To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar disorder (BD) may persist into periods of remission and affect psychosocial function. Attention and memory deficits may be more pronounced during remission in BD compared with UD. However, patients’ subjective experience of cognitive difficulties is poorly understood, and it is unclear whether this differs between BD and UD.
Aims and objectives
To examine self-reported cognitive function in remitted patients with BD and UD.
Patients with BD (n = 54) and UD (n = 45) were referred to the outpatient clinic at Department of Psychiatry, Copenhagen University Hospital, following hospital discharge.
Affective symptoms and patients’ experience of cognitive symptoms were assessed at their initial consultation at the clinic.
Patients in remission experienced mild to moderate impairment of cognitive function with greatest difficulties in motivation, energy, attention and memory. Subjective experience of cognitive function were similar for BD and UD and were predicted by affective symptoms rather than by diagnosis, age, gender or comorbid alcohol misuse.
The absence of differences between UD and BD in the subjective experience of cognitive difficulties contrasts with evidence of greater objective cognitive dysfunction in BD. This highlights a potential discord between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function. The impact of affective symptoms on the subjectively experienced cognitive difficulties suggests that they reflect mood symptoms rather than objective cognitive deficits. Further investigation of the relation between objective and subjective measures of cognitive function and the influence of affective symptoms is warranted.
To investigate the potential use of smartphone apps to support self-management in young adults with bipolar disorder.
We recruited 89 young adults (18–30 years) with bipolar disorder to complete a cross-sectional online survey. The survey contained quantitative and qualitative questions regarding technology use, current use of disorder-management apps, types of apps desired for disorder management, and app features that users would consider important when selecting apps. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.
Almost all participants used a smartphone daily and 40% currently used apps for disorder management. Of those not currently using apps, 79% indicated they would like to try them. On average, participants rated 61% of the self-management strategies listed as desirable for app support, with sleep-management, understanding early warning signs and triggers, and stay-well plans the most frequently endorsed. App features considered important during app selection were ease-of-use, scientific quality, flexibility/customisation, and data privacy.
The results indicate that young adults with bipolar disorder are interested in a wide range of apps for self-management. Participants were interested in apps to support self-management strategies considered clinically important for disorder management. Many of these app needs are currently unmet. Results suggest diversifying and prioritising app capabilities to ensure evidence-based resources for a broader range of app functions are available to consumers.
South Africa (SA) is a developing country with an ageing population. Adequate nutrition and physical activity (PA) protect against the loss of muscle mass and physical function, both of which are important components of sarcopenia. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of sarcopenia in older black SA women and investigate its associations with PA and protein intake.
Materials and Methods
Older black SA women (age, 68 (range; 60–85 years) n = 122) completed sociodemographic questionnaires, 24 h urine collection (estimate protein intake), venous blood (hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and ferritin), functional tests (grip strength, 3 m timed-up-and-go (TUG), 10 m walk test) and PA monitoring (activPAL). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry whole-body scans assessed fat and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM).
According to the European Working group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP)2, 2.5% (n = 3) had confirmed sarcopenia of a low severity based on normal physical function. Of the total cohort, 9% (n = 11) had low grip strength, 22.1% (n = 27) had a low appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI), and no women had low TUG (s) or gait speed (m/s). Higher ASMI was associated with lower hs-CRP (p = 0.05; Rho = -0.209) and higher ferritin (Rho = 0.252; p = 0.019), grip strength (kg, Rho = 0.223; p = 0.015), and gait speed (m/s, Rho = 0.180; p = 0.050). Protein intake suggested intake of 41.8g/day/ or 0.51 g/kg of body mass/day. Higher total protein intake (g/24h), was associated with higher FFSTM (kg) and ASMI (p < 0.001). PA outcomes were not correlated with FFSTM or ASMI (p > 0.05), however, there was a strong positive correlation of TUG (s) and gait speed (m/s) with time spent: 1) stepping per day (min) and; 2) at a high cadence (> 100 steps/min) (all p < 0.01). Daily step count was 7137 ± 3233 (mean ± Standard deviation), with 97.9 ± 38.7 min of total time spent stepping and 12.6 ± 16.8 min spent stepping at a high cadence (> 100 steps/min). Of note, 13.9% (n = 17) of women were completing > 10,000 steps/day.
Based on the EWGSOP2 criteria, there is a low prevalence of sarcopenia in older black SA women, explained by the maintenance of strength and physical function that directly related to PA, especially that performed at higher intensities. In contrast, low muscle mass was relatively prevalent (22.1%) and was associated with low dietary protein and not PA. Notably, it may be important to review the cut-points of EWGSOP2 criteria to be specific to the older SA women from disadvantaged communities.
To identify and synthesise the literature on the cost of mental disorders.
Systematic literature searches were conducted in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit, NHS York Database and PsychInfo using key terms for cost and mental disorders. Searches were restricted to January 1980–May 2019. The inclusion criteria were: (1) cost-of-illness studies or cost-analyses; (2) diagnosis of at least one mental disorder; (3) study population based on the general population; (4) outcome in monetary units. The systematic review was preregistered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42019127783).
In total, 13 579 potential titles and abstracts were screened and 439 full-text articles were evaluated by two independent reviewers. Of these, 112 articles were included from the systematic searches and 31 additional articles from snowball searching, resulting in 143 included articles. Data were available from 48 countries and categorised according to nine mental disorder groups. The quality of the studies varied widely and there was a lack of studies from low- and middle-income countries and for certain types of mental disorders (e.g. intellectual disabilities and eating disorders). Our study showed that certain groups of mental disorders are more costly than others and that these rankings are relatively stable between countries. An interactive data visualisation site can be found here: https://nbepi.com/econ.
This is the first study to provide a comprehensive overview of the cost of mental disorders worldwide.
Osteoporosis was not a public health concern in black South African (SA) women, until recently when it was reported that the prevalence of vertebral fractures was 9.1% in black compared to 5.0% in white SA women. Accordingly, this study aimed to measure bone mineral density (BMD) of older black SA women and to investigate its association with risk factors for osteoporosis, including strength, muscle and fat mass, dietary intake and objectively measured physical activity (PA).
Methods and materials
Older black SA women (age, 68 (range; 60–85 years) n = 122) completed sociodemographic and quantitative food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ), fasting venous blood samples (25-hydroxycholecalciferol: Vitamin D-25), 24 h urine collection (estimate protein intake), grip strength and PA monitoring (activPAL). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the hip (femoral neck and total) and lumbar spine determined BMD and whole-body scans for fat and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM). WHO classifications were used to determine osteopenia (t-score -2.5 to -1), and osteoporosis (t-score < -2.5).
At the lumbar spine 34.4% of the women (n = 42) had osteopenia and 19.7% (n = 24) had osteoporosis. Osteopenia at the left femoral neck was 32% (n = 40) and osteoporosis was 13.1% (n = 16) of participants. The total left hip BMD indicated osteopenia in 27.9% (n = 34) and osteoporosis in 13.1% (n = 16) of participants. Multinomial regression revealed no differences in age (y) or frequency of falls in the past year between all groups (p = 0.727). Compared to those with normal BMD, participants with osteoporosis at the hip neck and lumbar spine were shorter, weighed less and had a lower body mass index (BMI) (all p < 0.05). When adjusted for height, the osteoporotic group (hip neck and lumbar spine) had lower trunk fat (% whole body), FFSTM (kg) and grip strength (kg), compared to those with normal BMD (p < 0.05). Only protein intake (g; 24 h urine analyses) was lower in women with osteoporosis (all sites) compared to those with normal BMD. Fat, carbohydrate and micronutrient intakes (relative to total daily energy intake), and vitamin D concentrations were not associated with BMD (all sites). Number of daily step count and stepping time (min) were inversely associated with BMI (p < 0.05), but not with BMD (all sites; p > 0.05).
A high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was evident at the lumbar spine and hip in older black SA women. This study highlights the importance of strength, body composition, and protein intake in maintaining BMD and preventing the development of osteoporosis in older women.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Recent data suggest that organic broilers often score worse on footpad lesions than conventional broilers but also that the current scoring of organic broiler feet may be misleading. In order to characterise footpad lesions in organic broilers, this study assessed and compared footpad lesions in a sample of 2987 conventional and 3578 organic broiler feet obtained from a large Danish abattoir during summer and winter. The feet were scored according to two scoring systems: the modified Danish surveillance scoring system and a histopathology-based new scoring system specifically developed to target the ability to differentiate between broiler feet with hyperkeratosis and ulcers. For both systems, all broiler feet with visible lesions were cross-sectionally incised. Significant differences between the two production systems were found for both scoring systems (χ2 = 710; P < 0.001 and χ2 = 247; P < 0.001 for the new and the surveillance systems, respectively), showing that a larger proportion of the organic feet compared to conventional feet – summer and winter – exhibited signs of hyperkeratosis. In addition, a smaller fraction of the organic feet than of the conventional feet were given the outermost scores, that is, normal or ulcerated; 13.4% v. 25.3% broiler feet were given score 0 for organic v. conventional production systems, respectively (χ2 = 152; P < 0.001), and 18.4% v. 23.8% feet were given score 4 for organic v. conventional production systems, respectively (χ2 = 308; P < 0.001). Thus, the results suggest that surveillance scoring systems such as the one used in Denmark are useful for the examination of footpad lesions in broilers from both types of production systems. However, the results have also raised attention to a typical characteristic of the feet of organic broilers, that is, profound hyperkeratosis, which may underlie potential misclassifications in surveillance scoring systems like the one used in Denmark. Among the possible solutions to this challenge to the correctness and fairness of the scoring system are improved procedures (such as mandatory incision), training of technicians and calibration of results (especially for the organic footpads).
There is considerable debate as to the optimal light intensities for growing chickens. This is influencing regulations and industry practices. The present study examines the preference of broiler chickens for light intensity. A choice system was developed to allow determination of the preferences of broiler chickens for light intensity. This system had three light proof pens each with feeders or waterers but different light intensities. There was a connecting transit pen with a light intensity of 1 to 2 lux. This allowed birds access to the pens each with feeders or waterers. There were markedly more chickens observed in the pens each with feeders or waterers and a light intensity of 20 lux than 5 lux. Moreover, more feed was consumed in the 20 lux pens than 5 pens. There were also high numbers of chickens in the transit compartment with its low light intensity (1 to 2 lux) and no feeders or waterers. Broiler chickens exhibited a preference for 20 lux light intensity for feeding compared to 5 lux light intensity. The present study supports the view that there should be a light intensity of at least 20 lux for the areas around the feeders and also suggests that light intensity may be reduced in other areas for resting and other activities.
n-3 PUFA may exert favourable effects on several processes that may inhibit the atherosclerotic process. However, the role of n-3 PUFA in lowering the risk of atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) has been fiercely debated. In the present paper, we summarise the main findings from previous follow-up studies of intake and studies using adipose tissue as an objective biomarker to investigate exposure to n-3 PUFA in relation to ASCVD risk and discuss some perspectives for further research. The majority of previous studies investigating intake of marine- and plant-based n-3 PUFA have focused on CHD while other ASCVD such as ischaemic stroke and peripheral artery disease have been less studied. However, recent data from Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort suggest that marine n-3 PUFA may be inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease caused by atherosclerosis. The effect of the plant-derived n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid on ASCVD is less clear and several gaps in the literature remain to be explored.
We evaluated whether a diagnostic stewardship initiative consisting of ASP preauthorization paired with education could reduce false-positive hospital-onset (HO) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
Single center, quasi-experimental study.
Tertiary academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois.
Adult inpatients were included in the intervention if they were admitted between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018, and were eligible for C. difficile preauthorization review. Patients admitted to the stem cell transplant (SCT) unit were not included in the intervention and were therefore considered a contemporaneous noninterventional control group.
The intervention consisted of requiring prescriber attestation that diarrhea has met CDI clinical criteria, ASP preauthorization, and verbal clinician feedback. Data were compared 33 months before and 19 months after implementation. Facility-wide HO-CDI incidence rates (IR) per 10,000 patient days (PD) and standardized infection ratios (SIR) were extracted from hospital infection prevention reports.
During the entire 52 month period, the mean facility-wide HO-CDI-IR was 7.8 per 10,000 PD and the SIR was 0.9 overall. The mean ± SD HO-CDI-IR (8.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.5 ± 2.3; P < .001) and SIR (0.97 ± 0.23 vs 0.78 ± 0.26; P = .015) decreased from baseline during the intervention. Segmented regression models identified significant decreases in HO-CDI-IR (Pstep = .06; Ptrend = .008) and SIR (Pstep = .1; Ptrend = .017) trends concurrent with decreases in oral vancomycin (Pstep < .001; Ptrend < .001). HO-CDI-IR within a noninterventional control unit did not change (Pstep = .125; Ptrend = .115).
A multidisciplinary, multifaceted intervention leveraging clinician education and feedback reduced the HO-CDI-IR and the SIR in select populations. Institutions may consider interventions like ours to reduce false-positive C. difficile NAAT tests.
The magnetometer measurements taken by Cassini have confirmed the unusual character of Saturn’s internal magnetic field known from previous flybys and have revealed additional properties that suggest a rather unique dynamo in this planet. Within measurement uncertainty, the internal magnetic field is completely symmetric with respect to Saturn’s spin axis. The upper limit on the tilt of the magnetic dipole could be reduced from 1 to 0.06 degree. Moreover, only axisymmetric quadrupole and octupole moments are needed to fit the data. The lack of non-axisymmetric field components prevents a reliable determination of the bulk rotation rate of Saturn’s deep interior. Using data from Cassini’s closest approach to Saturn during orbit insertion, the magnetic moments of degrees four and five have been determined. The spatial power spectrum shows a zig-zag pattern with high power in odd spherical harmonic degrees and low power in even degrees. Compared to a simple dipole field, this corresponds to a concentration of magnetic flux towards the rotation poles. The flux concentration becomes progressively more pronounced when the field is continued into the interior. Comparison of the Cassini field model with that based on the Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 measurements taken roughly 30 years earlier suggests that the secular variation of Saturn’s field is at least one order of magnitude slower than that of the Earth. A viable explanation for most of the unusual field properties is that a stably stratified and electrically conducting layer, formed by a partial demixing of helium from metallic hydrogen, exists on top of a “standard” dynamo in Saturn’s deep interior. This dynamo, driven by thermal and compositional convection, generates a magnetic field that is moderately asymmetric and time dependent. Rapid time variations and non-axisymmetric field components are filtered out in the stable layer by a skin effect. This model also implies that the top of the active dynamo may be located rather deep in Saturn’s interior and the geometric drop-off of the dipole strength with the radius cubed could explain the unexpectedly low field strength at Saturn’s surface. The stable layer model does not provide an explanation for the magnetic flux concentration towards the poles. Strong differential rotation in the dynamo region can have this effect, but a physical mechanism for such a flow state remains to be explored. From magnetic measurements to be taken during the very close approaches in the Grand Finale of the Cassini mission, we can expect to characterize Saturn’s magnetic field up to at least spherical harmonic degree nine and possibly to detect weak non-axisymmetric field components, which would enable an accurate determination of Saturn’s rotation period.
The current study evaluated the effect of sowing date (early, mid-August or timely, mid-September) on two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) with different rates of nitrogen (N) (0–225 kg total N/ha) applied as animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers (N: phosphorus: potassium; NPK). Overwinter plant N uptake and soil mineral N content were determined during 2014/15, while harvest yields (grain, straw, N content) were determined during 2014/15 and 2015/16. Overwinter uptake of N was 14 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat. Despite very different yield levels in 2015 and 2016 harvests, the advantage of early sowing on grain yields was similar (1.1 and 0.9 t/ha); straw yield benefits were greater in 2015 (1.7 t/ha more) than in 2016 (0.4 t/ha more). In 2015 and 2016, N offtake was 35 and 17 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat, respectively. The mineral N fertilizer value of cattle slurry averaged 50%. Early sowing increased the apparent N recovery (ANR) for wheat regardless of nutrient source. However, ANR was substantially higher for NPK (82% in 2015; 52% in 2016) than for AM (39% in 2015; 27% in 2016). Performance of the two cultivars did not differ consistently with respect to the effect of early sowing on crop yield, N concentration and offtake, or ANR. Within the north-west European climatic region, moving the sowing time of winter wheat from mid-September to mid-August provides a significant yield and N offtake benefit.
We consider task planning for long-living intelligent agents situated in dynamic environments. Specifically, we address the problem of incomplete knowledge of the world due to the addition of new objects with unknown action models. We propose a multilayered agent architecture that uses meta-reasoning to control hierarchical task planning and situated learning, monitor expectations generated by a plan against world observations, forms goals and rewards for the situated reinforcement learner, and learns the missing planning knowledge relevant to the new objects. We use occupancy grids as a low-level representation for the high-level expectations to capture changes in the physical world due to the additional objects, and provide a similarity method for detecting discrepancies between the expectations and the observations at run-time; the meta-reasoner uses these discrepancies to formulate goals and rewards for the learner, and the learned policies are added to the hierarchical task network plan library for future re-use. We describe our experiments in the Minecraft and Gazebo microworlds to demonstrate the efficacy of the architecture and the technique for learning. We test our approach against an ablated reinforcement learning (RL) version, and our results indicate this form of expectation enhances the learning curve for RL while being more generic than propositional representations.
Fluid–structure interactions are ubiquitous in nature and technology. However, the systems are often so complex that numerical simulations or ad hoc assumptions must be used to gain insight into the details of the complex interactions between the fluid and solid mechanics. In this paper, we present experiments and theory on viscous flow in a simple bioinspired soft valve which illustrate essential features of interactions between hydrodynamic and elastic forces at low Reynolds numbers. The set-up comprises a sphere connected to a spring located inside a tapering cylindrical channel. The spring is aligned with the central axis of the channel and a pressure drop is applied across the sphere, thus forcing the liquid through the narrow gap between the sphere and the channel walls. The sphere’s equilibrium position is determined by a balance between spring and hydrodynamic forces. Since the gap thickness changes with the sphere’s position, the system has a pressure-dependent hydraulic resistance. This leads to a nonlinear relation between applied pressure and flow rate: flow initially increases with pressure, but decreases when the pressure exceeds a certain critical value as the gap closes. To rationalize these observations, we propose a mathematical model that reduced the complexity of the flow to a two-dimensional lubrication approximation. A closed-form expression for the pressure drop/flow rate is obtained which reveals that the flow rate
depends on the pressure drop
, sphere radius
, gap thickness
, and viscosity
, where the critical pressure
scales with the spring constant
. These predictions compared favourably to the results of our experiments with no free parameters.
Southern California has experienced widespread amphibian declines since the 1960s. One species, the Vulnerable California red-legged frog Rana draytonii, is now considered to be extirpated from most of southern California. In February 2017 a population of R. draytonii was discovered in the southern foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains of Riverside County, California, near the edge of the species’ historical distribution. This population belongs to an mtDNA lineage that was presumed to be extirpated within the USA but is still extant in Baja California, Mexico. This discovery increases the potential for future, evolutionarily informed translocations within the southern portion of this species’ range in California.
The 2015 Farm to School Census reports that during the 2013–2014 school year there were over 5200 farm to school (FTS) programs in the USA that involved 39,000 schools and 24.1 million children. These FTS programs are intended, in part, to increase market access and therefore the viability of farms and ranches. Accordingly, the majority of FTS programs involve local food procurement directly from farmers, from non-traditional suppliers that market locally branded food products such as ‘food hubs’, or from traditional suppliers such distributors and food service management companies. Yet, there is reason to believe that transaction costs vary based on the supply chain that schools use to procure local food. Moreover, that the supply chain that schools use to procure local food has a relationship with school's expenditures on local food. We use the 2015 Farm to School Census to estimate the relationship between school district's local food expenditures per student and supply chain structure. We analyzed data using ordinary least squares regressions, controlling for the region of the USA, the type of local food products purchased, and other school-specific characteristics. Importantly, we find a negative and significant relationship between school district's non-milk local food expenditure per student, and purchases directly from the farm and from non-traditional suppliers. This implies that schools that purchase local food from traditional distributors are likely to have higher on average expenditures per student compared with schools that purchase local food directly from farmers or non-traditional distributors. Results point to the need for additional research in determining the efficacy of policies to support direct and non-traditional FTS marketing arrangements.
A turbulent boundary layer developed over a herringbone patterned riblet surface is investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in the cross-stream plane at
. The three velocity components resulting from this experiment reveal a pronounced spanwise periodicity in all single-point velocity statistics. Consistent with previous hot-wire studies over similar-type riblets, we observe a weak time-average secondary flow in the form of
-filling streamwise vortices. The observed differences in the surface and secondary flow characteristics, compared to other heterogeneous-roughness studies, may suggest that different mechanisms are responsible for the flow modifications in this case. Observations of instantaneous velocity fields reveal modified and rearranged turbulence structures. The instantaneous snapshots also suggest that the time-average secondary flow may be an artefact arising from superpositions of much stronger instantaneous turbulent events enhanced by the surface texture. In addition, the observed instantaneous secondary motions seem to have promoted a free-stream-engulfing behaviour in the outer layer, which would indicate an increase turbulent/non-turbulent flow mixing. It is overall demonstrated that the presence of large-scale directionality in transitional surface roughness can cause a modification throughout the entire boundary layer, even when the roughness height is 0.5 % of the layer thickness.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
A child's diet is an important determinant for later health, growth and development. In Denmark, most children in primary school bring their own packed lunch from home and attend an after-school care institution. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the food, energy and nutrient intake of Danish school children in relation to dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations, and to assess the food intake during and outside school hours. In total, 834 children from nine public schools located in the eastern part of Denmark were included in this cross-sectional study and 798 children (95·7 %) completed the dietary assessment sufficiently (August–November 2011). The whole diet was recorded during seven consecutive days using the Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC). Compared with the food-based dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations, 85 % of the children consumed excess amounts of red meat, 89 % consumed too much saturated fat, and 56 % consumed too much added sugar. Additionally 35 or 91 % of the children (depending on age group) consumed insufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables, 85 % consumed insufficient amounts of fish, 86 % consumed insufficient amounts of dietary fibre, 60 or 84 % had an insufficient Fe intake (depending on age group), and 96 % had an insufficient vitamin D intake. The study also showed that there is a higher intake of fruits and bread during school hours than outside school hours; this is not the case with, for example, fish and vegetables, and future studies should investigate strategies to increase fish and vegetable intake during school hours.