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Atmospheric emissions of nitrogen (N) from New Zealand dairy farms are significant but have the potential to be affected by manure management prior to land application. The current work examined whether reducing cattle manure dry matter (DM) from 0.16 high DM (HDM) to 0.06 low DM (LDM), to enhance infiltration and reduce ammonia (NH3) emissions when applied to grassland, would affect nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture was cut, simulating grazing, and either amended with HDM (173 kg N/ha) or LDM manure (48 kg N/ha) or left unamended. Ammonia emissions from HDM manure were higher than from LDM manure, as a flux or as a percentage of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN, i.e. NH3 + NH4+) applied, due to more TAN being retained near the soil surface and the higher soil surface pH under HDM manure treatment. Cumulative N2O emissions over 37 days from HDM plots were higher than from the control but not from the LDM plots. After 5 days, the daily N2O emission rate was larger from HDM plots than from LDM and control plots. The N2O fluxes from LDM and HDM treatments did not differ, either as a proportion of TAN applied or as a proportion of total-N applied. Increasing DM contributed to reductions in both oxygen (O2) availability and relative gas diffusivity, and thus potentially N2O production. Under the conditions of the current study, lower manure DM content reduced NH3 emissions but did not increase cumulative losses of N2O.
In the present work, a stability analysis of the bottom boundary layer under solitary waves based on energy bounds and non-modal theory is performed. The instability mechanism of this flow consists of a competition between streamwise streaks and two-dimensional perturbations. For lower Reynolds numbers and early times, streamwise streaks display larger amplification due to their quadratic dependence on the Reynolds number, whereas two-dimensional perturbations become dominant for larger Reynolds numbers and later times in the deceleration region of this flow, as the maximum amplification of two-dimensional perturbations grows exponentially with the Reynolds number. By means of the present findings, we can give some indications on the physical mechanism and on the interpretation of the results by direct numerical simulation in Vittori & Blondeaux (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 615, 2008, pp. 433–443) and Özdemir et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 731, 2013, pp. 545–578) and by experiments in Sumer et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 646, 2010, pp. 207–231). In addition, three critical Reynolds numbers can be defined for which the stability properties of the flow change. In particular, it is shown that this boundary layer changes from a monotonically stable to a non-monotonically stable flow at a Reynolds number of
On 23 May 2011, CDC identified a multistate cluster of Salmonella Heidelberg infections and two multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from ground turkey retail samples with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. We defined cases as isolation of outbreak strains in persons with illness onset between 27 February 2011 and 10 November 2011. Investigators collected hypothesis-generating questionnaires and shopper-card information. Food samples from homes and retail outlets were collected and cultured. We identified 136 cases of S. Heidelberg infection in 34 states. Shopper-card information, leftover ground turkey from a patient's home containing the outbreak strain and identical antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical and retail samples pointed to plant A as the source. On 3 August, plant A recalled 36 million pounds of ground turkey. This outbreak increased consumer interest in MDR Salmonella infections acquired through United States-produced poultry and played a vital role in strengthening food safety policies related to Salmonella and raw ground poultry.
A synthetic cubic pyrochlore, Gd2Ti2O7 (Fd3̅m) irradiated with swift heavy ions is compared with a compositionally-related composition La2Ti2O7 (P21), which has a monoclinic, layered, perovskite-type structure. Irradiation experiments were performed at the GSI Helmholtz Center with 181Ta ions and 129Xe ions at specific energies of 11MeV/amu. At these energies the ions pass entirely through the sample thickness of ∼ 40 μm. Angle-dispersive synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were completed and an increasing ion-induced amorphization with increasing ion fluence was for both phases. The ion track cross-sections for the radiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transformation, as determined from the evolution of the integrated peak intensities as a function of fluence, reveal that La2Ti2O7 (track diameter, d ∼ 7.2 nm with 181Ta and 5.1 nm with 129Xe) is more susceptible to amorphization than Gd2Ti2O7 (d ∼ 6.2 nm with 181Ta and 4.6 nm with 129Xe). The radiation response of the two titanate compounds can be understood in the context of their different structures and cation ionic radius ratios rA/rB, where the susceptibility of radiation of titanate pyrochlores is proportionate with this radius ratio. The higher electronic linear energy loss of the 181Ta ions as compared with 129Xe ions leads to a consistent increase of volume amorphized per ion in both materials, which manifests as a larger track diameter.
To determine adherence to nutritional guidelines by pregnant women in New Zealand and maternal characteristics associated with adherence.
A cohort of the pregnant women enrolled into New Zealand’s new birth cohort study, Growing Up in New Zealand.
Women residing within a North Island region of New Zealand, where one-third of the national population lives.
Pregnant women (n 5664) were interviewed during 2009–2010. An FFQ was administered during the face-to-face interview.
The recommended daily number of servings of vegetables and fruit (≥6) were met by 25 % of the women; of breads and cereals (≥6) by 26 %; of milk and milk products (≥3) by 58 %; and of lean meat, meat alternatives and eggs (≥2) by 21 %. One in four women did not meet the recommendations for any food group. Only 3 % met all four food group recommendations. Although adherence to recommendation for the vegetables/fruit group did not vary by ethnicity (P=0·38), it did vary for the breads/cereals, milk/milk products and meat/eggs groups (all P<0·001). Adherence to recommendations for the vegetables/fruit group was higher among older women (P=0·001); for the breads/cereals group was higher for women with previous children (P<0·001) and from lower-income households (P<0·001); and for the meat/eggs group was higher for women with previous children (P=0·003) and from lower-income households (P=0·004).
Most pregnant women in New Zealand do not adhere to nutritional guidelines in pregnancy, with only 3 % meeting the recommendations for all four food groups. Adherence varies more so with ethnicity than with other sociodemographic characteristics.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions associated with urine nitrogen (N) deposition during grazing are a major component of greenhouse gas emissions from domestic livestock. The present study investigated the relationship between urine N loading rate and the efficacy of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), on cumulative N2O emissions from a grassland soil in Ireland over 80 and 360-day periods in 2009/10 and 2010/11. A diminishing curvilinear relationship between urine N rate and cumulative N2O emissions was observed in both years. Despite this increase in cumulative N2O emissions, the emission factor (EF3) for N2O decreased with increasing urine N rate from, on average, 0·24 to 0·10% (urine applied at 300 and 1000 kg N/ha, respectively), during an 80-day measurement period. This was probably the result of a factor other than N, such as carbon (C), limiting the production of N2O. The efficacy of DCD varied with urine N loading rate, and inter-annual variability in efficacy was also observed. Dicyandiamide was effective at reducing N2O production for 50–80 days after urine application, which accounted for the major period of elevated daily flux. However, DCD was ineffective at reducing N2O production after this period, which was likely a result of its removal from the soil via degradation and leaching.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
A heuristic greedy algorithm is developed for efficiently tiling spatially dense redshift surveys. In its first application to the Galaxy and MassAssembly (GAMA) redshift survey we find it rapidly improves the spatial uniformity of our data, and naturally corrects for any spatial bias introduced by the 2dF multi-object spectrograph. We make conservative predictions for the final state of the GAMA redshift survey after our final allocation of time, and can be confident that even if worse than typical weather affects our observations, all of our main survey requirements will be met.
Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P < 0.01). In conclusion, feeding n-3 LCPUFA to gilts tended to improve litter growth, but did not have an effect on overall subsequent reproductive performance.
Boron enhanced H diffusion in amorphous Si (a-Si) layers formed by ion implantation is observed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Constant concentrations of B were achieved using multiple energy B implantations into thick a-Si layers. The evolution of single H implanted profiles centered on the uniformly B-implanted regions was studied for partial anneals at temperatures in the range 380 – 640 °C. Boron enhanced diffusion is observed and the enhanced diffusion coefficient shows trends with temperature typically associated with a Fermi level shifting dependence. A modified form of the generalized Fermi level shifting model is considered in light of these results.
The kinetics of intrinsic and dopant-enhanced solid phase epitaxy (SPE) are studied in thick amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers formed by ion implantation on <100> Ge substrates. The SPE rates for H-free Ge were measured with a time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) system in the temperature range 300 – 540 °C and found to have an activation energy of (2.15 ± 0.04) eV. Dopant enhanced SPE was measured in a-Ge layers containing a uniform concentration profile of implanted As spanning the concentration regime 1 – 10 × 1019 cm3. The generalized Fermi level shifting model shows excellent fits to the data.
Accurate field data on the paddock area affected by cow urine depositions are critical to the estimation and modelling of nitrogen (N) losses and N management in grazed pasture systems. A new technique using survey-grade global positioning system (GPS) technology was developed to precisely measure the paddock spatial area coverage, diversity and distribution of dairy cattle urine patches in grazed paddocks over time. A 4-year study was conducted on the Lincoln University Dairy Farm (LUDF), Canterbury, New Zealand, from 2003 to 2007. Twelve field plots, each 100 m2 in area, were established on typical grazing areas of the farm. All urine and dung deposits within the plots were visually identified, the pasture response area (radius) measured and position marked with survey-grade GPS. The plots were grazed as part of the normal grazing rotation of the farm and urine and dung deposits measured at 12-week intervals. The data were collated using spatial (GIS) software and an assessment of annual urine patch coverage and spatial distribution was made. Grazing intensities ranged from 17 645 to 30 295 cow grazing h/ha/yr. Mean annual areas of urine patches ranged from 0·34 to 0·40 m2 (4-year mean 0·37±0·009 m2), with small but significant variation between years and seasons. Mean annual urine patch numbers were 6240±124 patches/ha/yr. The mean proportional area coverage for a single sampling event or season was 0·058 and the mean proportional annual urine patch coverage was 0·232±0·0071. There was a strong linear relationship between annual cow grazing h/ha and urine patch numbers/ha (R2=0·69) and also annual urine patch area coverage (R2=0·77). Within the stocking densities observed in this study, an annual increase of 10 000 cow grazing h/ha increased urine patch numbers by 1800 urine patches/ha/yr and annual urine patch area coverage by 0·07. This study presents new quantitative data on urine patch size, numbers and the spatial coverage of patches on a temporal basis.
To determine risk factors for cholera in an epidemic-disease area in South America, a case–control investigation was performed in Guayaquil, Ecuador, in July 1991. Residents > 5 years old who were hospitalized for treatment of acute, watery diarrhoea and two matched controls for each were interviewed regarding sources of water and food, and eating, drinking, and hygienic habits. Interviewers inspected homes of case-patients and controls to document water treatment, food-handling, and hygienic practices. Faecal specimens and shellfish were cultured for Vibrio cholerae O 1. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to a variety of antimicrobial agents. Drinking unboiled water (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, confidence interval [CI] = 1.8–7.5), drinking a beverage from a street vendor (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.3–5.9), eating raw seafood (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.4–11.5), and eating cooked crab (OR = 5.1, CI = 1.4–19.2) were associated with illness. Always boiling drinking water at home (OR = 0.5, CI = 0.2–0.9) was protective against illness. The presence of soap in either the kitchen (OR = 0.3, CI = 0.2–0.8) or bathroom (OR = 0.4, CI = 0.2–0.9) at home was also protective. V. cholerae O 1 was recovered from a pooled sample of a bivalve mollusc and from 68% of stool samples from case-patients. Thirty-six percent of the isolates from stool specimens were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. Specific prevention measures may prevent transmission through these vehicles in the future. The appearance of antimicrobial resistance suggests the need for changes in current methods of prevention and treatment.
Mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of organisms that cause disease in humans. Research into the development of effective standardized odour baits for blood-fed females (oviposition attractants), to enable entomological monitoring of vector populations, is hampered by complex protocols for extraction of physiologically active volatile chemicals from natural breeding site water samples, which have produced inconsistent results. Air entrainment and solvent extraction are technically demanding methods and are impractical for use in resource poor environments where mosquito-borne disease is most prevalent. This study reports the first use of a simple, robust extraction technique, stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), to extract behaviourally active small lipophilic molecules (SLMs) present in water samples collected from Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites in Tanzania. Extracts from a pit latrine and from a cess pool breeding site attracted more gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus in pair choice bioassays than control extracts, and coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) allowed tentative identification of 15 electrophysiologically active chemicals, including the known oviposition attractant, skatole (3-methylindole). Here, we have demonstrated, using simple pair choice bioassays in controlled laboratory conditions, that SBSE is effective for the extraction of behaviourally and electrophysiologically active semiochemicals from mosquito breeding site waters. Further research is required to confirm that SBSE is an appropriate technique for use in field surveys in the search for oviposition cues for Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Rapidly rotating solar type stars display varying amounts of
chromospheric emission in their Balmer lines. The profiles of these
lines often display rapid variability. Since the mid-1980s,
high-cadence echelle spectroscopy of numerous such stars has revealed
that some of the variability is caused by concentrations of neutral
hydrogen, trapped in the stellar coronal magnetic field at distances
up to a few stellar radii from the rotation axis. In this paper we
review the observations and the tomographic techniques that can be
applied to mapping these "slingshot prominence" systems. We discuss
the possible mechanisms for formation and mechanical support of these
condensations, in the light of recent efforts to map 3-dimensional
stellar coronal magnetic fields and X-ray emission measure
distributions, with the help of Zeeman-Doppler imaging.