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− Agency is one of five core analytical problems in the Earth System Governance (ESG) Project’s research framework, which offers a unique approach to the study of environmental governance. − Agency in Earth System Governance draws lessons from ESG–Agency research through a systematic review of 322 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2008 and 2016 and contained in the ESG–Agency Harvesting Database.− ESG–Agency research draws on diverse disciplinary perspectives with distinct clusters of scholars rooted in the fields of global environmental politics, policy studies, and socio-ecological systems. − Collectively, the chapters in Agency in Earth System Governance provide an accessible synthesis of some of the field’s major questions and debates and a state-of-the-art understanding of how diverse actors engage with and exercise authority in environmental governance.
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
Preservation knowledge is important for those preparing archaeological collections for curation or requesting access to collections for research. Literature about the fields of archaeological conservation and curation is plentiful, but there are scant resources that offer a basic introduction to the knowledge needed to facilitate preservation of and access to archaeological collections. Much of the literature focuses on conservation in the field and in the lab. Archaeological curation standards and the importance of sustainable management of archaeological collections also are well documented. In contrast, this article serves as an introductory guide to preventive care, specifically to the agents of deterioration and the storage considerations that affect preservation of and access to archaeological collections. Collections specialists who work in museums, government repositories, or historical societies, as well as field archaeologists, academic archaeologists teaching and conducting research on collections, and descendant communities in tribal historic preservation offices and other repositories will find this guide useful as a reference and teaching resource.
Serum uric acid (SUA), a causative agent for gout, is linked to dietary factors, perhaps differentially by race. Cross-sectional (SUAbase, i.e. baseline SUA) and longitudinal (SUArate; i.e. annual rate of change in SUA) associations of SUA with diet were evaluated across race and sex–race groups, in a large prospective cohort study of urban adults. Of 3720 African American (AA) and White urban adults participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study, longitudinal data (2004–2013, k=1·7 repeats, follow-up, 4·64 (sd 0·93) years) on n 2138 participants were used. The main outcome consisted of up to two repeated measures on SUA. Exposures included the dietary factors such as ‘added sugar’, ‘alcoholic beverages’, ‘red meat’, ‘total fish’, ‘legumes’, ‘total dairy product’, ‘caffeine’, ‘vitamin C’ and a composite measure termed ‘dietary urate index’. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted, stratifying by race and by race×sex. A positive association between legume intake and SUArate was restricted to AA, whereas alcohol intake was positively associated with SUAbase overall without racial differences. Added sugars were directly related to SUAbase among White men (P<0·05 for race×sex interaction), whereas dairy product intake was linked with slower SUArate among AA women, unlike among White women. Nevertheless, dairy product intake was associated with a lower SUAbase among Whites. Finally, the dietary urate index was positively associated with both SUAbase and SUArate, particularly among AA. In sum, race and sex interactions with dietary intakes of added sugars, dairy products and legumes were detected in determining SUA. Similar studies are needed to replicate these findings.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
The role of dairy foods and related nutrients in cardiometabolic health aetiology is poorly understood. We investigated longitudinal associations between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with key dairy product exposures. We used prospective data from a bi-racial cohort of urban adults (30–64 years at baseline (n 1371)), the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS), in Baltimore City, MD (2004–2013). The average of two 24-h dietary recalls measured 4–10 d apart was computed at baseline (V1) and follow-up (V2) waves. Annual rates of change (Δ) in dairy foods and key nutrients were estimated. Incident obesity, central obesity and the MetS were determined. Among key findings, in the overall urban adult population, both cheese and yogurt (V1 and Δ) were associated with an increased risk of central obesity (hazard ratio (HR) 1·13; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·23 per oz equivalent of cheese (V1); HR 1·21; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·44 per fl oz equivalent of yogurt (V1)]. Baseline fluid milk intake (V1 in cup equivalents) was inversely related to the MetS (HR 0·86; 95 % CI 0·78, 0·94), specifically to dyslipidaemia–TAG (HR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·99), although it was directly associated with dyslipidaemia–HDL-cholesterol (HR 1·10; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·21). Furthermore, ΔCa and ΔP were inversely related to dyslipidaemia–HDL and MetS incidence, respectively, whereas Δdairy product fat was positively associated with incident TAG–dyslipidaemia and HDL-cholesterol–dyslipidaemia and the MetS. A few of those associations were sex and race specific. In sum, various dairy product exposures had differential associations with metabolic disturbances. Future intervention studies should uncover how changes in dairy product components over time may affect metabolic disorders.
Little is known about the association of cortical Aβ with depression and anxiety among cognitively normal (CN) elderly persons.
We conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota; involving CN persons aged ≥ 60 years that underwent PiB-PET scans and completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive diagnosis was made by an expert consensus panel. Participants were classified as having abnormal (≥1.4; PiB+) or normal PiB-PET (<1.4; PiB−) using a global cortical to cerebellar ratio. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after adjusting for age and sex.
Of 1,038 CN participants (53.1% males), 379 were PiB+. Each one point symptom increase in the BDI (OR = 1.03; 1.00–1.06) and BAI (OR = 1.04; 1.01–1.08) was associated with increased odds of PiB-PET+. The number of participants with BDI > 13 (clinical depression) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET- group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.42; 0.83–2.43). Similarly, the number of participants with BAI > 10 (clinical anxiety) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET− group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.77; 0.97–3.22).
As expected, depression and anxiety levels were low in this community-dwelling sample, which likely reduced our statistical power. However, we observed an informative albeit weak association between increased BDI and BAI scores and elevated cortical amyloid deposition. This observation needs to be tested in a longitudinal cohort study.
Serum uric acid (SUA), a causative agent for gout among others, is affected by both genetic and dietary factors, perhaps differentially by sex. We evaluated cross-sectional (SUAbase) and longitudinal (SUArate) associations of SUA with a genetic risk score (GRS), diet and sex. We then tested the interactive effect of GRS, diet and sex on SUA. Longitudinal data on 766 African-American urban adults participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity across the Lifespan study were used. In all, three GRS for SUA were created from known SUA-associated SNP (GRSbase (n 12 SNP), GRSrate (n 3 SNP) and GRStotal (n 15 SNP)). Dietary factors included added sugar, total alcohol, red meat, total fish, legumes, dairy products, caffeine and vitamin C. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. SUAbase was higher among men compared with that among women, and increased with GRStotal tertiles. SUArate was positively associated with legume intake in women (γ=+0·14; 95 % CI +0·06, +0·22, P=0·001) and inversely related to dairy product intake in both sexes combined (γ=−0·042; 95 % CI −0·075, −0·009), P=0·010). SUAbase was directly linked to alcohol consumption among women (γ=+0·154; 95 % CI +0·046, +0·262, P=0·005). GRSrate was linearly related to SUArate only among men. Legume consumption was also positively associated with SUArate within the GRStotal’s lowest tertile. Among women, a synergistic interaction was observed between GRSrate and red meat intake in association with SUArate. Among men, a synergistic interaction between low vitamin C and genetic risk was found. In sum, sex–diet, sex–gene and gene–diet interactions were detected in determining SUA. Further similar studies are needed to replicate our findings.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
Poor diet quality contributes to morbidity, including poor brain health outcomes such as cognitive decline and dementia. African Americans and individuals living in poverty may be at greater risk for cognitive decrements from poor diet quality.
Baltimore, MD, USA.
Participants were 2090 African Americans and Whites (57 % female, mean age=47·9 years) who completed two 24 h dietary recalls. We examined cognitive performance and potential interactions of diet quality with race and poverty status using baseline data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated and interpreted using federal guidelines. A neurocognitive test battery was administered to evaluate cognitive function over several domains.
Linear regression analyses showed that lower HEI-2010 scores were associated with poorer verbal learning and memory (P<0·05) after adjustment for covariates. Diet quality within the sample was poor. Significant interactions of HEI-2010 and poverty status (all P<0·05) indicated that higher diet quality was associated with higher performance on tests of attention and cognitive flexibility, visuospatial ability and perceptual speed among those below the poverty line. No significant race interactions emerged. Higher diet quality was associated with better performance on two measures of verbal learning and memory, irrespective of race and poverty status.
Findings suggest that diet quality and cognitive function are likely related at the population level. Future research is needed to determine whether the association is clinically significant.
Peer drinking norms are arguably one of the strongest correlates of adolescent drinking. Prospective studies indicate that adolescents tend to select peers based on drinking (peer selection) and their peers' drinking is associated with changes in adolescent drinking over time (peer socialization). The present study investigated whether the peer selection and socialization processes in adolescent drinking differed as a function of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) variable number tandem repeat genotype in two independent prospective data sets. The first sample was 174 high school students drawn from a two-wave 6-month prospective study. The second sample was 237 college students drawn from a three-wave annual prospective study. Multigroup cross-lagged panel analyses of the high school student sample indicated stronger socialization via peer drinking norms among carriers, whereas analyses of the college student sample indicated stronger drinking-based peer selection in the junior year among carriers, compared to noncarriers. Although replication and meta-analytic synthesis are needed, these findings suggest that in part genetically determined peer selection (carriers of the DRD4 seven-repeat allele tend to associate with peers who have more favorable attitudes toward drinking and greater alcohol use) and peer socialization (carriers' subsequent drinking behaviors are more strongly associated with their peer drinking norms) may differ across adolescent developmental stages.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact atrial septum is a poor predictor of outcomes. Prenatal assessment of pulmonary venous Doppler and emergent postnatal cardiac intervention may be associated with better outcomes.
Materials and methods
A retrospective review of all hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients in two centres over a 5-year period was performed. Group 1 included patients with adequate inter-atrial communication. Group 2 included patients with prenatal diagnosis with an intact atrial septum who had immediate transcatheter intervention. Group 3 included patients with intact atrial septum who were not prenatally diagnosed and underwent either delayed intervention or no intervention before stage 1 palliation. Primary outcome was survival up to stage 2 palliation.
The incidence of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with a restrictive atrial communication was 11.2% (n=19 of 170). Overall survival to stage 2 or heart transplantation was 85% and 67% for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (n=129/151, n=8/12; p=0.03), and 0% (n=0/7) for Group 3. Survival benefits were observed between Groups 2 and 3 (p<0.001). Foetal pulmonary vein Doppler reverse/forward velocity time integral ratio of ⩾18% (sensitivity, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.58–1; specificity, 0.99, 95% CI, 0.96–1) was predictive of the need for emergent left atrial decompression.
Using a multidisciplinary approach and foetal pulmonary vein Doppler, time-saving measures can be instituted by delivering prenatally diagnosed neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact atrial septum close to the cardiac catheterisation suite where left atrial decompression can be performed quickly and safely that may improve survival.
Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized.
Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods.
Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study.
African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177).
Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls.
Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet–health relationships.
Gene polymorphisms provide a means to obtain unconfounded associations between carotenoids and various health outcomes. In the present study, we tested whether gene polymorphisms and gene scores linked to low serum carotenoid status are related to metabolic disturbance and depressive symptoms in African-American adults residing in Baltimore city, MD, using cross-sectional data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (age range 30–64 years, n 873–994). We examined twenty-four SNP of various gene loci that were previously shown to be associated with low serum carotenoid status (SNPlcar). Gene risk scores were created: five low specific-carotenoid risk scores (LSCRS: α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene) and one low total-carotenoid risk score (LTCRS: total carotenoids). SNPlcar, LSCRS and LTCRS were entered as predictors for a number of health outcomes. These included obesity, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III metabolic syndrome and its components, elevated homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, hyperuricaemia and elevated depressive symptoms (EDS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression score ≥ 16). Among the key findings, SNPlcar were not associated with the main outcomes after correction for multiple testing. However, an inverse association was found between the LTCRS and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) dyslipidaemia. Specifically, the α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS were associated with a lower odds of HDL-C dyslipidaemia. However, the β-cryptoxanthin LSCRS was linked to a higher odds of EDS, with a linear dose–response relationship. In summary, gene risk scores linked to low serum carotenoids had mixed effects on HDL-C dyslipidaemia and EDS. Further studies using larger African-American population samples are needed.