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Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
We show that on-off intermittency in solar and stellar cycles is a result of amplitude-phase synchronization in multiscale interactions in solar/stellar dynamos or magnetorotational instability which leads to the formation of kinematic and magnetic coherent structures, and the novel techniques of Lagrangian coherent structures can detect transport barriers and vortices such as magnetic flux tubes/ropes in solar and stellar turbulence with high accuracy.
Acute care physicians are frequently faced with diagnosing and treating orthopedic emergencies with limited resources and without immediate specialist availability. Orthopedic Emergencies focuses on the acute management and stabilization of orthopedic injuries with specific recommendations on procedures and the stabilization of fractures and dislocation. The topics are organized anatomically with additional chapters on Procedures, Reduction Techniques, and Immobilization and Splinting. The information needed for a rapid diagnosis is available instantly through the bullet-point-style text, diagrams, images, pearls and pitfalls. There are specific recommendations on which splint to apply and how to position the affected limb, as well as advice on when to arrange follow up with an orthopedist or sports medicine physician. The spiral binding allows the book to lay flat for easy use at the bedside, making Orthopedic Emergencies the ideal companion for all emergency medicine providers including emergency department physicians, sports clinics, family medicine practitioners and mid-level providers.
This chapter presents the key facts, mechanism, anatomy, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of pelvic fractures e.g. avulsion fractures, and non-displaced pelvic fractures such as pubic ramis fractures, ischial body fractures, ilium fractures, sacral fractures, coccyx fractures, displaced pelvic fractures, acetabular fractures and hip fractures. Pelvic fractures represent 3% of all fractures, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The mortality rate for high-energy pelvic fractures is between 10% and 20%. The pelvis consists of the ilium and pubis, and the ilium on each side forming the innominate bones that are then joined at the pubis symphysis anteriorly and the sacrum posteriorly. Fractures involving a single pubic ramis are usually caused by a fall in the elderly, though in the young it is often the result of persistent tension/stress on the adductors or hamstrings resulting in a fracture at their site of origination.
This chapter presents the key facts, diagnostic testing, treatments, and prognosis of various types of hand and wrist fractures such as distal radius fracture, distal radioulnar joint disruption (DRUJ), carpal bone fractures, metacarpal bone fractures, phalangeal bone fractures, and distal phalanx fracture. Distal radius and ulnar injuries are often associated with median and ulnar neuropathies. A transverse fracture of the distal radial metaphysis with dorsal displacement and angulation, often caused by a fall on an outstretched hand. The lateral radiograph is the best view for revealing an intra-articular fracture of the radius and any associated carpal displacement in Barton fractures. A posteroanterior (PA) radiograph often shows a comminuted fracture of the distal radius. Barton fractures require emergency orthopedic/hand-specialist consultation for early operative management. Non-displaced Hutchinson fractures can be managed with a short-arm splint and routine orthopedic/hand-specialist follow-up.
Increased dietary Na intake and decreased dietary K intake are associated with higher blood pressure. It is not known whether the dietary Na:K ratio is associated with all-cause mortality or stroke incidence and whether this relationship varies according to race. Between 2003 and 2007, the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort enrolled 30 239 black and white Americans aged 45 years or older. Diet was assessed using the Block 98 FFQ and was available on 21 374 participants. The Na:K ratio was modelled in race- and sex-specific quintiles for all analyses, with the lowest quintile (Q1) as the reference group. Data on other covariates were collected using both an in-home assessment and telephone interviews. We identified 1779 deaths and 363 strokes over a mean of 4·9 years. We used Cox proportional hazards models to obtain multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). In the highest quintile (Q5), a high Na:K ratio was associated with all-cause mortality (Q5 v. Q1 for whites: HR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·47, P for trend = 0·084; for blacks: HR 1·36; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·77, P for trend = 0·028). A high Na:K ratio was not significantly associated with stroke in whites (HR 1·29; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·90) or blacks (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 0·78, 2·48), partly because of the low number of stroke events. In the REGARDS study, a high Na:K ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and there was a suggestive association between the Na:K ratio and stroke. These data support the policies targeted at reduction of Na from the food supply and recommendations to increase K intake.
The seventh annual Teaching and Learning Conference (TLC) was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from February 5 to 7, 2010, with 224 attendees onsite. The theme for the meeting was “Advancing Excellence in Teaching Political Science.” Using the working-group model, the TLC track format encourages in-depth discussion and debate on research dealing with the scholarship of teaching and learning.
At the center of North America, lying south of Hudson Bay and west and south of James Bay (50° to 59° N, 76° to 96° W) is the world's third-largest wetland – the Hudson Bay Lowland (Zoltai 1973). This area is the size of Japan, larger than the United Kingdom or Germany but smaller than Zimbabwe, France, or Iraq.
The Lowland is located near the center of the former Laurentide Ice Sheet which formed during the late Wisconsin glaciation (Fig. 4.1) and is a legacy of that age (Zoltai 1973, Riley 2003). As the glacier receded, the depression left behind was inundated by melt waters which became the Tyrrell Sea (and later the modern Hudson Bay and James Bay). The Lowland has emerged over the last 7000 to 8000 years due to one of the continent's most-rapid rates of isostatic rebound (0.7 to 1.2 cm per year; Webber et al. 1970). At this rate, the Hudson Bay shoreline is moving northward 4 m per year. The maximum elevation, currently about 120 m above sea level, occurs at the Lowland's southern limit (Gray et al. 2001).
Stretching from Churchill to the Eastmain River (Fig. 4.2), the Hudson Bay Lowland covers 373 700 km2, or 3.7% of Canada (ESWG 1995). Over 80% of the Lowland lies in northern Ontario. It is bounded inland by exposed bedrock of the Precambrian Shield (Hustich 1957).
The higher spatial resolution and sensitivity of ISO allowed several extragalactic surveys to be extended to greater depth than obtained with IRAS. With the extended wavelength range deep surveys were performed for the first time at wavelengths up to ~ 200 μm. They favour galaxy models with strong evolution. With ISO's new capabilities the spectral energy distributions of larger samples of ULIRGs in the local universe and those of quasars and radio galaxies were determined. These data are applicable as templates to the more distant universe. Foreground components from zodiacal light and cirrus to the intracluster dust emission were studied in connection with their separation from the extragalactic background radiation.