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Many light and ultra-light element analysis problems have been addressed by X-ray fluorescence. Recent innovative features of X-ray spectrometers have extended the applicability of X-ray fluorescence to ultra-light element analysis. Sensitivities have improved through the use of a newly developed end window X-ray tube. Selection of analyzing optics conditions optimize to some degree the sensitivity/resolution/intensity problems. Instrument stability is greatly improved by simply monitoring and controlling the vacuum within the analyzing chamber. Data are presented to illustrate the effects of these novel instrument components as well as describing several new application techniques for ultra-light element analysis.
The Munich Dust Counter (MDC) is a scientific experiment on board the MUSES-A mission of Japan measuring cosmic dust. The satellite HITEN of this mission has been launched on January 24th, 1990 from Kagoshima Space Center. Here the present status of the MDC experiment is summarized. The number of dust particles measured so far is presented together with first and preliminary results of flux calculations and spatial as well as directional distributions of cosmic dust particles measured until July 25, 1990. A clear evidence of particles coming from the inner solar system (beta-meteoroids) already has been found. These are compared to particles coming from the apex direction.
The Munich Dust Counter (MDC) is a scientific experiment on board of the MUSES-A mission of Japan. It is the result of a cooperation between the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan and the Chair of Astronautics of the Technische Universität München (TUM) of Germany. The MDC is an impact ionization detector designed to determine mass and velocity of cosmic dust. Here a short overview over the MUSES-A mission is given to show the measurement situation of the MDC experiment. The measurement principle of the instrument together with a discussion of the scientific objectives and the design of the experiment is summarized.
Delirium and dementia are highly interrelated. However, few comprehensive epidemiological studies have examined this altered state of consciousness superimposed on dementia. We investigated the frequency of delirium in patients with dementia, its prevalence in patients with each dementia type, and its association with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in patients with neurodegenerative dementias.
We studied 261 consecutive outpatients in the memory clinic of a psychiatric hospital between April 2010 and September 2011. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests and computed tomography (CT), and their Mini-Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS), and Delirium Rating Scale – Revised 98 scores were recorded. The diagnosis of delirium was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision. CVD was detected by CT.
Among the 206 patients with dementia, delirium was present in 40 (19.4%). The proportion of patients who experienced episodes of delirium was 14.7% in the Alzheimer's disease, 34.4% in the vascular dementia, 31.8% in the dementia with Lewy bodies, and none in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Delirium was frequently observed in patients with dementia and CVD. The NPI total and agitation subscale scores were significantly higher in dementia patients with delirium than in those without delirium. PSMS scores were significantly lower for patients with delirium than for patients without delirium.
The frequency of delirium varies with each dementia type. In addition, delirium decreases activities of daily living, exaggerates behavioral and psychological symptoms dementia, and is associated with CVD in patients with neurodegenerative dementias.
A discharge-emission spectrometer and a cavity ringdown spectrometer have been developed to aid in the solution to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) problem. A hollow cathode was used to generate molecular ions in a discharge because it has been suggested that molecular ions are probable DIB candidates. The discharge was produced by a pulsed voltage of 1300–1500 V. A wide wavelength range of optical emission from the discharge was examined by a HORIBA Jobin Yvon iHR320 monochromator. The dispersed discharge emission was detected by a photomultiplier and was recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The 2B3u–X2B2g electronic transition of the butatriene cation H2CCCCH2+ was observed in the discharge emission of 2-butyne H3CCCCH3. The frequency of the electronic transition was measured to be 20381 cm−1, and a comparison study was made with known DIB spectra.
The resolution of the discharge-emission spectrometer is insufficient to make precise comparisons between laboratory frequencies and astronomically observed DIB spectra. We therefore developed the cavity ringdown spectrometer using the same hollow cathode. The high sensitivity of this spectrometer was confirmed by the observation of the forbidden band of O2.
We report the results of comparison of radiation-induced defects (1 MeV electrons) in n+-p-p+ Si diodes doped with gallium or boron ranging in concentration from 8 × 1014 to 5 × 1016 cm-3, together with the impact of oxygen on radiation –induced defects. Present results provide evidence for new defects states in addition to those previously reported in gallium- and boron-doped Si. The combined boron and gallium data provide enough information to gain valuable insight into the role of the dopants on radiation-induced defects in Si. The interesting new future of our results is that the gallium appears to strongly suppress the radiation induced defect, especially hole level EV+0.36 eV, which is thought to act as a recombination center. Similarly the dominant electron level at EC-0.18 eV in B-doped Si (which act as a donor) has not been observed in Ga-doped CZ-grown Si.
We have investigated relationships between microscopic structure and cathodoluminescence (CL) property of polycrystalline (poly-) GaN grown by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-MBE) on ZnO/Si substrates. Very strong CL with a peak of 3.45 eV was observed from the poly-GaN, which mainly showed a columnar structure with a size of 50-100 nm. On the other hand, the intensity of CL from the poly-GaN with few columnar domains was weaker than that of the poly-GaN with the columnar structure. The CL image from the poly-GaN, in which the columnar domains were locally observed, showed a strong contrast between bright domains and a dark background. It is confirmed that these bright regions in the CL images are corresponding to the columnar domains of the poly-GaN, by comparing with the SEM images. These results suggest that the columnar domains are responsible for the strong CL from the poly-GaN grown on the ZnO/Si substrates. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation revealed that the columnar domains had high quality crystallinity with few defects.
We have investigated relationships between the microscopic structure and optical property of polycrystalline GaN grown by (electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy) ECR-MBE on silica glass substrates, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cathodoluminescence (CL). It was found that CL intensity was stronger for the samples with a large columnar domain size. These individual columnar domains showed clear luminescence. It was found that the origin of strong luminescence from polycrystalline GaN is due to such a columnar domain. That luminescence was closely related to the morphology of the columnar domains. It was revealed that the columnar domain with a homogeneous and hexagonal shape showed clear luminescence.
We report the results of comparison of radiation-induced defects (1 MeV
electrons) in n+-p-p+ Si diodes doped with gallium or
boron ranging in concentration from 8 × 1014 to 5 ×
1016 cm−3, together with the impact of oxygen on
radiation –induced defects. Present results provide evidence for new defects
states in addition to those previously reported in gallium- and boron-doped
Si. The combined boron and gallium data provide enough information to gain
valuable insight into the role of the dopants on radiation-induced defects
in Si. The interesting new future of our results is that the gallium appears
to strongly suppress the radiation induced defect, especially hole level
EV+0.36 eV, which is thought to act as a recombination center.
Similarly the dominant electron level at EC-0.18 eV in B-doped Si
(which act as a donor) has not been observed in Ga-doped CZ-grown Si.
InN films with excellent surface morphology were grown by controlled the V/III ratio of InN epitaxal layer. It was found they were single crystal of InN films with wurtzite structure by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) observation. Hall mobility as high as 760 cm2/Vs was achieved for InN film grown at 550°C with 240 W of RF plasma power with a carrier density of 3.0×1019 cm−3 at room temperature. To our knowledge, this electron mobility is the highest value ever reported.
A thin multi-layered photoreceptor drum has been fabricated, using glow-discharge decomposition of disilane. The photoreceptor is thin(10 μm), but it is charged up sufficiently. The photoreceptor has three layers; the p-type a-Si:H (blocking layer), the intrinsic B-doped a-Si:H (photoconductive layer) and a-SiC:H (passivation layer). Disilane is highly reactive. The intrinsic B-doped a-Si:H was prepared from a slightly gaseous mixture of B2H6 (3 ppm). The amorphous-SiC:H passivation layer deposited from Si2H6 and C3H8 was developed to achieve sufficient surface potential and to improve the environmental characteristics.
Single crystalline InN films were grown on Si substrates by radio-frequency plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy. Electrical property of InN/Si heterojunction was investigated. We obtained rectifying characteristics in n-InN/p-Si heterostructure for the first time. Forward I-V characteristics were affected by both the buffer layer deposition and the nitridation process. Strong photoluminescence peaks for both single crystalline and polycrystalline InN films grown on the Si substrates were observed at around 0.8 eV, which were smaller than the previous reported PL emission peak of around 1.9 eV.
GaN layers were grown on a (001) rutile TiO2 substrate by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-excited molecular beam epitaxy. For the first time, c-GaN with a preferential growth orientation was obtained. Based on the results from electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis, we found that c-GaN with the growth direction of  was grown on the TiO2 substrate. The formation of c-GaN was also confirmed by cathodoluminescence, in which a luminescence peak was observed at 3.24eV.
This paper describes studies on high-quality InN growth on sapphire by RF-MBE. Critical procedures to obtain high-quality InN films were investigated and (1) nitridation process of sapphire substrates prior to growth, (2) precise control of V/III ratio and (3) selection of optimum growth temperature were found to be essential. Detailed structural characterizations by XRD, TEM, Raman scattering and EXAFS indicate that InN films obtained in this study have ideal hexagonal wurtzite structure. FWHMs of ω-2Θ mode XRD and E2(high)-phonon-mode of Raman scattering are as small as 28.9 arcsec and 3.2 cm-1, respectively. True band gap energy of InN is also discussed based on optical characterization results obtained from well-characterized hexagonal InN grown in this study. PbS, instead of InGaAs, was used as a detector for PL study in order to solve the problem coming from the cut-off wavelength of InGaAs detector. Based on these systematic studies on structural and optical property characterizations using high-quality InN, true band-gap energy of InN is suggested to be less than 0.67 eV and approximately 0.65 eV at room temperature. Single-crystalline InN films are also successfully grown on Si substrates by a brief nitridation of the Si substrates. Significant improvement of InN crystal quality on Si substrates by the insertion of an AlN buffer layer is also demonstrated.
The microstructure of an InN buffer layer grown on (0001) sapphire at low temperature by radio-frequency molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE) is characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The low-temperature InN buffer layer is found to contain local inhomogeneous regions of island-like grains surrounded by misoriented InN grains and inclusions of cubic phase. The generation of such anti-phase InN nuclei near the island-like grains is expected to give rise to defects at the interface. It is considered that these anti-phase InN nuclei are formed by local fluctuations of stoichiometry due to inadequate surface migration during the growth of the InN buffer layer, indicating the important of controlling the surface stoichiometry during InN growth.
A newly reported narrow bandgap for indium nitride means that the indium gallium nitride system of alloys can be a candidate for new high efficiency solar cells covering most of the solar spectrum. In this paper, n-InN films were grown on p-Si (100) substrates. We characterize, for the first time, photovoltaic properties using n-InN/p-Si hetero-junction grown by RF-MBE.
Polyethylene (PE) and silicone rubber substrates were irradiated at an acceleration voltage of 7kV and a dose of 1×1015 ions/cm2 by the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ion beams, and then soaked in CaCl2 solution. Apatite-forming ability of the substrates was examined using a metastable calcium phosphate solution that had 1.5 times the ion concentrations of a normal simulated body fluid (1.5SBF). After the irradiation, the hydrophilic functional groups such as COOH and silicon oxide cluster (SiOx) were formed at the PE and silicone rubber surfaces, respectively. The hydrophilicity of the substrates was remarkably improved by the irradiation. The irradiated PE and silicone rubber substrates formed apatite in 1.5SBF, whereas unirradiated ones did not form it. These results suggest that the functional groups such as COOH groups and Si-OH groups induced apatite nucleation in 1.5SBF.
We investigated the risk of diphyllobothriasis from ingestion of wild Pacific salmon in Japan by surveying Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in 182 salmon samples obtained from Japan. The plerocercoids were not detected in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) (0/26), called Akizake in Japan, caught between September and November. However, the detection rate of plerocercoids in chum salmon, called Tokishirazu in Japan, caught between early April and June, was 51.1% (24/47) with an average of two plerocercoid larvae per fish. The detection rates of cherry salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) were 12.2% (10/82) and 18.5% (5/27), respectively, and the average number of plerocercoids per fish was 0.45 (37 larvae/82 fishes) and 0.22 larvae (6 larvae/27 fishes), respectively. Plerocercoids isolated from O. keta and O. masou were identified as Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense on the basis of molecular analysis of the cox1 and nad3 genes. Moreover, four tapeworms (three from O. keta and one from O. masou) were obtained by infecting golden hamsters with plerocercoids. The morphological features of these tapeworms were similar to those of D. nihonkaiense isolated from humans. Therefore, we think that O. keta and not O. masou is the most important source of plerocercoid infections in Japan.