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Background: There are few published reports on the safety and efficacy of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) in the presurgical evaluation of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy. Our objective was to describe institutional experience with pediatric SEEG in terms of (1) insertional complications, (2) identification of the epileptogenic zone and (3) seizure outcome following SEEG-tailored resections. Methods: Retrospective review of 29 patients pediatric drug resistant epilepsy patients who underwent presurgical SEEG between 2005 – 2018. Results: 29 pediatric SEEG patients (15 male; 12.4 ± 4.6 years old) were included in this study with mean follow-up of 6.0 ± 4.1 years. SEEG-related complications occurred in 1/29 (3%)—neurogenic pulmonary edema. A total of 190 multi-contact electrodes (mean of 7.0 ± 2.5per patient) were implanted across 30 insertions which captured 437 electrographic seizures (mean 17.5 ± 27.6 per patient). The most common rationale for SEEG was normal MRI with surface EEG that failed to identify the EZ (16/29; 55%). SEEG-tailored resections were performed in 24/29 (83%). Engel I outcome was achieved following resections in 19/24 cases (79%) with 5.9 ± 4.0 years of post-operative follow-up. Conclusions: Stereoelectroencephalography in presurgical evaluation of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy is a safe and effective way to identify the epileptogenic zone permitting SEEG-tailored resection.
Vitamin B12 is synthesised in the rumen from cobalt (Co) and has a major role in metabolism in the peri-paturient period, although few studies have evaluated the effect of the dietary inclusion of Co, vitamin B12 or injecting vitamin B12 on the metabolism, health and performance of high yielding dairy cows. A total of 56 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received one of four treatments from 8 weeks before calving to 8 weeks post-calving: C, no added Co; DC, additional 0.2 mg Co/kg dry matter (DM); DB, additional 0.68 mg vitamin B12/kg DM; IB, intra-muscular injection of vitamin B12 to supply 0.71 mg/cow per day prepartum and 1.42 mg/cow per day post-partum. The basal and lactation rations both contained 0.21 mg Co/kg DM. Cows were weighed and condition scored at drying off, 4 weeks before calving, within 24 h of calving and at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-calving, with blood samples collected at drying off, 2 weeks pre-calving, calving and 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-calving. Liver biopsy samples were collected from all animals at drying off and 4 weeks post-calving. Live weight changed with time, but there was no effect of treatment (P>0.05), whereas cows receiving IB had the lowest mean body condition score and DB the highest (P<0.05). There was no effect of treatment on post-partum DM intake, milk yield or milk fat concentration (P>0.05) with mean values of 21.6 kg/day, 39.6 kg/day and 40.4 g/kg, respectively. Cows receiving IB had a higher plasma vitamin B12 concentration than those receiving any of the other treatments (P<0.001), but there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on homocysteine or succinate concentrations, although mean plasma methylmalonic acid concentrations were lower (P=0.019) for cows receiving IB than for Control cows. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased sharply at calving followed by a decline, but there was no effect of treatment. Similarly, there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on plasma non-esterified fatty acids or glucose. Whole tract digestibility of DM and fibre measured at week 7 of lactation were similar between treatments, and there was little effect of treatment on the milk fatty acid profile except for C15:0, which was lower in cows receiving DC than IB (P<0.05). It is concluded that a basal dietary concentration of 0.21 mg Co/kg DM is sufficient to meet the requirements of high yielding dairy cows during the transition period, and there is little benefit from additional Co or vitamin B12.
Background: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) is a surgical option in well-selected cases of pediatric medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The objective of this study was to compare the surgical outcome and the rate of reoperation for ongoing or recurrent seizures between SAH and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in pediatric TLE. Methods: Retrospective review of 78 pediatric intractable TLE patients referred to the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at our institution between 1988 and 2015 treated initially with either a trans-middle temporal gyrus SAH (19) or ATL (59). Patients underwent baseline long-term video electroencephalography and 1.5-Tesla MRI. Neuropsychological testing was performed preoperatively and 12-months postoperatively (including reoperations). Results: The mean follow-up was 64 months (range, 12-186 months). The average age at initial surgery was 10.6±5 years with an average delay of 5.7±4 years between seizure onset and surgery. Ultimately 78% were seizure-free (61/78) at most recent follow-up. Seizure freedom after initial surgical treatment was achieved in 81% of patients who underwent ATL (48 patients) versus 42% in SAH (8 patients; p<0.001). Of patients with ongoing disabling seizures following SAH, reoperation (ATL) was offered in 8 resulting in seizure freedom in 63%, without interval neuropsychological decline. Conclusions: SAH amongst well-selected pediatric TLE results in significantly worse seizure control compared with ATL.
Considered as a less hazardous piezoelectric material, potassium sodium niobate (KNN) has been in the fore of the search for replacement of lead (Pb) zirconate titanate for piezoelectrics applications. Here, we challenge the environmental credentials of KNN due to the presence of ~60 wt% Nb2O5, a substance much less toxic to humans than Pb oxide, but whose mining and extraction cause significant environmental damage.
Several extragalactic HI surveys using a λ21 cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in early 1997 using the Parkes 64 m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver, including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area λ21 cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0–14000 km s−1.
In light of increasing global protein prices and with the need to reduce environmental impact of contemporary systems of milk production, the current review seeks to assess the feasibility of reducing levels of dietary CP in dairy cow diets. At CP levels between 140 and 220 g/kg DM there is a strong positive relationship between CP concentration and dry matter intake (DMI). However, such effects are modest and reductions in DMI when dietary CP is below 180 g/kg DM can be at least partially offset by improving the digestibility and amino acid profile of the undegradable protein (UDP) component of the diet or by increasing rumen fermentable energy. Level and balance of intestinally absorbable amino acids, in particular methionine and lysine, may become limiting at lower CP concentrations. In general the amino acid composition of microbial protein is superior to that of UDP, so that dietary strategies that aim to promote microbial protein synthesis in the rumen may go some way to correcting for amino acid imbalances in low CP diets. For example, reducing the level of NDF, while increasing the proportion of starch, can lead to improvements in nitrogen (N) utilisation as great as that achieved by reducing dietary CP to below 150 g/kg. A systematic review and meta-analysis of responses to rumen protected forms of methionine and lysine was conducted for early/mid lactation cows fed diets containing ⩽150 g CP/kg DM. This analysis revealed a small but significant (P=0.002) increase in milk protein yield when cows were supplemented with these rumen protected amino acids. Variation in milk and milk protein yield responses between studies was not random but due to differences in diet composition between studies. Cows fed low CP diets can respond to supplemental methionine and lysine so long as DMI is not limiting, metabolisable protein (MP) is not grossly deficient and other amino acids such as histidine and leucine do not become rate limiting. Whereas excess dietary protein can impair reproduction and can contribute to lameness, there is no evidence to indicate that reducing dietary CP levels to around 140 to 150 g CP/kg DM will have any detrimental effect on either cow fertility or health. Contemporary models that estimate MP requirements of dairy cows may require refinement and further validation in order to predict responses with low CP diets.
Anthropogenic pollutants comprise a wide range of synthetic organic compounds and heavy metals, which are dispersed throughout the environment, usually at low concentrations. Exposure of ruminants, as for all other animals, is unavoidable and while the levels of exposure to most chemicals are usually too low to induce any physiological effects, combinations of pollutants can act additively or synergistically to perturb multiple physiological systems at all ages but particularly in the developing foetus. In sheep, organs affected by pollutant exposure include the ovary, testis, hypothalamus and pituitary gland and bone. Reported effects of exposure include changes in organ weight and gross structure, histology and gene and protein expression but these changes are not reflected in changes in reproductive performance under the conditions tested. These results illustrate the complexity of the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on the reproductive axis, which make it difficult to extrapolate between, or even within, species. Effects of pollutant exposure on the thyroid gland, immune, cardiovascular and obesogenic systems have not been shown explicitly, in ruminants, but work on other species suggests that these systems can also be perturbed. It is concluded that exposure to a mixture of anthropogenic pollutants has significant effects on a wide variety of physiological systems, including the reproductive system. Although this physiological insult has not yet been shown to lead to a reduction in ruminant gross performance, there are already reports indicating that anthropogenic pollutant exposure can compromise several physiological systems and may pose a significant threat to both reproductive performance and welfare in the longer term. At present, many potential mechanisms of action for individual chemicals have been identified but knowledge of factors affecting the rate of tissue exposure and of the effects of combinations of chemicals on physiological systems is poor. Nevertheless, both are vital for the identification of risks to animal productivity and welfare.
Surveillance for gastroenteritis rarely detects small, intra-familial outbreaks. This study examined intra-household transmission of gastroenteritis using prospectively collected data from 2811 participants (600 households) in a community-based study. There were 258 household clusters of gastroenteritis during the 15 months of observation involving 774 residents (28% of total). Age <6 years and attendance at a day care/kindergarten were associated with increased likelihood of inclusion in a cluster. The reach of illness into the household was extensive, with 63% of household members affected by symptoms during clusters. Simultaneous and secondary transmission of gastroenteritis appeared equally common. In only 20% of clusters did more than one member submit a faecal specimen. Of clusters where two or more specimens were submitted, concordance in laboratory confirmation of pathogens was 18·8%. Our results show that clustering of gastrointestinal symptoms within households occurs commonly, but reliance on pathogen notification data will substantially underestimate the true frequency of gastroenteritis clusters.
The post-fertilisation developmental capacity of bovine oocytes recovered by ultrasound guided transvaginal follicular aspiration (ovum pick-up, OPU) is influenced by diet-induced changes in hormone and metabolite concentrations. The objectives of this experiment were first to determine whether post-prandial changes in hormone concentrations, induced by changing the frequency of feeding, influenced oocyte quality and second whether changes in plasma glucagon concentration were associated with oocyte quality. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, Holstein heifers (six per treatment) were fed either fibre- or starch-based diets containing either 189 or 478 g starch/kg dry matter. The diets were offered in either two or four equal meals per day and supplied twice the maintenance energy requirement. Blood samples were obtained both at weekly intervals (three samples per heifer, collected before feeding) during the experiment and throughout an entire 24-h period (15 or 17 samples per heifer for twice or four times daily-fed heifers, respectively). Each heifer underwent six sessions of OPU (twice weekly) beginning 25 days after introduction of the diets. Oocyte quality was assessed by development to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal fluid following in vitro fertilisation. Mean weekly plasma insulin concentrations did not differ between diets, but plasma glucagon concentrations were greatest when heifers were fed the starch-based diet twice daily compared with the other diets. When heifers were offered four meals per day, there were no meal-related changes in hormone concentrations. However, when heifers were offered two meals per day, plasma insulin concentration increased after feeding the starch-based, but not the fibre-based diet. Plasma glucagon concentration increased after meals when heifers were fed twice daily and the increase was substantially greater when the starch-based diet was fed. Treatments did not influence (overall mean with mean ± s.e.) ovarian follicle size distribution or oocyte recovery by OPU (6.2 ± 0.4 per heifer), the proportion of oocytes that cleaved following insemination (0.57 ± 0.030) or blastocyst yield (0.27 ± 0.027 of oocytes cleaved). In conclusion, by feeding diets differing in carbohydrate source at different frequencies of feeding, meal-related changes in plasma hormone profiles were altered significantly, but oocyte quality was not affected. Therefore effects of diet on oocyte quality appear not to be mediated by meal-related fluctuations in hormone concentrations.
The concept of the foetal/developmental origins of adult disease has been around for ~20 years and from the original epidemiological studies in human populations much more evidence has accumulated from the many studies in animal models. The majority of these have focused upon the role of early dietary intake before conception, through gestation and/or lactation and subsequent interactions with the postnatal environment, e.g. dietary and physical activity exposures. Whilst a number of theoretical models have been proposed to place the experimental data into a biological context, the underlying phenomena remain the same; developmental deficits (of single (micro) nutrients) during critical or sensitive periods of tissue growth alter the developmental pathway to ultimately constrain later functional capacity when the individual is adult. Ageing, without exception, exacerbates any programmed sequelae. Thus, adult phenotypes that have been relatively easy to characterise (e.g. blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, body fat mass) have received most attention in the literature. To date, relatively few studies have considered the effect of differential early environmental exposures on reproductive function and fecundity in predominantly mono-ovular species such as the sheep, cow and human. The available evidence suggests that prenatal insults, undernutrition for example, have little effect on lifetime reproductive capacity despite subtle effects on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and gonadal progenitor cell complement. The postnatal environment is clearly important, however, since neonatal/adolescent growth acceleration (itself not independent from prenatal experience) has been shown to significantly influence fecundity in farm animals. The present paper will expand these interesting areas of investigation and review the available evidence regarding developmental programming of reproduction and fertility. However, it appears there is little strong evidence to indicate that offspring fertility and reproductive senescence in the human and in farm animal species are overtly affected by prenatal nutrient exposure. Nevertheless, it is clear that the developing gonad is sensitive to its immediate environment but more detailed investigation is required to specifically test the long-term consequences of nutritional perturbations during pregnancy on adult reproductive well-being.
Fertility in dairy cows has been declining for the past three decades. Genetic selection for increased milk production has been associated with changes in key metabolic hormones (growth hormone, insulin, IGF and leptin) that regulate metabolism by homoeostasis and homeorhesis. These metabolic hormones, particularly insulin, provide signals to the reproductive system so that regulation of ovarian function is coordinated with changes in metabolic status. Studies have shown, for example, that increasing circulating insulin concentrations during the early postpartum period can advance the resumption of oestrous cycles by enhancing follicular growth. However, high concentrations of insulin can be detrimental to the developmental competence of oocytes, which is also influenced by the supply of fatty acids at the systemic level and at the ovarian level. Insulin status is also associated with the incidence and characteristics of abnormal ovarian cycles. These changes can occur without significant variation in circulating gonadotrophin concentrations. This suggests that additional factors, such as peripheral metabolites, metabolic hormones and locally produced growth factors, may have a modulating role. Recent evidence has demonstrated that ovarian responses to metabolic signals and nutrient profile vary according to the stage of the reproductive cycle. Improved understanding of this multifactorial process enables nutrition to be matched to genotype and milk production, with a positive impact on pregnancy rate.
Benefits when yeast cultures are added to ruminant diets may include increased intake, ruminal fibre digestion, reduced ruminal accumulation of lactic acid, increased growth efficiency in beef cattle and increased milk yield in dairy cows. However, the effects on milk performance can be variable, with small or negative responses being reported, as well as positive effects. Part of this variation may be attributable to differences in animal potential and basal diet, and it has been suggested that the greatest benefit may occur in high yielding cows when fed diets high in high starch. The objective of the current experiment was to determine the effect of a yeast culture on the intake and performance of high yielding dairy cows fed a complete diet that was high in starch.
Six cannulated wether sheep weighing 57 (s.d. 4·3) kg were used to investigate the susceptibility of unprotected and protected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from different sources to biohydrogenation in the rumen, their uptake into plasma and effects on ruminal metabolism. The sheep were assigned to one of six dietary treatments formulated to have a similar fatty acid content (60 g/kg DM) and containing: linseed oil (LO), linseed oil absorbed into vermiculite (VLO), formic acid-formaldehyde treated whole linseed (FLS), fish oil (FO), fat encapsulated fish oil (PFO) or a mixture of fish oil and marine algae (1: 1 on an oil basis; AF), in six periods of 28 days duration in a Latin-square design. Biohydrogenation of C20:5 (n-3) and C22:6 (n-3) was high in FO at approximately 870 g/kg, but reduced to 625 and 625 g/kg respectively for PFO, and 769 and 601 g/kg respectively for AF. Ruminal biohydrogenation of C18:3 (n-3) was similar across treatments based on linseed, averaging 860 g/kg, but C18:2 (n-6) was lower (P < 0·05) in animals given VLO or FLS at 792 and 837 g/kg respectively, compared with LO (907 g/kg). Duodenal flow of C18:1 trans in animals given any of the diets containing fish oil averaged 8·4 g/day compared with 2·8 g/day in animals given diets based on linseed (P < 0·001), whilst cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid was not significantly different among treatments. Plasma C20:5 (n-3) and C22:6 (n-3) proportions were highest in animals given the AF diet (11·8 and 8·2 g per 100 g of the total fatty acids respectively) and lowest in animals given LO (2·8 and 2·7 g per 100 g of the total fatty acids respectively; P < 0·001). By contrast, plasma C18:3 (n-3) proportions were highest in animals given the LO or VLO diets at approximately 6·9 g per 100 g of the total fatty acids, and lowest in the AF treatment at 0·9 g per 100 g (P < 0·001). Duodenal non-ammonia-N flow was similar among treatments at 21·0 g/day except in animals given FLS which had the highest flow (25·9 g N per day; P < 0·01). Microbial N flow was also similar among treatments whilst microbial efficiency (g N per kg OM truly degraded in the rumen) was higher (P < 0·05) in animals given FLS than LO, FO or AF. By contrast, ruminal fibre digestion was higher (P < 0·05) in animals given LO or FO than those offered VLO, FLS, PFO or AF. In conclusion, compared with linseed oil, absorption of linseed oil into vermiculite improved duodenal flow but not plasma levels of C18:3 (n-3), whilst formic acid-formaldehyde treatment of linseed had little effect on protecting C18:3 (n-3) in the rumen, although duodenal non-ammonia nitrogen flow and microbial efficiency were improved. Compared with fish oil, the provision of marine algae or fat encapsulated fish oil resulted in a lower biohydrogenation of C22:6 (n-3) and C20:5 (n-3), and an increased duodenal flow and plasma concentration and offers the potential to favourably manipulate the n-3 fatty acid composition of sheep meat.
Few studies have assessed risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in industrialized countries, even though it may be numerically more common than outbreaks of disease. We carried out case-control studies assessing risk factors for sporadic disease in Melbourne and Adelaide, which have water supplies from different ends of the raw water spectrum. In addition to examining drinking water, we assessed several other exposures. 201 cases and 795 controls were recruited for Melbourne and 134 cases and 536 controls were recruited for Adelaide. Risk factors were similar for the two cities, with swimming in public pools and contact with a person with diarrhoea being most important. The consumption of plain tap water was not found to be associated with disease. This study emphasizes the need for regular public health messages to the public and swimming pool managers in an attempt to prevent sporadic cryptosporidiosis, as well as outbreaks of disease.
The effects of body condition score (BCS) of 2·0 or 3·0 units at calving (low v. moderate), post-partum energy intake at 0·6 or 1·0 MJ metabolizable energy (ME) per day per kg M0·75 (low v. high) and unrestricted or restricted (once daily) suckling on the ability of cows to ovulate were studied in a 2 ✕ 2 ✕ 2 factorial design with each treatment replicated eight times. Calf isolation and restricted suckling were imposed shortly after selection of the first dominant follicle (DF) to emerge after day 21 post partum. The episodic release of LH (sampled at 15-min intervals for 10 h) was determined 48 h before and 48 h after the day calf isolation and restricted suckling commenced. Additional blood samples were collected weekly for plasma insulin determination. The mean interval from calving to first ovulation was shorter for cows in moderate than low BCS at calving (47·8 v. 57·1 days, s.e.d. = 4·50, P < 0·05), and for cows suckling once daily than for those with unrestricted suckling (42·9 v. 62·0 days, s.e.d. = 4·50, P < 0·001). Post-partum nutrition did not affect this interval. Mean LH pulse frequency prior to the start of restricted suckling was higher for cows of moderate than low BCS at calving (3·2 v. 1·6 pulses per 10 h, s.e.d. = 0·60, P < 0·05). Subsequently, LH pulse frequency was higher for cows suckling once daily than for those with unrestricted suckling (4·0 v. 2·2 pulses per 10 h, s.e.d. = 0·82, P < 0·05). More cows in moderate than low BCS ovulated the first DF to emerge after day 21 post partum (within 4 to 6 days) in response to restricted suckling (69 v. 25%, P < 0·05). LH pulse frequency prior to restricted suckling increased (P < 0·05) with plasma insulin concentration (categorized as low, < 5; moderate, 5 to 8; and high, >8 mIU per l). There were indications of interactions between suckling treatment and BCS (P < 0·08), and suckling treatment and plasma insulin concentration (P < 0·06), on LH pulse frequency, which suggested that calf restriction could alleviate the suppressive effects of under nutrition on episodic LH release. Amongst cows suckling once daily, the non-ovulating animals had fewer LH pulses prior to restricted suckling and smaller, slower growing DF, indicating an inability of the DF to respond to increased LH pulse frequency following calf restriction. Cows of moderate BCS, particularly those with moderate to high levels of plasma insulin (³ 5 mIU per l), responded favourably to restricted suckling. In contrast, excessively thin cows with low plasma insulin concentrations (<5 mIU per l), that had most to gain from restricted suckling, responded poorly.
An experiment was conducted to determine if growth rate, as affected by level of feeding, during a 10-or 20-week period prior to slaughter could influence the tenderness and palatability of beef from young (approx. 14 months old at the start of experiment) steers. Steers, comprising 18 Aberdeen Angus (AA), 18 Charolais (CH) and 18 Holstein (HO) purebreds, were allocated, within genotype, to one of three levels of feeding: (a) moderate ((M/M) 750 kJ metabolizable energy (ME) per day per kg M0·75), (b) high ((H/H) 1050 kJ ME per day per kg M0·75) both for 20 weeks; or (c) moderate for the first 10 weeks followed by high for the remaining 10 weeks (M/H). The steers were slaughtered at a fixed age (approx. 19 months old) and samples of m. longissimus lumborum (from all three genotypes) m. vastus lateralis and m. biceps femoris (from AA and CH only) separated, vacuum packed and stored at 2ºC for both 7 and 14 days before freezing. These cuts were subsequently assessed by a 12 member taste panel and texture analysis performed using Volodkevitch-type jaws.
Growth rates during the final 10 weeks of the experimental period differed between dietary regimen (M/M = 0·87; M/H = 1·25; and H/H = 1·02 kg/day; s.e.d. = 0·08; P < 0·001). Steers offered the M/M level of feeding grew more slowly (0·97 kg/day) than those offered the M/H and H/H level of feeding (1·20 kg/day; s.e.d. = 0·06; P < 0·001) over the entire 20 week experimental period. In spite of these differences in growth rate, there were no consistent effects on beef tenderness and general palatability. Mean growth rates for CH, HO and AA steers were 1·21, 1·13 and 1·03 kg/day (s.e.d. = 0·06; P < 0·05). Beef samples from AA steers consistently scored better for various sensory attributes than those from CH and HO steers; this may have been due, in part, to level of carcass fatness and rate of carcass cooling post mortem. Accounting for factors such as genotype within the experimental design and slaughtering animals at a relatively constant age reduced the variance associated with each sensory attribute to 0·6 of that observed in commercial practice. The data suggest that there is little opportunity to improve beef eating quality by increasing growth rate by dietary means in steers provided that moderate levels of gain (equivalent to the UK average) are maintained.