensity than is common with Bragg focusing diflfractorneters with simitar instrumental parameters. The range of d-spacings covered is from 1 to 7 Å (chromium target). The chemical analysis section of the instrument utilizes the fluorescent X-rays produced in the specimen by the primary beam. A proportional counter and pulse-height anaiyzer accomplish detection and energy discrimination. Resolution is low, but the analysis can distinguish between elements in the range of atomic numbers 11 to 29. Data from a breadboard model is presented. The entire unit, although primarily intended to meet the requirements of space, performs equally well as a routine laboratory analyzer. The horizontal, stationary nature of the specimen holder suggests several specific applications.
Following the discovery of powder diffraction by Debye and Scherrer, a major improvement of the intensity of diffraction patterns was attained by introducing focusing cameras. The focusing principle is exploited in the Seemann-Bohlin camera and with improved general background in the Guinier focusing camera. Guinier used a bent crystal to focus Ka lines from the target radiation. Das Gupta, Schnopper and Metzger reported a modification of the Seemann-Bohlin camera by replacing the slit with a target positioned on the focusing circle. This was further improved by using a microfocus target, 30 x 100 micron, positioned accurately on the focusing circle, Fig. 1 (a). The arrangement was very successful for determining thermal expansion coefficients of elements and a few superconducting alloys at different temperature regions.
Earlier, I reported in this conference the results obtained with (i) a three crystal spectrometer (ii) two curved crystal spectrometer of Cauchois type and (iii) spherically bent crystal spectrometer. These instruments were developed to obtain higher resolution that helped us to observe fine structures of Kα1, Kα2 lines of transition elements. Our work has been followed in other laboratories.
Here I present the essential points of a very simple spectrometer hitherto unreported. The most attractive feature of the spectrometer is its simplicity of adjustment in a minimum time.
Three novel methods of x-ray spectrometry have been developed in recent years at Texas Tech University. These are:
1. Three crystal spectrometer
2. Two curved crystal spectrometer
3. Spherically bent crystal spectrometer.
In this paper the new design features, and experimental results will be discussed to indicate the usefulness of the new instruments. The three crystal spectrometer is a modified two crystal instrument. A third crystal is used to analyze the output of the two crystal spectrometer. The first two crystals are operated as a standard two crystal spectrometer. The third crystal is swept through the spectrum transmitted by the first two crystals for each setting of the first two crystals. The peak intensity of the third crystal sweep corresponds to the energy setting of the two crystal spectrometer, and is the intensity used to plot the spectral lines. The two curved crystal spectrometer utilizes two transmission spectrographs with radii having a 2:1 ratio in series, the crystal with the smaller radius being set so that its focal point falls on the Rowland circle of the larger radius crystal, This instrument has a very low background intensity and is suitable for precision scattering and diffraetion work. The spherically bent crystal spectrometer makes use of high light gathering power and high orders of reflection to allow high resolution studies of weak spectral lines. It also has the advantage of ease of alignment and operation.
I report the experimental setup to obtain an x-ray beam from germanium monocrystal of unusually small angle of vertical divergence of the order of 2 sec. of arc without using any collimator. The production and the properties of the highly collimated beam of x-ray will be described. A rectangular piece of germanium 1” × 1” and of thickness 0.5 mm has been cut with specific orientation of crystallographic planes (111) and (110). The 1” × 1” surface is parallel to (111) planes and the surface of one edge is parallel to (110) planes suitable for Borrmann channelling via (220) planes.
The present study investigates the puffing behaviour of planar buoyant plumes by employing linear BiGlobal stability analysis and experiments. The BiGlobal instability characteristics of two-dimensional plumes have been explored using stability analysis and compared with the puffing behaviour of both rectangular plumes and square plumes obtained from experiments. In the parameter space investigated, which spans a Richardson number range
, instability analysis reveals that planar plumes exhibit BiGlobal instability only for varicose perturbations, while they remain stable for sinuous perturbations. The BiGlobal frequency and growth rates of the unstable varicose mode are used to obtain Strouhal number correlation and stability curves. An investigation into the effect of the spanwise wavenumber on BiGlobal instability indicates that planar plumes are more unstable to two-dimensional perturbations than to three-dimensional perturbations. An increase in the spanwise wavenumber tends to stabilize planar plumes without affecting their oscillation frequencies. Experiments suggest that the puffing frequencies in rectangular plumes closely follow the power law obtained from two-dimensional instability analysis while exhibiting a weaker dependence on inlet aspect ratio. To further explore the effect of aspect ratio on puffing behaviour, experiments have been carried out in plumes of aspect ratio 1, i.e. square plumes. Square plumes are found to be more stable and to exhibit higher puffing frequencies than rectangular plumes. The reasons for these differences in puffing dynamics between rectangular and square plumes have been explored from the phase-locked streamwise and spanwise flow visualizations. In addition to puffing, spanwise visualizations in both rectangular and square plumes show the presence of secondary flows at their corners, similar to their constant-density jet counterparts. Finally, from experiments, we deduced a new universal puffing frequency correlation with the hydraulic diameter as the length scale which eliminates the aspect ratio dependence, and is valid for both square and low-aspect-ratio rectangular plumes.
Extracorporeal circulatory membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technology that allows recovery of adults in cardiorespiratory failure with encouraging results, but is not available in the Brazilian universal public health system (SUS) due to high implementation costs. Time-driven activity based costing (TDABC) is applied to measure processes in an economic perspective by identifying opportunities to make processes more efficient through the reduction of resources used in each activity. The literature has explored the use of TDABC to measure costs related with clinical procedures and technologies in microcosting studies, identifying opportunities to improve the process by making it more efficient. This research measures the real costs to implement ECMO in Brazil to compare with the current public reimbursement system.
This study applied TDABC using data from 6 patients to measure costs of ECMO intervention considering the public perspective in Brazil. In sequence, standard price payed by SUS was used to estimate the current reimbursement amount received by the hospital for ECMO procedure. Cost variable analysis was conducted to understand when and how patients receiving ECMO are using hospital resources. Cost data were collected from an academic public hospital using an average of 18 months (2016–2017) for the department costs.
The real average cost was USD 128,923. Most significant resource costs was medical staff, particularly for the three survivor patients, and the ECMO equipment presented the second highest cost. ECMO activities were separated into: before implantation of ECMO, period using ECMO, intensive care post-ECMO and rehabilitation, being the period where ECMO is the most expensive, particularly in nurse and physician costs. The SUS average was USD 31,437, which shows a difference of USD 97,485 between the real ECMO cost and the public reimbursement in Brazil.
A critical element of the propagation of ECMO in Brazil and its reimbursement by public health system is the high cost and out-of-date standard payments by the Ministry of Health. Effort to implement a trustworthy method to guide decisions of SUS for the adoption and financing new technologies is essential to contribute to the optimization of public health policies in a country with a universal health system and limited resources dedicated to health sectors.
We evaluated the effects of cattle manure and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in maize plants growing in a semiarid area of Brazilian north-east in 2012 and 2013. Three isolates of AMF (Acaulospora longula URM-FMA 07 and URM-FMA 03, Claroideoglomus etunicatum UNIVASF 06A) were used, with or without the application of cattle manure, during two growing cycles. In the first year, significant effects of inoculation were detected for straw yield only when the manure was applied. In the second year, there was an interaction between fertilisation and inoculation for plant height and grain yield, with the highest values in the fertilised treatments. Inoculation with A. longula demonstrated that mycorrhizal inoculation in field-grown plants could be an alternative management for improving plant growth and grain yield, reducing the use of cattle manure. The AMF sporulation and mycorrhizal colonisation were improved after inoculation, and A. longula URM-FMA 07 increased sporulation by more than 15 times while inoculation with C. etunicatum increased sporulation by more than 3 times. The mycorrhizal inoculation is a management practice that can be useful for recovering or maintaining AMF infective propagules in soil, showing potential to be used in large-scale field conditions in Brazilian semiarid. Although mycorrhisation presents high agricultural relevance due to benefits promoted to the soil and plants, the knowledge about the factors influencing the interactions among microorganisms, soil and plants need to be broadened aiming to achieve successful crop management in semiarid regions.
The central theme of this work is that a stable levitation of a denser non-magnetizable liquid droplet, against gravity, inside a relatively lighter ferrofluid – a system barely considered in ferrohydrodynamics – is possible, and exhibits unique interfacial features; the stability of the levitation trajectory, however, is subject to an appropriate magnetic field modulation. We explore the shapes and the temporal dynamics of a plane non-magnetizable droplet levitating inside a ferrofluid against gravity due to a spatially complex, but systematically generated, magnetic field in two dimensions. The coupled set of Maxwell’s magnetostatic equations and the flow dynamic equations is integrated computationally, utilizing a conservative finite-volume-based second-order pressure projection algorithm combined with the front-tracking algorithm for the advection of the interface of the droplet. The dynamics of the droplet is studied under both the constant ferrofluid magnetic permeability assumption as well as for more realistic field-dependent permeability described by Langevin’s nonlinear magnetization model. Due to the non-homogeneous nature of the magnetic field, unique shapes of the droplet during its levitation, and at its steady state, are realized. The complete spatio-temporal response of the droplet is a function of the Laplace number
, the magnetic Laplace number
and the Galilei number
; through detailed simulations we separate out the individual roles played by these non-dimensional parameters. The effect of the viscosity ratio, the stability of the levitation path and the possibility of existence of multiple stable equilibrium states is investigated. We find, for certain conditions on the viscosity ratio, that there can be developments of cusps and singularities at the droplet surface; we also observe this phenomenon experimentally and compare with the simulations. Our simulations closely replicate the singular projection on the surface of the levitating droplet. Finally, we present a dynamical model for the vertical trajectory of the droplet. This model reveals a condition for the onset of levitation and the relation for the equilibrium levitation height. The linearization of the model around the steady state captures that the nature of the equilibrium point goes under a transition from being a spiral to a node depending upon the control parameters, which essentially means that the temporal route to the equilibrium can be either monotonic or undulating. The analytical model for the droplet trajectory is in close agreement with the detailed simulations.
Changes in cannabis regulation globally make it increasingly important to determine what predicts an individual's risk of experiencing adverse drug effects. Relevant studies have used diverse self-report measures of cannabis use, and few include multiple biological measures. Here we aimed to determine which biological and self-report measures of cannabis use predict cannabis dependency and acute psychotic-like symptoms.
In a naturalistic study, 410 young cannabis users were assessed once when intoxicated with their own cannabis and once when drug-free in counterbalanced order. Biological measures of cannabinoids [(Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN) and their metabolites)] were derived from three samples: each participant's own cannabis (THC, CBD), a sample of their hair (THC, THC-OH, THC-COOH, CBN, CBD) and their urine (THC-COOH/creatinine). Comprehensive self-report measures were also obtained. Self-reported and clinician-rated assessments were taken for cannabis dependency [Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), DSM-IV-TR] and acute psychotic-like symptoms [Psychotomimetic State Inventory (PSI) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)].
Cannabis dependency was positively associated with days per month of cannabis use on both measures, and with urinary THC-COOH/creatinine for the SDS. Acute psychotic-like symptoms were positively associated with age of first cannabis use and negatively with urinary THC-COOH/creatinine; no predictors emerged for BPRS.
Levels of THC exposure are positively associated with both cannabis dependency and tolerance to the acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Combining urinary and self-report assessments (use frequency; age first used) enhances the measurement of cannabis use and its association with adverse outcomes.
The effect of uniform wind flow on modulational instability of two crossing waves is studied here. This is an extension of an earlier work to the case of a finite-depth water body. Evolution equations are obtained as a set of three coupled nonlinear equations correct up to third order in wave steepness. Figures presented in this paper display the variation in the growth rate of instability of a pair of obliquely interacting uniform wave trains with respect to the changes in the air-flow velocity, depth of water medium and the angle between the directions of propagation of the two wave packets. We observe that the growth rate of instability increases with the increase in the wind velocity and the depth of water medium. It also increases with the decrease in the angle of interaction of the two wave systems.
Each year our Clinical and Translational Science Award pilot projects program awards approximately $500,000 in translational pilot funding to advance health in South Texas. We identified needs to improve the timeliness, transparency, and efficiency of the review process by surveying applicants. Lean six sigma methodologies, following a “Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control” approach, were used to streamline the pilot project application and review by identifying and removing bottlenecks from process flows. We evaluated the impact of our reorganized review process by surveying applicants and reviewers. Process mapping identified pilot project review as the main source of delay, leading to the implementation of a study section-style review mechanism. After one cycle, 90.3% of pilot applicants and 100% of reviewers were highly satisfied with the new processes and time to award notice was reduced by 2 months. All reviewers familiar with both review processes preferred the study section. We demonstrated how lean six sigma, a methodology not commonly applied in research administration, can be used to evaluate processes in translational science in academic health centers. Through our efforts, we were able to improve timeliness, transparency, and efficiency of the review process.
Toca 511 (vocimagene amiretrorepvec) is an investigational, conditionally lytic, retroviral replicating vector (RRV). RRVs selectively infect cancer cells due to innate and adaptive immune response defects in cancers that allow virus replication, and the requirement for cell division for virus integration into the genome. Toca 511 spreads through tumors, stably delivering an optimized yeast cytosine deaminase gene that converts the prodrug Toca FC (investigational, extended-release 5-FC) into 5-FU within the tumor microenvironment. 5-FU kills infected dividing cancer cells and surrounding tumor, myeloid derived suppressor cells, and tumor associated macrophages, resulting in long-term tumor immunity in preclinical models. Data from a Phase 1 resection trial showed six durable CRs and extended mOS compared to historical controls. The FDA granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Toca 511 & Toca FC in the treatment of patients with rHGG. Toca 5 is an international, randomized, open-label Phase 3 trial (NCT02414165) of Toca 511 & Toca FC versus SOC in patients undergoing resection for first or second recurrence of rHGG. Patients will be stratified by IDH1 status, KPS, and geographic region. Primary endpoint is OS, and secondary endpoints are durable response rate, durable clinical benefit rate, duration of durable response, and 12-month survival rate. Key inclusion criteria are histologically proven GBM or AA, tumor size ≥1cm and ≤5cm, and KPS ≥70. Immune monitoring and molecular profiling will be performed. Approximately 380 patients will be randomized. An IDMC is commissioned to review the safety and efficacy data which includes 2 interim analyses. Enrollment is ongoing.