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Various biological risk factors for aggressive behaviours have been proposed, including disturbances in monoaminergic neurotransmission, endocrine axes and central nervous system (CNS) integrity.
To describe findings of correlations between markers of CNS chemical integrity, neurotransmission and hormone metabolism in relation to personality traits from forensic psychiatric investigees and normal subjects in a stress paradigm.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum (S) samples from 46 forensic psychiatric investigees and 35 healthy subjects undergoing knee replacement surgery were analysed in relation to aggressive personality traits as rated by the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Psychoapthy Checklist-Revised and the Temperament and Character Inventory.
Aggressive traits were especially associated with increased HVA/5-HIAA ratios, indicating a deficient serotonergic tonic regulation of the monoaminergic activity, and with indices of deficient CNS integrity, such as increased CSF/S albumin ratios.
Neurobiological vulnerability factors are associated with aggressive behavioural and personality traits.
Anxiety, apathy and depression are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and may herald Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether these symptoms correlated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers for AD in subjects with MCI.
Subjects with MCI (n=268) were selected from the ‘Development of screening guidelines and criteria for pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease’ (DESCRIPA) and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) studies. We measured amyloid β(1-42) protein (Aβ42) and total tau (t-tau) in CSF. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory.
Depressive symptoms were reported by 55 subjects (21%), anxiety by 35 subjects (13%) and apathy by 49 subjects (18%). The presence of anxiety was associated with abnormal CSF Aβ42 [odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–3.3] and t-tau (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9–3.6) concentrations and with the combination of abnormal concentrations of both Aβ42 and t-tau (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0–4.7). The presence of agitation and irritability was associated with abnormal concentrations of Aβ42 (agitation: OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3; irritability: OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5–3.3). Symptoms of depression and apathy were not related to any of the CSF markers.
In subjects with MCI, symptoms of anxiety, agitation and irritability may reflect underlying AD pathology, whereas symptoms of depression and apathy do not.
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