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Sexual dysfunction occurs in 40%-60% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), due to either the illness itself and/or the effects of antidepressant treatment. The phase-2 CLARITY trial recently demonstrated the efficacy of adjunctive pimavanserin (PIM) for MDD when added to ongoing selective serotonin or serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSRI/SNRI) treatment. No new safety observations were reported in this study. This post-hoc analysis examines the potential impact of PIM treatment on sexual function.
Study methodology has been presented previously (APA 2019). Adult male and female patients with moderate-to-severe MDD were randomized to PIM 34 mg/day (n=51) or placebo (PBO, n=152) added to ongoing SSRI/SNRI treatment. Massachusetts General Hospital–Sexual Functioning Inventory (MGH-SFI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAMD-17) item 14 (sexual interest) scores were examined by analysis of covariance.
Adjunctive PIM resulted in significantly greater 5-week reduction (improvement) relative to SSRI/SNRI treatment plus placebo on mean MGH-SFI scores (difference –0.634, SE 0.167; P<0.001; effect size [ES], Cohen’s d 0.614). Similarly, PIM resulted in greater improvement compared with placebo on individual MGH-SFI items that applied to both males and females: Interest in Sex (P=0.006; ES=0.483), Ability to Get Sexually Aroused/Excited (P=0.001; ES=0.560), Ability to Achieve Orgasm (P<0.001; ES=0.609), Overall Sexual Satisfaction (P=0.003; ES=0.524). HAMD-17 item 14 scores were also significantly more reduced (improved) with PIM (P<0.001; ES=0.574).
These results underscore the potential of adjunctive PIM for improving sexual function in patients with MDD and inadequate response to SSRIs/SNRIs. Potential benefits should be confirmed in further studies.
The diurnal feeding patterns of dairy cows affects the 24 h robot utilisation of pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS). A decline in robot utilisation between 2400 and 0600 h currently occurs in pasture-based AMS, as cow feeding activity is greatly reduced during this time. Here, we investigate the effect of a temporal variation in feed quality and quantity on cow feeding behaviour between 2400 and 0600 h as a potential tool to increase voluntary cow trafficking in an AMS at night. The day was allocated into four equal feeding periods (0600 to 1200, 1200 to 1800, 1800 to 2400 and 2400 to 0600 h). Lucerne hay cubes (CP = 19.1%, water soluble carbohydrate = 3.8%) and oat, ryegrass and clover hay cubes with 20% molasses (CP = 11.8%, water soluble carbohydrate = 10.7%) were offered as the ‘standard’ and ‘preferred’ (preference determined previously) feed types, respectively. The four treatments were (1) standard feed offered ad libitum (AL) throughout 24 h; (2) as per AL, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (AL + P); (3) standard feed offered at a restricted rate, with quantity varying between each feeding period (20:10:30:60%, respectively) as a proportion of the (previously) measured daily ad libitum intake (VA); (4) as per VA, with preferred feed replacing standard feed between 2400 and 0600 h (VA + P). Eight non-lactating dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. During each experimental period, treatment cows were fed for 7 days, including 3 days habituation and 4 days data collection. Total daily intake was approximately 8% greater (P < 0.001) for the AL and AL + P treatments (23.1 and 22.9 kg DM/cow) as compared with the VA and VA + P treatments (21.6 and 20.9 kg DM/cow). The AL + P and VA treatments had 21% and 90% greater (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI) between 2400 and 0600 h, respectively, compared with the AL treatment. In contrast, the VA + P treatment had similar DMI to the VA treatment. Our experiment shows ability to increase cow feeding activity at night by varying feed type and quantity, though it is possible that a penalty to total DMI may occur using VA. Further research is required to determine if the implementation of variable feed allocation on pasture-based AMS farms is likely to improve milking robot utilisation by increasing cow feeding activity at night.
Achieving a consistent level of robot utilisation throughout 24 h maximises automatic milking system (AMS) utilisation. However, levels of robot utilisation in the early morning hours are typically low, caused by the diurnal feeding behaviour of cows, limiting the inherent capacity and total production of pasture-based AMS. Our objective was to determine robot utilisation throughout 24 h by dairy cows, based on milking frequency (MF; milking events per animal per day) in a pasture-based AMS. Milking data were collected from January and February 2013 across 56 days, from a single herd of 186 animals (Bos taurus) utilising three Lely A3 robotic milking units, located in Tasmania, Australia. The dairy herd was categorised into three equal sized groups (n=62 per group) according to the cow’s mean daily MF over the duration of the study. Robot utilisation was characterised by an interaction (P< 0.001) between the three MF groups and time of day, with peak milking time for high MF cows within one h of a fresh pasture allocation becoming available, followed by the medium MF and low MF cows 2 and 4 h later, respectively. Cows in the high MF group also presented for milking between 2400 and 0600 h more frequently (77% of nights), compared to the medium MF group (57%) and low MF group (50%). This study has shown the formation of three distinct groups of cows within a herd, based on their MF levels. Further work is required to determine if this finding is replicated across other pasture-based AMS farms.
The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational constraint for understanding how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet an agreement on the observational properties of the AMR, primarily due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign for providing new observational input by using wide white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries. WDs are natural clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the MS companions. Since the progenitors of WDs and the MS stars were born at the same time, WDMS provide a unique opportunity to constrain in a robust way the properties of the AMR. We present the AMR derived from analysing a pilot sample of 23 WDMS and provide clear evidence for the lack of correlation between age and metallicity at young and intermediate ages.
The decomposition of the 21 cm rotation curve of galaxies into contribution from the disk and dark halo depends on the adopted mass to light ratio (M/L) of the disk. Given the vertical velocity dispersion (σz) of stars in the disk and its scale height (hz), the disk surface density and hence the M/L can be estimated. Earlier works have used this technique to conclude that galaxy disks are submaximal. Here we address an important conceptual problem: star-forming spirals have an old (kinematically hot) disk population and a young cold disk population. Both of these populations contribute to the integrated light spectra from which σz is measured. The measured scale height hz is for the old disk population. In the Jeans equation, σz and hz must pertain to the same population. We have developed techniques to extract the velocity dispersion of the old disk from integrated light spectra and from samples of planetary nebulae. We present the analysis of the disk kinematics of the galaxy NGC 628 using IFU data in the inner regions and planetary nebulae as tracers in the outer regions of the disk. We demonstrate that using the scale height of the old thin disk with the vertical velocity dispersion of the same population, traced by PNe, results in a maximal disk for NGC 628. Our analysis concludes that previous studies underestimate the disk surface mass density by ~ 2, sufficient to make a maximal disk for NGC 628 appear like a submaximal disk.
Toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 have caused cholera epidemics, but other serogroups – such as O75 or O141 – can also produce cholera toxin and cause severe watery diarrhoea similar to cholera. We describe 31 years of surveillance for toxigenic non-O1, non-O139 infections in the United States and map these infections to the state where the exposure probably originated. While serogroups O75 and O141 are closely related pathogens, they differ in how and where they infect people. Oysters were the main vehicle for O75 infection. The vehicles for O141 infection include oysters, clams, and freshwater in lakes and rivers. The patients infected with serogroup O75 who had food traceback information available ate raw oysters from Florida. Patients infected with O141 ate oysters from Florida and clams from New Jersey, and those who only reported being exposed to freshwater were exposed in Arizona, Michigan, Missouri, and Texas. Improving the safety of oysters, specifically, should help prevent future illnesses from these toxigenic strains and similar pathogenic Vibrio species. Post-harvest processing of raw oysters, such as individual quick freezing, heat-cool pasteurization, and high hydrostatic pressurization, should be considered.
The formation mechanism of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges in spiral galaxies has been a problem for many years. We briefly review here the possible formation scenarios for boxy/peanut bulges, concentrating on both the bar-buckling and accretion hypotheses, and then describe an observational program aimed at testing those various theories and studying the vertical structure of edge-on bars. Our program includes optical long-slit spectroscopy, Hi line-imaging, near-infrared imaging, and multi-band optical imaging. New spectroscopic results (both optical and Hi) are presented on seven galaxies, including five boxy/peanut-bulge spirals. Based on Kuijken & Merrifield's (1995) idea for detecting edge-on bars, we argue that these observations constitute a strong case in favour of the bar-buckling mechanism for the formation of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, but they also raise many questions and prompt for more detailed modelling to be made. The implications of the observations concerning the determination of rotation curves and of the physical conditions in bulges are also discussed.
Photo-electric observations of the occultation of BD —17°4388 by Neptune on 1968 April 7 were made with instruments and techniques as listed in Table I. A preliminary report of these observations has been given in IAU Circular No. 2067.
Globular clusters in the Galaxy are all old objects, with ages of about 1010 years. The LMC is quite different: its globular clusters have ages anywhere between about 5 × 106 years and 1010 years. It is important to find out why globular clusters can form now in the LMC but not in the Galaxy; the galactic globulars play a major role in our picture of the early history of the Galaxy, and it is obviously desirable that we should understand the conditions under which these clusters can form.
Hodge 11 (= SL 868) is a red, globular-like cluster (V ≅ 12.1, B—V = 0.62), situated on the east side of the LMC about 5 kpc projected distance from its centre (Gascoigne 1966). It was included in a programme to study the chemical evolution of the LMC by determining ages and metal abundances for a number of its clusters. Figure 1 shows a preliminary colour-magnitude diagram, found from four AAT plates calibrated with the AAT two-channel photometer. The choice of the radius, 1′.37 (23 pc), within which the stars were measured, was guided by the surface photometry of the cluster described later (Figure 3). But while it makes the number of “clean” stars inside the radius rather small, those outside it are too unlikely to be cluster members. As yet the calibration extends only to V = 19.6, and the nature of the cluster cannot be determined unambiguously. But Figure 1 already shows an unusual feature, in the very blue colour of the group of stars at V ≅ 19, B—V = 0.60, which on the usual interpretation would point to a metal abundance possibly lower than any yet encountered.
Several extragalactic HI surveys using a λ21 cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in early 1997 using the Parkes 64 m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver, including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area λ21 cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0–14000 km s−1.
The Circinus galaxy (CG) was discovered on a plate of an atlas of the nebulae of the southern Milky Way (Lyngå and and Hansson 1972). The detailed optical properties of this galaxy have been investigated by Freeman, Karlsson, Lyngå and Burrell and will be published in a paper by Freeman et al. (1976). The coordinates of the optical nucleus are (1950).
The occultation of a star by a planet of similar brightness allows accurate determination of the planet’s radius R, mean density ρ and of the ratio T/μ, where T and μ are the planetary atmospheric temperature and mean molecular weight. These quantities are important for the formation theory of the planet and of its atmosphere (see e.g. Öpik).
In order to find the best observable diagnostics for the amount of internal extinction within spiral galaxies, we have constructed models for disk galaxies with immersed dust layers. The radiative transfer problem, including both scattering and pure absorption, has been computed for a range of model galaxies. This reveals a set of superior diagnostics for the opacity. These include the behaviour of the radial colour and luminosity distributions, the amplitude of the asymmetry between the near and far sides of the major axis, and their dependence on the orientation of the galaxy with respect to the observer.
About 13% of bright galaxies are ellipticals (21% SO, 64% Spiral and Im, 2% IO and peculiar). Their obvious features are the smooth luminosity distribution and the near absence of the bright blue stars, HII regions and dust that appear in spiral systems; there is probably very little star formation going on at present in E galaxies. I plan to discuss some of the dynamical and physical properties of these systems; although many of them are known radio sources, I will not be able to discuss their radio properties.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Automatic milking systems (AMS), one of the earliest precision livestock farming developments, have revolutionized dairy farming around the world. While robots control the milking process, there have also been numerous changes to how the whole farm system is managed. Milking is no longer performed in defined sessions; rather, the cow can now choose when to be milked in AMS, allowing milking to be distributed throughout a 24 h period. Despite this ability, there has been little attention given to milking robot utilization across 24 h. In order to formulate relevant research questions and improve farm AMS management there is a need to determine the current knowledge gaps regarding the distribution of robot utilization. Feed, animal and management factors and their interplay on levels of milking robot utilization across 24 h for both indoor and pasture-based systems are here reviewed. The impact of the timing, type and quantity of feed offered and their interaction with the distance of feed from the parlour; herd social dynamics, climate and various other management factors on robot utilization through 24 h are provided. This novel review draws together both the opportunities and challenges that exist for farm management to use these factors to improved system efficiency and those that exist for further research.
The decomposition of the 21 cm rotation curve of galaxies into contribution from the disk and dark halo depends on the adopted mass to light ratio (M/L) of the disk. Given the vertical velocity dispersion (σz) of stars in the disk and its scale height (h), the disk surface density and hence the M/L can be estimated. Earlier works have used this technique to conclude that galaxy disks are submaximal. Here we address an important conceptual problem: σz and h must pertain to the same population. Our analysis concludes that previous studies underestimate the disk surface mass density by ~ 2, sufficient to make a maximal disk for M74 appear like a submaximal disk.
In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 8·8, 95% CI 2·0–38·3). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of Salmonella. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in Salmonella infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage.