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To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
A scantling X-ray fluorescence(XRF) microprobe using WoIter type 1 optics was developed, and micro and trace element analysis was carried out using synchrotron radiation up to 10 keV as an excitation source. The design parameters of the optical system and the performance of the system, such as the beam size and the intensity, are described. The MDL obtained for Mn was 6 ppm in relative concentration and about 0.1 pg in absolute amount. The estimated spatial resolution was better than 10 um.
In the conventional pole figure, an accurate representation can be attained by correcting the observed X-ray diffraction intensity for any change in diffraction geometry and by comparing this with the correctly established standard intensity. For the intensity corrections, ASTM has prescribed the method of Decker et al. In practice, however, the validity of the correction formula is uncertain, since the prerequisite is difficult to attain for parallelism of an incident beam of sufficient intensity. For the standard intensity, it is desirable to take the intensity obtained with the randomly oriented material of the same composition. However, in most cases an arbitrary unit has been taken because of the difficulty in getting a truly random and uniform sample. Under these circumstances, it is first necessary for an accurate representation of pole figures to make a random sample of uniform thickness for the standard. The authors have obtained satisfactory standard samples by sintering the randomly oriented iron powder made from iron chloride and made use of them to check the method of intensity correction. Satisfactory results are obtained in the randomness tests, such as the comparison of the relative intensity diffracted from the crystal planes parallel to the sample surface and the fluctuation of diffraction intensity during α rotation.
In the reflection case by the Schulz method, the (110) reflection intensity of a random sample, by Co Kα radiation, is independent of the tilting angle up to 50°. The other reflections do not give a constant intensity for the wide range of the tilting angles because of dispersion of the diffracted beam due to the wider separation of Kα doublet in the higher reflection angle and the wider irradiated area at the lower angles. In the transmission case Schulz's correction formula is in good agreement with the observed values for the various diffraction lines and the samples of various µt, while the Decker-Harker formula does not give the absorption change with α-rotation even by an incident beam of ⅙° divergence. In both cases, an accurate determination of pole densities is made by comparing the diffraction intensity of the standard sample substituted in place of the test specimen and by correcting the absorption change due to the difference of µt between the standard and test sample, which affords good coincidence in the overlapped region. The pole figure obtained by the above method furnishes an accurate prediction of plastic and elastic anisotropy in sheet metals.
The relation between the units and the readings of time and space coordinates of the terrestrial and the barycentric frames is discussed from the viewpoint of general relativity. Attention is paid to the unit of space coordinates since the International Astronomical Union (IAU) regulates only the unit of time coordinate in the above two frames. Two definitions on unit of length are examined and their effects on the numerical expression of coordinate transformation, equations of planetary motions, and those for light propagation time are discussed. A clear conflict is found between the IAU(1976) recommendation on the definition of the time-scales in different frames and the statement that all constants in the IAU(1976) new system of astronomical constants are defined in terms of the international system of units (SI units). In order to dissolve this conflict, one of the two examined definitions on unit of length is proposed to be adopted, which requests the least alteration on the current procedures to analyze the astrometric observations such as radar/laser rangings, range and range-rate measurements, and very long baseline interferometric observations. An interpretation of numerical values in the IAU(1976) system of astronomical constants is also presented. It is stressed that the definition proposed in this paper requires that a slightly different formula from the current one be used in the numerical transformation of coordinates between the terrestrial and the barycentric frames.
We present here the fundamental idea of the conversion method between old and new reference frameworks. Some practical applications are made for the optical observations for Tokyo PZT. The method can be also applied to the conversion of radio sources where we have met a great difficulty in performing the conversion because of no citation of observation epochs in general. We discuss their necessity in order to establish a concrete compilation of the position of the radio sources.
The treatment of the coordinate systems is briefly reviewed in the Newtonian mechanics, in the special theory of relativity, and in the general relativistic theory, respectively. Some reference frames and coordinate systems proposed within the general relativistic framework are introduced. With use of the ideas on which these coordinate systems are based, the proper reference frame comoving with a system of mass-points is defined as a general relativistic extension of the relative coordinate system in the Newtonian mechanics. The coordinate transformation connecting this and the background coordinate systems is presented explicitly in the post-Newtonian formalism. The conversion formulas of some physical quantities caused by this coordirate transformation are discussed. The concept of the rotating coordinate system is reexamined within the relativistic framework. A modification of the introduced proper reference frame is proposed as the basic coordinate system in the astrometry. The relation between the solar system barycentric coordinate system and the terrestrial coordinate system is given explicitly.
We report here the results of deep optical spectroscopy of the very extended emission-line region (VEELR) found serendipitously around the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4388 in the Virgo cluster. The Hα recession velocities of most of the filaments of the region observed are highly blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The velocity field is complicated, and there seem to be several streams of filaments ranging from ~ −100 km s−1 to ~ −700 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The emission-line ratios of the VEELR filaments are well explained by power-law photoionization models with solar abundances. In addition to photoionization, shock heating probably contributes to the ionization of the gas. We conclude that the VEELR was formerly the disk gas of NGC 4388, which has been stripped by ram pressure due to the interaction between the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) and the galaxy.
Seyfert galaxies often have extended emission line regions around their nucleus. We started an observation program of optical tridimensional spectroscopy for circumnuclear regions of nearby Seyfert galaxies to investigate the ionization source of the gas of just vicinity(typically several hundred pc) of nucleus.
Recent general-relativistic MHD simulations of jets ejected from black-hole magnetospheres (for both Schwarzschild and Kerr holes) have revealed that (1) strong shock waves are formed in the accretion flow inside 3rs, (2) jets show two-layered shell structure consisting of a gas-pressure driven jet and a magnetically driven jet, the former being accelerated from a high-pressure region heated by strong shocks, and (3) in the case of a Kerr hole, magnetically driven jets are produced from the ergosphere by the effect of frame dragging.
Aoki et al. (1996) found outflowing gas in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7319. The velocity of the outflow comes up to 500 km s−1 and its extent is 4 kpc. This outflow is one of the largest outflowing phenomenon that have ever been found in Seyfert galaxies. The radio emission found by van der Hulst & Rots (1981) aligns the outflowing gas. It suggests the radio emission has relation to the outflow. We have made higher resolution radio imaging of NGC 7319 with VLA to study in detail relation of radio emission to outflowing gas. These radio images have been compared to Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival broad-band WFPC2 image. The systemic velocity 6740 km s−1 (Aoki et al. 1996) gives a distance of 90 Mpc for NGC 7319 assuming a Hubble constant H0=75 km s−1 Mpc−1. Thus 1″ corresponds to 450 pc.
We have performed a 2.5D, nonsteady, general-relativistic MHD simulation. Initially, we assumed a uniform magnetic field, a geometrically thin accretion disk rotating at Keplerian velocity, and a hydrostatic corona around a Schwarzschild black hole. We have investigated the formation mechanism of gas-pressure driven jets expected by Koide et al. and found the strong dependence of jet velocities Lorentz factor of jets) on the ratio of the density of the accretion disk to that of the corona (ρd/ρc), where γ2j - γj ∝ (ρd/ρc)0.75.
We carried out observations of bright optical carbon stars with the ISO SWS, and detected the absorption features of CO, CS, CH, SiS and HCN in N-type and SC-type stars. The CH fundamental bands in 3-4 μm in N-type stars are stronger than those in SC-type stars. On the other hand, the first overtone bands of SiS at 6.6 μm were detected in WZ Cas (SC-type), while none of them were detected in N-type stars. These results can be explained well by the lower C/O ratio in SC-type stars than in N-type stars. The absorption features of HCN (v1, v2 + v3 and v1 − v2) are stronger in SC-type stars than in N-type stars. This fact can be explained by the cooler atmospheres of our SC-type stars due to the lower C/O ratio as well as due to the lower effective temperature, compared with the N-type stars in our sample. The CS bands and the band heads of the CO fundamental bands are weaker in the observed spectra than in those predicted by our model atmospheres. This result cannot be explained by the present model atmosphere and one possible explanation is the contribution by the emission of CO and CS in the outer atmosphere.
A narrow-band imaging observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC1068 was made in the Fabry-Perot mode of the Kyoto 3D Spectrograph attached to the 188cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. We observed at wavelengths of Hα, [S ii]λ6716, [S ii]λ6731 and adjacent continua of the respective lines with a “tunable filter”, i.e. a gap-scanning etalon with a spectral resolution of 20 Å.
Because of unforeseen difficulties, Dr Sinzi, President of the Commission, was not able to prepare this Report. It was then too late for asking the Directors of the almanac offices and the other Members of the Commission for informations. This Report is therefore based on the material just available, and it must be apologized for some lack from which it necessarily suffers. If possible, any omitted facts which appear to be serious, may be included in the Report for the following triennium.
The period of this Report includes 1984 January 1, the date which was probably the most drastic caesura in the history of astronomical almanacs. It seemed, therefore, appropriate to concentrate here to the general aspects rather than to describe the works going on at the particular almanac offices. It is, however, hoped that the past years with their developments and changes will be followed by a period of consolidation and continuity. This would be also of great benefit for the users of the almanacs who still need some time for getting accustomed to so many innovations.
We report on the status of the CCD cameras for the Kiso 105-cm Schmidt telescope. We have two types of cameras – single-chip and mosaic. The single-chip camera is available for common use. At present about 90 % of the telescope time is allocated to observations with CCD cameras.
Tridimensional spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120 was carried out with Spectronebulagraph (SNG). We constructed a data cube which is free from atmospheric variations during the scans. We then separated the blended lines by deconvolving the line profiles, to obtain pure narrow-line images and narrow-line intensity ratio diagram.
The Kyoto 3-D Spectrograph was commissioned successfully at the 188-cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory in the spring of 1996. This instrument has four distinct modes (Ohtani et al. 1994): (1) narrow-band imager, which is an ordinary focal-reducer camera; (2) Spectro-NebulaGraph (long-slit spectrograph; Kosugi et al. 1995); (3) imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer, using either of two Fabry-Perot etalons from Queensgate Instruments (a tunable filter with R = 300 and another with R = 7000 for velocity-field observations. Broad-band (400–700 nm) coatings are deposited on both etalons. During observations, the etalon temperature is stabilized within 0.5°C); and (4) integral-field spectrograph of the TIGER-type (Bacon et al. 1995). In this mode, the spectra of 7 × 11 objects can be recorded simultaneously, along with 7 × 2 spectra of the sky 4′ away. The spatial resolution is 1″.3 and the field of view is 9″ × 14″.
The researches into extended emission line region (EELR) give us the valuable informations about the nucleus. A recent study of the EELR in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 by Yoshida and Ohtani (1993) have revealed that a strongly asymmetric radiation field in this typical Seyfert 1. They have suggested the anisotropy may be caused inside the BLR. It is important to examine if any other Seyfert 1 galaxy has an anisotropic nuclear radiation.
The famous Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 has EELR which extends ∼ 10” on either side of the nucleus. The morphology of the EELR is Z-shape. This nearby (D=38.9Mpc) galaxy is of type SBO for which the object is expected to be free from contamination by HII regions and dust clouds.
We developed a slit-scanning type 3D-spectroscopic system named as Spectronebulagraph (hereafter SNG; Kosugi et al. 1994) at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. A detailed description about SNG is presented by Ohtani et al. elsewhere in this colloquium. We present here the results of the 3D-spectroscopy of four nearby active galaxies by using SNG.
This nearby (at distance of 5.4 Mpc) Magellanic irregular galaxy has many H II regions in its main body suggesting violent star-formation activity. We performed tridimensional observations of NGC 4449 using SNG in order to obtain detailed kinematic structure and then to investigate the star-formation mechanism of NGC 4449. Hα intensity map, Hα velocity field are shown in figure 1. As is obvious in lower panel of figure 1, no global rotational motion was detected. Most impressive feature of the velocity field is kpc-scale mosaic structure of low velocity and high velocity components. Also, many filamentary components were newly found in 3D-datacube of the SNG observation.