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A new species, Begonia rheophytica (§ Platycentrum), is described from northern Myanmar; it was initially confused with B. rhoephila, which is confined to Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison with other species with a rheophytic leaf shape is made. This new addition brings the number of currently recognised Begonia species in Myanmar to 73. An updated checklist of Myanmar Begonia species is also included.
Clostridium difficile, the most common cause of hospital-associated diarrhoea in developed countries, presents major public health challenges. The high clinical and economic burden from C. difficile infection (CDI) relates to the high frequency of recurrent infections caused by either the same or different strains of C. difficile. An interval of 8 weeks after index infection is commonly used to classify recurrent CDI episodes. We assessed strains of C. difficile in a sample of patients with recurrent CDI in Western Australia from October 2011 to July 2017. The performance of different intervals between initial and subsequent episodes of CDI was investigated. Of 4612 patients with CDI, 1471 (32%) were identified with recurrence. PCR ribotyping data were available for initial and recurrent episodes for 551 patients. Relapse (recurrence with same ribotype (RT) as index episode) was found in 350 (64%) patients and reinfection (recurrence with new RT) in 201 (36%) patients. Our analysis indicates that 8- and 20-week intervals failed to adequately distinguish reinfection from relapse. In addition, living in a non-metropolitan area modified the effect of age on the risk of relapse. Where molecular epidemiological data are not available, we suggest that applying an 8-week interval to define recurrent CDI requires more consideration.
X-ray diffraction topography is the name given to several x-ray diffraction techniques where large area x-ray beams diffracted from a crystal provide detailed information about the surface structure and internal perfection of crystal microstructures. Since x-ray topographic techniques are based on Bragg (reflection) or Laue (transmission) diffraction from a crystal lattice, they are extremely sensitive to any atomic lattice imperfections and strains. Alterations of the interplanar spacing as small as one part in ten thousand extending over a reasonable number of atomic ce11 lengths can be recorded as a corresponding change in the diffracted beam intensity. Line Modified-Asymmetric Crystal Topography (LM-ACT) is one such reflection technique that shows particular promise in Che field of microelectronics. The LM-ACT system is designed with low angular divergence in the x-ray beam probe. Low probe beam divergence allows details of device geometries on the order of microns to be resolved in the recorded x-ray intensity variation of the diffracted beam.
The LM-ACT system was applied here to the study of integrated circuits (IC) after specific processing steps were accomplished during IC fabrication and in the final product condition. Topographs obtained from specular crystal surfaces that were implanted through a patterned mask showed contrast variations between the implanted and non-implanted regions; details of the mask patterns have been resolved on the order of a few microns. LMACT topographs from annealed, and unannealed, Implanted specimens showed marked differences and as a result it is suggested that LM-ACT would be beneficial in optimizing the processing schedule for a particular wafer/electronic system. A significant feature of the LM-ACT technique is the capability for producing high resolution stereo-pair topographs that provide quantitative information through the depth of individual process layers in an integrated circuit.
As a technique for non-destructive materials analysis, computed tomography (CT) has been especially useful for studying the dependence of the structure of ceramics on manufacturing processes. CT also has been used for characterizing the lithology of reservoir cores while they are still contained in preservation material or a core barrel.
The parameter measured by CT is the X-ray attenuation coefficient, which is a function of both material density and material composition.
How cognitive impairment and frailty combine to impact on older adults’ Quality of Life (QoL) is little studied, but their inter-relationships are important given how often they co-occur. We sought to examine how frailty and cognitive impairment, as well as changes in frailty and cognition, are associated with QoL and how these relationships differ based on employment status and social circumstances.
Using the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe data, we employed moderated regression, followed by simple slopes analysis, to examine how the relationships between levels of health (i.e., of frailty and cognition) and QoL varied as a function of sex, age, education, social vulnerability, and employment status. We used the same analysis to test whether the relationships between changes in health (over two years) and QoL varied based on these same moderators.
Worse frailty (b = −1.61, p < .001) and cognitive impairment (b = −0.08, p < .05) were each associated with lower QoL. Increase in frailty (b = −2.17, p < .001) and cognitive impairment (b = −0.25, p < .001) were associated with lower QoL. The strength of these relationships varied depending on interactions with age, sex, education, social vulnerability, and employment status. Higher social vulnerability was consistently associated with lower QoL in analyses examining both static health (b = −3.16, p < .001) and change in health (b = −0.66, p < .001).
Many predictors of QoL are modifiable, providing potential targets to improve older adults’ QoL. Even so, the relationships between health, cognition, and social circumstances that shape QoL in older adults are complex, highlighting the importance for individualized interventions.
Much of the global agricultural by products go waste, especially in developing nations where much of their revenues depend on the exports of raw agricultural products. Such waste streams, if converted to “value added” products could serve as additional source of revenue while simultaneously having a positive impact on the socio-economic well being of the people. We present a preliminary investigation on utilizing chemical activation technique and ball milling to convert agricultural waste streams such as cocoa pod, coconut husk, palm midrib and calabash commonly found in Ghana into ultra-high surface area activated carbon. Such activated carbons are suitable for myriads of applications in environmental remediation, climate management, energy storage and conversion systems (batteries and supercapacitors), and improving crop productivity. We achieved BET surface area as high as ∼ 3000 m2/g.
Zoonoses are those diseases of animals that can be transmitted to man or vice versa. These may be caused by bacteria, parasites, or more rarely by viruses. This paper will concentrate mainly on the zoonotic bacteria Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., E. coli O157 and Yersinia spp. Foodborne disease, often described as food poisoning, is defined as disease due to the consumption of food contaminated with microorganisms or their toxins. In 2000, the most common causes of food poisoning in humans in Great Britain were Campylobacter spp. (60340 cases) and Salmonella spp. (16567 cases). Less than 100 cases of Yersinia spp. infections were reported in humans in England and Wales. Results from surveillance of zoonotic organisms in farm livestock were presented at two conferences organised by MAFF in 2000. The main results are outlined in table 1. It is not possible to guarantee the complete absence from meat of bacteria that can cause infections in people. Thorough cooking of foods should kill all vegetative bacteria. Nevertheless, it is also important that steps are taken throughout the supply chain to minimise the transfer of the bacteria that could cause foodborne disease.
There is a need to identify finishing systems for pigs that meet the requirements of both pig producers and society. These require that a system is economically efficient, but also takes due account of animal welfare, food safety and environmental considerations. As part of an integrated investigation, this study assessed the health and welfare implications of giving pigs either dry or liquid feed when housed in either fully-slatted or straw-based accommodation.
To determine the patterns and predictors of treatment response trajectories for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Conditional latent growth mixture modelling was used to identify classes and predictors of class membership. In total, 2686 veterans treated for PTSD between 2002 and 2015 across 14 hospitals in Australia completed the PTSD Checklist at intake, discharge, and 3 and 9 months follow-up. Predictor variables included co-morbid mental health problems, relationship functioning, employment and compensation status.
Five distinct classes were found: those with the most severe PTSD at intake separated into a relatively large class (32.5%) with small change, and a small class (3%) with a large change. Those with slightly less severe PTSD separated into one class comprising 49.9% of the total sample with large change effects, and a second class comprising 7.9% with extremely large treatment effects. The final class (6.7%) with least severe PTSD at intake also showed a large treatment effect. Of the multiple predictor variables, depression and guilt were the only two found to predict differences in response trajectories.
These findings highlight the importance of assessing guilt and depression prior to treatment for PTSD, and for severe cases with co-morbid guilt and depression, considering an approach to trauma-focused therapy that specifically targets guilt and depression-related cognitions.
In patients with ductal-dependent CHD, ductal restriction can be life-threatening. We present the use of urgent hybrid palliation involving placement of bilateral pulmonary artery bands and ductus arteriosus stent implantation in a 1.5 kg premature infant with interrupted aortic arch and ductal restriction.
Many modern scholars have argued that the consulship was not created at the foundation of the Republic as Roman tradition maintained, and that the government of the early Republic went through several stages of development before it reached the familiar ‘classical constitution.’ Building on this work, this article considers what the early civilian government of Rome may have looked like. It is argued that the Romans did not create an entirely new government (based on consuls) following the removal of the monarchy, but instead made use of existing sources of power and authority: rich land-owning clans dominated military activity outside the city, while priests, the curiae, and minor officials exercised responsibilities of civilian governance in Rome. The plebeian tribunate was probably the first significant office to be created in the Republic, and the unusual nature of its power (sacrosanctity) and the absence of any other chief magistracy enabled the tribunes to acquire a broad range of prerogatives. A series of reforms eventually led to the development of the familiar ‘classical constitution’, and the consulship and praetorship became the most prestigious and desired magistracies (and—outside the city—the most powerful), but the tribunes long retained the broadest prerogatives for civilian governance inside the city.
Water is the foundation of all ecosystems, whether terrestrial or aquatic. In terrestrial ecosystems freshwater not only provides critical water supply for transpiration during plant photosynthesis and drinking water for animals, but also transports, redistributes and stores energy, nutrients and contaminants. In aquatic and snow ecosystems, water is the medium in which the ecosystem functions and so its state mediates all transactions in these systems. Ecosystems are not passive responders to water but through their structure and function can manage water and associated microclimate – forests, grasslands, organic terrain wetlands, and beaver ponds being just a few examples.
This chapter will examine the surface water budget in terms of the water continuity equation as a manifestation of the hydrological cycle. To solve the continuity equation for water, the chapter will review hydrological processes and how they interact with vegetation, animals, soils, geomorphology and climate in the context of the catchment. The coupling of the mass and energy continuity equations in controlling hydrological processes will be discussed. How hydrological processes and their ecosystem interactions are managed by humans will be introduced. Then the chapter will review calculation schemes for the surface water budget via one-dimensional land surface schemes and catchment-based hydrological models, noting the data requirements, uncertainty and limitations of these models and the balance required between model complexity and physical representation of hydrology. This will give the conceptual ideas and basic mathematics of conservation laws and transport processes that form the basis of many models in the forthcoming chapters.
Hydrological Processes as a Fundamental Component of Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems
The hydrological cycle is the flow and storage of water, as liquid, solid or vapor, on and near the Earth's surface. This cycling is a fundamental function of the Earth system and, through its associated latent energy transformations and other influences on land surface characteristics, ensures the habitability of the planet. A representation of the global hydrological cycle is found in Figure 4.1 where it can be seen that there are substantial flows between ocean and land – evaporation and river discharge from land transfer water directly to the oceans or through precipitation and ocean water is evaporated and then forms precipitation over land.
We present the first radiocarbon dates from previously unrecorded, secondary burials in the Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia. The mortuary ritual incorporates nautical tradeware ceramic jars and log coffins fashioned from locally harvested trees as burial containers, which were set out on exposed rock ledges at 10 sites in the eastern Cardamom Massif. The suite of 28 14C ages from 4 of these sites (Khnorng Sroal, Phnom Pel, Damnak Samdech, and Khnang Tathan) provides the first estimation of the overall time depth of the practice. The most reliable calendar date ranges from the 4 sites reveals a highland burial ritual unrelated to lowland Khmer culture that was practiced from cal AD 1395 to 1650. The time period is concurrent with the 15th century decline of Angkor as the capital of the Khmer kingdom and its demise about AD 1432, and the subsequent shift of power to new Mekong trade ports such as Phnom Penh, Udong, and Lovek. We discuss the Cardamom ritual relative to known funerary rituals of the pre- to post-Angkorian periods, and to similar exposed jar and coffin burial rituals in Mainland and Island Southeast Asia.
Interferometry offers an improvement in the accuracy with which astrometric measurements can be made. Using this technique, radio astronomers together with geodeticists have established a global inertial reference frame that is accurate to 0.1 milliarcseconds. At optical wavelengths, interferometry was first developed by Michelson at the turn of the twentieth century, but due to the complexities of precise beam combination at high speeds, it has lagged in its development. Now, with the availability of lasers, detectors and computers that allow path length compensation on millisecond time scales and distance determination between light collectors with a precision of 0.01 μm, interferometry at optical wavelengths will achieve the results in astrometry comparable to those at radio wavelengths.
The work of the late Sir Joseph Barcroft and his collaborators (see Elsden & Phillipson, 1948) left little doubt that, in ruminants, the end products of the bacterial dissimilation of dietary carbohydrate included large amounts of the steam-volatile fatty acids—acetic, propionic and butyric acids. More recently, el Shazly (1952a, b) has shown that the steam-volatile fatty acids also arise together with ammonia during the bacterial breakdown of amino-acids in the rumen. Studies by Pfander & Phillipson (1953) and Schambye (1955) further indicate that the acids are absorbed from the digestive tract in amounts that suggest they make a major contribution to the energy requirement of the animal. Quantitative data relative to the amounts absorbed, however, are difficult to obtain. Carroll & Hungate (1954) have calculated that in cattle some 6,000-12,000 Cal. of energy are available from the acids produced by fermentation in the rumen. With sheep, Phillipson & Cuthbertson (1956) have calculated from the results of Schambye (1951a, b; 1955) that at least 600-1,200 Cal. of energy in the form of steam-volatile fatty acids could be absorbed every 24 hrs. Since the fasting heat production of the steer is about 6,500 Cal./24 hrs. and that of the sheep about 1,100 Cal./24 hrs. it is clear that if the fatty acids can be utilised efficiently by the body tissues, they could make a major contribution to the energy requirements, at least those for maintenance.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation is usually performed from a femoral venous – transfemoral – approach, but this may not be the optimal vascular access option in some patients. This study aimed to determine which group of patients might benefit from an internal jugular – transjugular – approach for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation.
This multicentre retrospective study included all patients who underwent attempted transcatheter pulmonary valve placement in the right ventricular outflow tract between April 2010 and June 2012 at two large congenital heart centres. Patients were divided into two groups based on venous access site – transfemoral or transjugular. Patient characteristics, procedural outcomes, and complications were compared between groups.
Of 81 patients meeting the inclusion criteria (median age 16.4 years), the transjugular approach was used in 14 patients (17%). The transjugular group was younger (median age 11.9 versus 17.3 years), had lower body surface area (mean 1.33 versus 1.61 m2), more often had moderate or greater tricuspid regurgitation (29% versus 7%), and had a higher ratio of right ventricle-to-systemic systolic pressure (mean 82.4 versus 64.7). Patients requiring a transjugular approach after an unsuccessful transfemoral approach had longer fluoroscopic times and procedure duration.
The transjugular approach for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation is used infrequently but is more often used in younger and smaller patients. Technical limitations from a transfemoral approach may be anticipated if there is moderate or greater tricuspid regurgitation or higher right ventricular pressures. In these patients, a transjugular approach should be considered early.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.