Hydrothermal alteration at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, is concentrated along a fault zone, which juxtaposes surface deposits and the mineralised feeder zone to the Rhynie hotspring system. Mineralisation consists of breccias and veins filled with quartz, chert, calcite, K-feldspar and pyrite. Associated pervasive alteration comprises a high-temperature K-feldsparquartz-illite facies (formed at 250–350°C), a medium-temperature mixed layered illite/smectitequartz-K-feldspar-chlorite-calcite facies (formed at 150–200°C) and a low-temperature mixed layered illite/smectite-chlorite-calcite facies (formed at 100 to +150°C). The fluids responsible for mineralisation were mainly moderate- to high-temperature (Th =91–360°C), low-salinity (<0·2 to 2·9 wt.% NaCl eq.) H2O-NaCl-heated meteoric fluids comparable to modern and ancient hot-spring systems. The migration of these fluids was mainly restricted to a major fault zone bounding the Devonian basin. Fluids responsible for mineralisation, alteration and cementation elsewhere in the basin were low-temperature (Th 57 to 161°C), low- to high-salinity (<0·2 to 18 wt.% NaCl eq.) H2O-NaCl fluids, which resemble basinal brines.