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Since the last General Assembly in Patras, Greece, we have held three meetings of the Working Group. The 10th Meeting was held in Mzkheta, the ancient capital of Georgia, USSR, hosted by their Academy of Sciences on April 3-7, 1984. All members except one, who was represented by a member of his Task Group, were present at the very productive meeting.
Four working groups and three task groups of IAU Commission 5 deal specifically with information handling, technical aspects of collection, archiving, storage and dissemination of data, with designations and classification of astronomical objects, with library services, editorial policies, computer communications, ad hoc methodologies, and with various standards, reference frames etc. Information about Commission 5 working and task groups and their activities may be found in http://nut.inasan.rssi.ru/IAU/.
Since the General Assembly at New Delhi in November 1985, the Working Group held two meetings within six weeks of each other; most members of the Working Group and several members of Task Groups were able to attend at least one of these meetings. The thirteenth meeting of the Working Group was held at Toulouse, France on June 30 to July 2,1986; the fourteenth meeting was held at Moscow, USSR, on August 10,1986; the fifteenth meeting took place from August 13 to 15 in Soviet Armenia.
It is with great sadness that we have to report the death on 24 August 1990 of the WG’s President, Harold Masursky, at the age of 66. Dr. Masursky is known for his many contributions in planetary science and for his many years of dedicated work in planetary nomenclature. During the interim until the next IAU General Assembly the IAU Executive Committee has appointed K. Aksnes as Acting President of the WG.
A multi-faceted, multi-institutional laboratory astrophysics program is carried out at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility, which is a mature spectroscopic source with unsurpassed controls and capabilities, and an unparalleled assortment of spectroscopic equipment, including a full complement of grating and crystal spectrometers and a 6x6 micro-calorimeter array. Recent results range from the calibration of x-ray diagnostics, including the Fe XVII and Fe XXV emission lines, extensive lists of L-shell ions, the first laboratory simulation and fit of a cometary x-ray emission spectrum, and the discovery of new spectral diagnostics for measuring magnetic field strengths.
Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite infecting humans and warm-blooded animals. Although many surveys have been conducted for T. gondii infection in mammals, little is known about the detailed distribution in localized natural populations. In this study, host genotype and spatial location were investigated in relation to T. gondii infection. Wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were collected from 4 sampling sites within a localized peri-aquatic woodland ecosystem. Mice were genotyped using standard A. sylvaticus microsatellite markers and T. gondii was detected using 4 specific PCR-based markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3 and GRA6 directly from infected tissue. Of 126 wood mice collected, 44 samples were positive giving an infection rate of 34·92% (95% CI: 27·14–43·59%). Juvenile, young adults and adults were infected at a similar prevalence, respectively, 7/17 (41·18%), 27/65 (41·54%) and 10/44 (22·72%) with no significant age-prevalence effect (P = 0·23). Results of genetic analysis of the mice showed that the collection consists of 4 genetically distinct populations. There was a significant difference in T. gondii prevalence in the different genotypically derived mouse populations (P = 0·035) but not between geographically defined populations (P = 0·29). These data point to either a host genetic/family influence on parasite infection or to parasite vertical transmission.
Renin is essential for renal development and in adult kidneys vitamin D deficiency increases renin gene expression. We aimed to determine whether maternal vitamin D deficiency upregulates fetal renal renin expression, and if this is sustained. We also examined growth and the long-term renal effects in offspring on a normal diet. Female Sprague–Dawley rats in UVB-free housing were fed either vitamin D deficient chow (DEF) or normal chow from 4 weeks and mated with vitamin D replete males at 10 weeks. Fetuses were collected at E20 or dams littered and the pups were weaned onto normal chow. Kidney mRNA levels for renin, (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β1), and nephrin were determined in E20 fetuses and in male offspring at 38 weeks. Renal function was assessed at 33 weeks (24 h, metabolic cage) in both sexes. Renal mRNA expression was upregulated for renin in fetuses (P < 0.05) and was almost doubled in adult male offspring from DEF dams (P < 0.05). Adult males had reduced creatinine clearance, solute excretion and a suppressed urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio (P < 0.05). Female adult DEF offspring drank more and excreted more urine (P < 0.05) but creatinine clearance was not impaired. We conclude that maternal vitamin D depletion upregulates fetal renal renin gene expression and this persists into adulthood where, in males only, there is evidence of sodium retention and compromised renal function. Importantly these effects occurred despite the animals being on a normal diet from the time of weaning onwards.
The prevalence of the digenean Plagiorchis sp. was investigated in a natural wood mouse population (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a periaquatic environment. Classical identification was complemented with the use of molecular differentiation to determine prevalence and verify species identity. Use of the complete ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA gene sequences have confirmed that the species reported at this location was Plagiorchis elegans and not Plagiorchis muris as reported previously. This underlines the difficulties in identification of these morphologically similar parasites. Plagiorchis elegans is typically a gastrointestinal parasite of avian species but has also been reported from small mammal populations. Although the occurrence of this digenean in A. sylvaticus in the UK is rare, in the area immediately surrounding Malham Tarn, Yorkshire, it had a high prevalence (23%) and a mean worm burden of 26.6 ± 61.5. The distribution of P. elegans followed a typically overdispersed pattern and both mouse age-group and sex were determined to be two main factors associated with prevalence. Male mice harboured the majority of worms, carrying 688 of 717 recovered during the study, and had a higher prevalence of 32.4% in comparison to only 8.7% in the small intestine of female mice. A higher prevalence of 43% was also observed in adult mice compared to 14% for young adults. No infection was observed in juvenile mice. These significant differences are likely to be due to differences in the foraging behaviour between the sexes and age cohorts of wood mice.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy have been used to obtain information on the local structure of deuterium in single-crystal silicon, both for deuterated, phosphorous-doped Si that contains platelet-structured defects and for deuterated boron-doped silicon. In both cases, the NMR spectrum consists of two components, a narrow doublet and a central, unsplit line. The doublet arises from D bonded to Si with the Si-D bond along the <111> directions. The central line, which contains more D than does the doublet, is ascribed primarily to molecular D2 that resides in regions of the crystal where translation and tumbling are inhibited and possibly to some D in weak Si-D bonds.
Notocotylus malhamensis n. sp. is described from the caecum of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and the field vole (Microtus agrestis) from Malham Tarn Nature Reserve in North Yorkshire, UK. In total, 581 specimens were collected from rodents trapped at a wetland site (Tarn Fen) between July 2010 and October 2011 with a prevalence of 66·7% and mean intensity of 94·6 in the bank vole and 50% prevalence and a mean intensity of 4·3 in the field vole. This species appears to be most closely related to other previously described Notocotylus species infecting rodents in Europe but differs principally by the metraterm to cirrus sac ratio (1:1·5–1:1·2) in combination with a densely spinulated cirrus, simple caeca and a greater number of ventral glands in the lateral rows (14–17). The use of molecular differentiation was of limited use in this study due to a paucity of relevant information in the DNA sequence databases. However, the complete ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 and partial 28S gene sequences have been generated to provide a definitive tool for identification of this species in future studies. As far as we know this is the first report of a notocotylid infection in M. glareolus in the UK.
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent worldwide and can infect a remarkably wide range of hosts despite felids being the only definitive host. As cats play a major role in transmission to secondary mammalian hosts, the interaction between cats and these hosts should be a major factor determining final prevalence in the secondary host. This study investigates the prevalence of T. gondii in a natural population of Apodemus sylvaticus collected from an area with low cat density (<2·5 cats/km2). A surprisingly high prevalence of 40·78% (95% CI: 34·07%–47·79%) was observed despite this. A comparable level of prevalence was observed in a previously published study using the same approaches where a prevalence of 59% (95% CI: 50·13%–67·87%) was observed in a natural population of Mus domesticus from an area with high cat density (>500 cats/km2). Detection of infected foetuses from pregnant dams in both populations suggests that congenital transmission may enable persistence of infection in the absence of cats. The prevalences of the related parasite, Neospora caninum were found to be low in both populations (A. sylvaticus: 3·39% (95% CI: 0·12%–6·66%); M. domesticus: 3·08% (95% CI: 0·11%–6·05%)). These results suggest that cat density may have a lower than expected effect on final prevalence in these ecosystems.
Pulsed excimer-laser processing of amorphous silicon on non-crystalline substrates allows for the fabrication of high-quality polysilicon thin-film transistors (TFTs). It also provides procedures for doping self-aligned amorphous silicon TFTs. In addition, laser-crystallized polysilicon exhibits some interesting materials properties, such as, large lateral grain growth with a corresponding enhancement in the electron mobility. Under optimized processing conditions, excellent polysilicon TFTs with high mobilities, sharp turn on, low off-state leakage currents and good spatial uniformity have been achieved. These improved parameters, particularly the low off-state leakage currents and good uniformity, enable not only displays but also the moredemanding flat-panel imaging arrays to be fabricated in polysilicon. Results on both polysilicon CMOS circuits and a polysilicon flat-panel imager are presented.
Monte Carlo simulations of hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) gas ambients indicate different flux ratios (SiH3/Si and H/SiHx) under conditions for amorphous or polycrystalline silicon growth. Gas-phase reactions of Si with ambient SiH4 studied using abinitio methods reveals that collisional stabilization of the adduct (H3SiSiH) is unlikely under typical HWCVD growth pressures, but an energetically favorable, low-pressure pathway has been identified that leads to the formation of Si2H2 and H2. Threshold ionization mass spectrometry has revealed significant quantities of the radical SiH2 at HWCVD growth pressures, indicative of heterogeneous pyrolysis. Mass spectrometry at low pressures suggests that incident silane dissociatively adsorbs at the wire and undergoes sequential H elimination to produce subhydrides. Disilicon species were not detected in significant quantities at HWCVD growth pressures. Finally, hot wire operation in a pure H2 ambient yields SiH4 as the dominant etching product from the silicon-coated walls of the growth chamber.