To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
High resolution Bragg-case X-ray double and triple axis diffractometry and Laue-case white beam synchrotron X-ray topography experiments have been performed on undoped  oriented float-zone GaAs crystals have been grown under microgravity conditions in space on the D2 mission. Near the seed, excellent anomalous transmission was achieved and a clear cellular structure of dislocations observed. The double and triple axis rocking curves were comparable with those from semi-insulating terrestrial material. Following a heater failure, the molten zone height dropped and reciprocal space maps revealed a long ridge of scatter transverse to the diffraction vector direction. This corresponds to the presence of a distribution of sub-grains containing little internal strain. Continued growth resulted in twin formation.
Background: Central neuropathic pain syndromes are a result of central nervous system injury, most commonly related to stroke, traumatic spinal cord injury, or multiple sclerosis. These syndromes are distinctly less common than peripheral neuropathic pain, and less is known regarding the underlying pathophysiology, appropriate pharmacotherapy, and long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term clinical effectiveness of the management of central neuropathic pain relative to peripheral neuropathic pain at tertiary pain centers. Methods: Patients diagnosed with central (n=79) and peripheral (n=710) neuropathic pain were identified for analysis from a prospective observational cohort study of patients with chronic neuropathic pain recruited from seven Canadian tertiary pain centers. Data regarding patient characteristics, analgesic use, and patient-reported outcomes were collected at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the composite of a reduction in average pain intensity and pain interference. Secondary outcome measures included assessments of function, mood, quality of life, catastrophizing, and patient satisfaction. Results: At 12-month follow-up, 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-25.8) of patients with central neuropathic pain and complete data sets (n=52) achieved a ≥30% reduction in pain, whereas 38.5% (95% CI, 25.3-53.0) achieved a reduction of at least 1 point on the Pain Interference Scale. The proportion of patients with central neuropathic pain achieving both these measures, and thus the primary outcome, was 9.6% (95% CI, 3.2-21.0). Patients with peripheral neuropathic pain and complete data sets (n=463) were more likely to achieve this primary outcome at 12 months (25.3% of patients; 95% CI, 21.4-29.5) (p=0.012). Conclusion: Patients with central neuropathic pain syndromes managed in tertiary care centers were less likely to achieve a meaningful improvement in pain and function compared with patients with peripheral neuropathic pain at 12-month follow-up.
A substantial and continual economic loss within the pig industry is the 5-20% pre-weaning mortality rate that occurs during the neonatal period (MLC, 2002). The principal causes of piglet death are low birth weight in conjunction with insufficient amounts of body fat reserves (Herpin et al., 1993; Varley, 1995). Studies by Rooke et al. (2000) have demonstrated that the fatty acid profiles of the sows diet during late pregnancy and lactation is an important factor influencing piglet performance. The benefits of dietary manipulations aimed at improving piglet survival, however, remain controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of supplementing the maternal diet with palm and/or soya oil during late gestation on piglet growth performance.
The provision of healthcare education in developing countries is a complex problem that simulation has the potential to help. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a low-cost ear surgery simulator, the Ear Trainer.
The Ear Trainer was assessed in two low-resource environments in Cambodia and Uganda. Participants were video-recorded performing four specific middle-ear procedures, and blindly scored using a validated measurement tool. Face validity, construct validity and objective learning were assessed.
The Ear Trainer provides a realistic representation of the ear. Construct validity assessment confirmed that experts performed better than novices. Participants displayed improvement in all tasks except foreign body removal, likely because of a ceiling effect.
This study validates the Ear Trainer as a useful training tool for otological microsurgical skills in developing world settings.
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, linked to several structural abnormalities of the brain. More specifically, previous findings have suggested that increased gyrification in frontal and temporal regions are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
The current study included participants at high familial risk of schizophrenia who remained well (n = 31), who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms (n = 28) and who developed schizophrenia (n = 9) as well as healthy controls (HC) (n = 16). We first tested whether individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia carried an increased burden of trait-associated alleles using polygenic risk score analysis. We then assessed the extent to which polygenic risk was associated with gyral folding in the frontal and temporal lobes.
We found that individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia who developed schizophrenia carried a significantly greater burden of risk-conferring variants for the disorder compared to those at high risk (HR) who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms or remained well and HC. Furthermore, within the HR cohort, there was a significant and positive association between schizophrenia polygenic risk score and bilateral frontal gyrification.
These results suggest that polygenic risk for schizophrenia impacts upon early neurodevelopment to confer greater gyral folding in adulthood and an increased risk of developing the disorder.
Measurements of the electrical conductivity of subglacial water provide a useful complement to measurements of pressure and turbidity. In the summer season, fluctuations of conductivity can be attributed to changes in water transport, water provenance and subglacial residence time. These explanations are unlikely to apply during the winter season because surface melt sources are not active and the subglacial water system is predominantly unconnected. Thus, fluctuations in water conductivity during the winter months seem paradoxical. To introduce a quantitative basis for comprehending such phenomena, we develop an interpretative model of the hydrochemical interaction between a water-filled borehole and a subglacial aquifer. The electrical conductivity of water near the borehole–aquifer contact is affected not only by diffusion but also by advective transport of solute between the two reservoirs in response to pressure forcing of the system. Using records of ice strain, water pressure and electrical conductivity from unconnected boreholes in Trapridge Glacier, we demonstrate that changes in borehole geometry caused by ice-strain events provide a plausible mechanism for at least some of the observed fluctuations of electrical conductivity. Conductivity records provide information regarding advective coupling of the borehole–aquifer system that is not available from pressure records alone.
The upper 20—30 m of ice-rich permafrost at three sites overridden by the northwest margin of the Laurentide ice sheet in the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands, western Arctic Canada, comprise massive ice beneath ice-rich diamicton or sandy silt. The diamicton and silt contain (1) truncated ice blocks up to 15 m long, (2) sand lenses and layers, (3) ice veins dipping at 20—30°, (4) ice lenses adjacent and parallel to sedimentary contacts, and (5) ice wedges. The massive ice is interpreted as intrasedimental or buried basal glacier ice, and the diamicton and silt as glacitectonite that has never thawed. Deformation of frozen ground was mainly ductile in character. Deformation was accompanied by sub-marginal erosion of permafrost, which formed an angular unconformity along the top of the massive ice and supplied ice clasts and sand bodies to the overlying glacitectonite. After deformation and erosion ceased, postglacial segregated ice and ice- wedge ice developed within the deformed permafrost.
A range of precision farming technologies are used commercially for variable rate applications of nitrogen (N) for cereals, yet these usually adjust N rates from a pre-set value, rather than predicting economically optimal N requirements on an absolute basis. This paper reports chessboard experiments set up to examine variation in N requirements, and to develop and test systems for its prediction, and to assess its predictability. Results showed very substantial variability in fertiliser N requirements within fields, typically >150 kg ha−1, and large variation in optimal yields, typically >2 t ha−1. Despite this, calculated increases in yield and gross margin with N requirements perfectly matched across fields were surprisingly modest (compared to the uniform average rate). Implications are discussed, including the causes of the large remaining variation in grain yield, after N limitations were removed.
Introduction: Palliative care is a broad approach to care for patients with serious or life-threatening illnesses. This includes relief of symptoms, such as pain, that interfere with a patient’s quality of life. It therefore falls firmly within the realm of emergency medicine (EM). 94% of emergency physicians report a need for education in dealing with death and dying. Nevertheless, there are no generally agreed upon competencies for Canadian EM residents with regard to palliative care and end of life care in the emergency department (ED). We performed a cross-sectional study of Canadian EM residency programs to measure the existing curricula in palliative and end of life care. Our primary outcome was the prevalence of structured educational programs for palliative and end of life care. Methods: An e-survey was e-mailed to all program directors of both CCFP(EM) and EM post-graduate training programs countrywide, using FluidSurveysTM. It included questions regarding current palliative and end of life care curricula from formal rotations to seminars and online modules. The survey was developed in consultation with the author group including specialists in education, palliative care medicine, emergency medicine, and medical education. Hired translators were employed to include French speaking programs in Canada. This study had ethical approval: Interior Health REB and UBC CREB certificate 2016-17-026-H. Results: The survey was open from October 12th to December 19th, 2016. During that time, we received 26 responses including 5 French speaking programs, for a response rate of 72.2%. The primary outcome was present in 38.5% of programs. There was no difference between FRCP and CCFP(EM) programs in the occurrence of the primary outcome (p=1; Fisher’s Exact Text). However, CCFP(EM) program directors commented that many of their residents had completed palliative care rotations in their family medicine training. The largest barriers to education included time (84.6%), curriculum development (80.8%), and availability of instructors (50.0%). Conclusion: Our preliminary analysis shows that few Canadian post-graduate EM programs have a structured educational program pertaining to palliative and end of life care. Current barriers to education that can be addressed in future curricular initiatives include lack of time, curriculum development, and instructor availability.
Quantitative understanding of the processes that couple the lower atmosphere to the upper surface of ice sheets is necessary for interpreting ice-core records. Of special interest are those processes that involve the exchange of energy or atmospheric constituents. One such process, wind pumping, entails both possibilities and provides a possible mechanism for converting atmospheric kinetic energy into a near-surface heat source within the firn layer. The essential idea is that temporal and spatial variations in surface air pressure, resulting from air motion, can diffuse into permeable firn by conventional Darcy flow. Viscous friction between moving air and the solid firn matrix leads to energy dissipation in the firn that is equivalent to a volumetric heat source.
Initial theoretical work on wind pumping was aimed at explaining anomalous near-surface temperatures measured at sites on Agassiz Ice Cap, Arctic Canada. A conclusion of this preliminary work was that, under highly favourable conditions, anomalous warming of as much as 2°C was possible. Subsequent efforts to confirm wind-pumping predictions suggest that our initial estimates of the penetration depth for pressure fluctuations were optimistic. These observations point to a deficiency of the initial theoretical formulation — the surface-pressure forcing was assumed to vary temporally, but not spatially. Thus, within the firn there was only a surface-normal component of air flow. The purpose of the present contribution is to advance a three-dimensional theory of wind pumping in which air flow is driven by both spatial and temporal fluctuations in surface pressure. Conclusions of the three-dimensional analysis are that the penetration of pressure fluctuations, and hence the thickness of the zone of frictional interaction between air and permeable firn, is related to both the frequency of the pressure fluctuations and to the spatial coherence length of turbulence cells near the firn surface.
Worldwide 350 million people suffer from major depression, with the majority of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the patterns, correlates and care-seeking behaviour of adults suffering from major depressive episode (MDE) in China.
A nationwide study recruited 512 891 adults aged 30–79 years from 10 provinces across China during 2004–2008. The 12-month prevalence of MDE was assessed by the Modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-short form. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of MDE associated with socio-economic, lifestyle and health-related factors and major stressful life events.
Overall, 0.7% of participants had MDE and a further 2.4% had major depressive symptoms. Stressful life events were strongly associated with MDE [adjusted OR 14.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7–15.7], with a dose–response relationship with the number of such events experienced. Family conflict had the highest OR for MDE (18.9, 95% CI 16.8–21.2) among the 10 stressful life events. The risk of MDE was also positively associated with rural residency (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.7), low income (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.1–2.4), living alone (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.3–3.0), smoking (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) and certain other mental disorders (e.g. anxiety, phobia). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed with depressive symptoms. Among those with MDE, about 15% sought medical help or took psychiatric medication, 15% reported having suicidal ideation and 6% reported attempting suicide.
Among Chinese adults, the patterns and correlates of MDE were generally consistent with those observed in the West. The low rates of seeking professional help and treatment highlight the great gap in mental health services in China.
The objective was to determine the effects of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproductive characteristics in boars. A total of 72 boars were used in a randomized design with three treatments: single immunization (SI) (10 weeks of age) or double immunization (DI) (10 and 15 weeks of age) with Improvest® and intact controls (no Improvest®; CNT) (n=24/group). At 10, 15, 20, 25 and 40 weeks of age, blood was collected and serum harvested to evaluate testosterone concentrations. Testosterone concentrations were less for DI boars compared with CNT boars and SI boars at 20 and 25 weeks (P<0.001), but not at 40 weeks of age. At week 25, 18 pigs (n=6/group) were sacrificed and testes were removed, weighed and measured, and seminiferous tubules were examined and scored using histological slides of testes parenchyma. A sample of neck fat was assessed for boar taint aroma. All testicular measurements and weights and seminiferous tubule scores were less for DI boars compared with SI and CNT boars (P<0.001). More (P<0.05) SI and CNT boars had detectable boar taint aroma than DI boars. Libido was assessed at 32, 36, 47, 60 and 63 weeks of age and semen collected at 60 weeks of age was analyzed for indicators of quality. There were no effects of treatment (P=0.41) or treatment by week (P=0.71) on libido. Semen volume, gel weight and total number of sperm cells, determined in a subset of boars (n=3/treatment), were not different among treatments. Sperm concentration was greater for DI than SI (P=0.01), and tended to be greater for DI compared with CNT (P=0.10). Sperm motility tended to be greater for DI boars compared with CNT boars (P=0.066). In conclusion, our results show that there are no long-term effects of immunocastration on reproductive characteristics in boars.
Evidence of surface magnetism is now observed on an increasing number of cool stars. The detailed manner by which dynamo-generated magnetic fields giving rise to starspots traverse the convection zone still remains unclear. Some insight into this flux emergence mechanism has been gained by assuming bundles of magnetic field can be represented by idealized thin flux tubes (TFTs). Weber & Browning (2016) have recently investigated how individual flux tubes might evolve in a 0.3M⊙ M dwarf by effectively embedding TFTs in time-dependent flows representative of a fully convective star. We expand upon this work by initiating flux tubes at various depths in the upper ~50-75% of the star in order to sample the differing convective flow pattern and differential rotation across this region. Specifically, we comment on the role of differential rotation and time-varying flows in both the suppression and promotion of the magnetic flux emergence process.
The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) is a flexible user facility designed to study a range of astrophysically relevant plasma processes as well as novel geometries that mimic astrophysical systems. A multi-cusp magnetic bucket constructed from strong samarium cobalt permanent magnets now confines a
, fully ionized, magnetic-field-free plasma in a spherical geometry. Plasma parameters of
provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments, including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL, along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.
We conducted infrared spectroscopic observations of bright stars in the direction of the molecular clouds W33 and GMC G23.3 − 0.3. We compared stellar spectro-photometric distances with parallactic distances to these regions, and we were able to assess the association of the detected massive stars with these molecular complexes. The spatial and temporal distributions of the detected stars enabled us to locate sources of ionizing radiation and to gather precise information on the star formation history of these clouds. The studied clouds present different distributions of massive stars.
Intestinal health is important for maximising the health, welfare, and performance of poultry. In addition, intestinal health issues in poultry can have devastating financial impacts for producers, and food safety concerns for consumers. Until recently, intestinal health issues were seen as a handful of known infectious agents leading to a set of severe and identifiable named diseases. There is however an emerging area which depicts intestinal health as a more complex and multifaceted system than previously known. Recent progress in technology suitable for microbial community analysis has evolved our understanding of the chicken intestinal microbiome. It is now understood that shifts in the composition of microbial communities can occur. These shifts can result in a series of implications, including: disease, welfare, environmental, and food safety concerns. Minor shifts in intestinal microbial balance can result in a wide continuum of disease presentations ranging from severe to mild clinical, subclinical or asymptotic. Differential diagnosis of poultry intestinal health issues may be challenging and is important for applying appropriate treatment options. This review discusses new and emerging topics in broiler chicken intestinal health, with a focus on microbial composition, newly discovered microbial shifts in classical poultry diseases, range in severity of enteric diseases, newly identified organisms in normal intestinal flora, implications of shifts in intestinal microbial communities and diagnosis of emerging intestinal health issues in poultry.