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The Wisconsin Twin Project comprises multiple longitudinal studies that span infancy to early adulthood. We summarize recent papers that show how twin designs with deep phenotyping, including biological measures, can inform questions about phenotypic structure, etiology, comorbidity, heterogeneity, and gene–environment interplay of temperamental constructs and mental and physical health conditions of children and adolescents. The general framework for investigations begins with rich characterization of early temperament and follows with study of experiences and exposures across childhood and adolescence. Many studies incorporate neuroimaging and hormone assays.
Because of rapid solidification involved in the laser or e-beam based additive manufacturing (AM) process, solution treatable metallic parts made by these methods usually possess a unique nonequilibrium microstructure which changes significantly during subsequent thermal treatment. Such evolution alters the size, morphology, length scale, and distribution of microstructural features and has a substantial impact on thermal properties and possibly on electrical properties as well. This study focuses on effects of microstructural evolution on thermal properties of an additively manufactured AlSi10Mg part. The changes of thermal properties such as thermal expansion, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity as a function of thermal treatment are reported. The results show that the formation of supersaturated primary α aluminum and unique cellular structure imparted by fast solidification in the AM process are the major cause for the low thermal diffusivity and low thermal conductivity observed in this solution treatable, as-built part. A correlation between microstructural evolution and changes in thermal properties is established. Advantages and tailoring of the thermal properties of additively built parts are discussed. Implications of these results are important for other additively manufactured components based on popular solution treatable alloys.
Proliferation of ETEC in the small intestine is recognised as the predominant cause of post-weaning colibacillosis (Marquardt et al., 1999). Established ETEC secrete toxins that disrupt normal enterocyte function and lead to diarrhoea, dehydration, poor performance and increased mortality. Zinc oxide (ZnO) addition to the diet increases small intestine mucosal growth and promotes normal intestinal function. In turn the incidence and/or severity of diarrhoea is reduced and performance is improved (Li et al., 2001, Ragland et al., 2006). Pre-weaning environment also influences performance with outdoor reared pigs growing faster to weaning than indoor reared contemporaries (Miller et al., 2007) but are outdoor reared pigs able to cope with ETEC challenge at weaning? The current experiment compared the responses of group-housed pigs weaned from different lactation environments and fed diets differing in ZnO content to a prescribed ETEC challenge.
The weak thermal emission from the largest minor planets can be detected in the microwave regime by the Very Large Array (VLA). Signal-to-noise ratios are sufficiently high to permit precise measurement of the positions of these objects at all points in their orbits with respect to background extragalactic sources. We are in the process of obtaining observations of astrometric accuracy for minor planets 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta, and 10 Hygeia.
Minor planets have historically served as “test particles” in the solar system, and optical observations of these objects have been valuable in the determination of fundamental astronomical constants. In particular, optical observations of minor planets have played an important role in the establishment of the fundamental optical reference frame by permitting the determination of the orientation of the Earth's orbit relative to the stars defining the frame.
Similarly, radio observations of these bodies can play a corresponding role in the establishment of a fundamental radio reference frame. Our observations will provide a direct link between the dynamical and radio reference frames, and provide important information on the relationship between the radio and optical reference frames.
Film musicals are one of the key places where music and film join most clearly. They are the antecedent of modern digital audio-visual culture, where sound and image combine, and film aesthetics and music aesthetics merge into something different and more than the sum of their parts. Sonic excess becomes visual spectacle, both vying for ascendency. The film musical is a site of tension: between innovation and tradition, between sound and image, musical number and narrative, and between professionalism and amateurism. It is the continuous discord and synthesis that these tensions raise that forces the musical to never be in stasis, but rather always in a constant state of transition. It is the extent and form of these transitions that this collection focuses upon.
Although one of the staples of classical Hollywood, the film musical became more intermittent in the post-studio era. Indeed, in the last decades of the twentieth century it had become almost a rarity, the tent-pole musical productions of the 1960s, such as Star! (Robert Wise, 1968) and Hello Dolly! (Gene Kelly, 1969), heralding an era of lower budget caution and ‘independent’ production. However, in recent years there has been a remarkable resurgence in the success of film musicals. This edited collection explores the breadth and diversity of recent film musicals, celebrating their energy and diversity, and addressing the genre traditions and innovations, looking to the essential relationship between film and live entertainment, innovation and conservatism.
While at times the film musical genre might have seemed over, merely a historical curio, in the last couple of decades it has re-emerged with a renewed vigour. Although the ‘classical musical’ of Hollywood's heyday – the big white sets, full orchestral scores, dancing stars and elaborate production numbers – might seem long gone, its modes are still very much alive, and its sibling on the stage (embodied by Broadway and London's West End) remains tremendously successful. The old mantra that the musical is dead has long taken on muted tones and the form's past popularity discussed with diminishing reverence excepting by those who have remained stalwart to the genre. Yet, it has never been proven true.
This edited collection looks closely at the range and scope of contemporary film musicals, from stage adaptations like Mamma Mia! (2008) and Les Miserables (2012), to less conventional works that elide the genre, like Team America: World Police (2004) and Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill (2003/04).
Copper-alumina and copper-silica aerogels formed by impregnation of a copper(II) salt into an alumina or silica wet gel before supercritical extraction have been found to contain copper in multiple oxidation states: Cu0, Cu+1 and Cu+2. These aerogels are effective at catalyzing the reduction of NO and the oxidation of HCs and CO under conditions similar to those found in automotive three way catalysts. In this work we have developed a preparation method incorporating Cu0, Cu+1 and Cu+2 nanoparticles directly into silica aerogels. Nanoparticles in the form of (a) Cu0 nanorods (100 nm diameter, 10-20 μm length); (b) Cu+1 nanoparticles (350 nm diameter); and (c) Cu+2 nanoparticles (25-55 nm diameter) were added (0.5-15% by weight) to separate precursor mixtures consisting of tetramethyl orthosilicate, methanol, water and ammonia. These precursor mixtures were then processed using a rapid supercritical extraction (RSCE) method to form aerogels. The resulting aerogels show evidence of nanoparticles dispersed throughout the silica aerogel structure. Addition of Cu+1 and Cu+2 nanoparticles decreases the surface area of the aerogels significantly. X-Ray diffraction shows that regardless of initial oxidation state of the nanoparticles, crystalline Cu0 is detected after RSCE processing to 290 °C. Following heat treatment at 700 °C, crystalline Cu+2 is detected. The copper containing silica aerogels are found to be catalytically active with light-off temperatures (50% conversion) for NO and CO at 400 °C in three-way catalytic applications.
Introduction: Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often present to the emergency department (ED). Incorrect diagnosis may delay appropriate treatment and recommendations for these patients, prolonging recovery. Notable proportions of missed mTBI diagnosis have been documented in children and athletes, while diagnosis of mTBI has not been examined in the general adult population. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in one academic (site 1) and two non-academic (sites 2 and 3) EDs in Edmonton, Canada. On-site research assistants enrolled adult (>17 years) patients presenting within 72 hours of the injury event with clinical signs of mTBI and Glasgow comma scale score ≥13. Patient demographics, injury characteristics, and ED flow information were collected by chart review. Physician-administered questionnaires and patient interviews documented the recommendations given by emergency physicians at discharge. Bi-variable comparisons are reported using Pearson’s chi-square tests, Student’s t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests, as appropriate. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression methods. Results: Overall, 130/250 enrolled patients were female, and the median age was 35. Proportions of successfully diagnosed mTBI varied significantly across study sites (Site 1: 89%; Site 2: 73%, Site 3: 53%; p>0.001). Patients without a diagnosis were less likely to receive a recommendation to follow-up with their family physician (OR=0.08; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21) or advice about return to work (OR=0.17; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.04) or physical activity (OR=0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.17). Patients with missed diagnoses had longer ED stays (median=5.0 hours; IQR: 3.8, 7.0) compared with diagnosed mTBI patients (median=3.9 hours; IQR: 3.0, 5.3). In the adjusted model, patients presenting to non-academic centers had reduced likelihood of mTBI diagnosis (Site 2: OR=0.21; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.58; Site 3: OR=0.07; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.24). Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of physicians assessing patients presenting with symptoms of mTBIs to these three EDs is suboptimal. The rates of missed diagnosis vary among EDs and were associated with length of ED stay. Closer examination of institutional factors, including diagnosis processes and personnel factors such as physician training, is needed to identify effective strategies to heighten the awareness of mTBI presentations.
Introduction: Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) frequently present to the emergency department (ED); however, wide variation in diagnosis and management has been demonstrated in this setting. Sub-optimal mTBI management can contribute to post-concussion syndrome (PCS), affecting vocational outcomes like return to work. This study documented the work-related events, ED management, discharge advice, and outcomes for employed patients presenting to the ED with mTBI. Methods: Adult (>17 years) patients presenting to one of three urban EDs in Edmonton, Alberta with Glasgow coma scale score ≥13 within 72 hours of a concussive event were recruited by on-site research assistants. Follow-up calls ascertained outcomes, including symptoms and their severity, advice received in the ED, and adherence to discharge instructions, at 30 and 90 days after ED discharge. Dichotomous variables were analyzed using chi-square testing; continuous variables were compared using t-tests or Mann-Whitney tests, as appropriate. Work-related injury and return to work outcomes were modelled using logistic or linear regression, as appropriate. Results: Overall, 250 patents were enrolled; 172 (69%) were employed at the time of their injury and completed at least one follow-up. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 24, 49.5), both sexes were equally represented (48% male), and work-related concussions were uncommon (16%). Work-related concussion was related to manual labor jobs and self-reported history of attention deficit disorder. Patients often received advice to avoid sports (81%) and/or work (71%); however, the duration of recommended time off varied. Most employed patients (80%) missed at least one day of work (median=7 days; IQR: 3, 14); 91% of employees returned to work by 90 days, despite 41% reporting persistent symptoms. Increased days of missed work were linked to divorce, history of sleep disorder, and physician’s advice to avoid work. Conclusion: While work-related concussions are uncommon, most employees who sustain a mTBI at any time miss some work. Many patients experience mTBI symptoms past 90 days, which has serious implications for workers’ abilities to fulfill their work duties and risk of subsequent injury. Workers, employers, and the workers compensation system should take the necessary precautions to ensure that workers return to work safely and successfully following a concussion.