To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To investigate the relations between acting the bully, being bullied, seeing someone bullied and depression in children.
108 children (6 to 13 years of age, students of one school - 1st to 7th grade) participated in this study. They completed questionnaires regarding acting the bully, being bullied and seeing someone bullied. The questionnaires include 5 psychological bully questions respectively, and they consist of 15 questions. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) Japanese-version was also completed by the children.
12 children scored 16 or higher on CES-D. The children were supposed depression. 50 children answered “yes” to one or more question of 5 ones with regard to acting the bully. They were supposed acting the bully. 67 children and 75 children were supposed being bullied and seeing someone bullied respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether acting the bully, being bullied and seeing someone bullied were associated with depression.Being bullied was significantly associated with depression [Odds ratio 21.82 (95% confidence limits 1.86-256.20)]. Acting the bully was associated with depression [Odds ratio 4.681(95% confidence limits 0.767-28.580)]. Seeing someone bullied had no association with depression [Odds ratio 0.10(95% confidence limits 0.01-0.74)].
Being bullied greatly affected the emotion. Younger children are said to be more likely to be victims of bullying. Appropriate interventions in the school children are needed.
Studies suggest that psychosocial events (stressors) may play a role in the precipitation of the episodes of Depression. Some individuals become upset by one episode. Others do not feel stress. Such trait affects their feelings.
Subjects are 108 children. They are 6-13 years old. The subjects completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) Japanese-version. They also completed “the Depressive Trait Questionnaire”. It consists of the descriptions of 12 events. Subjects were asked how they concerned themselves about each event, if the events occurred. Subjects marked as follows; 0: not at all, 1: a little, 2: deeply and 3: overly.
108 children completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); mean score: 8.56, standard deviation: 8.87. The scores of CES-D of these children ranged from 0 to 54. Children whose CES-D were 16 and more were supposed to be with depression. Factor analysis was performed on the 12 item scores of “the Depressive Trait Questionnaire”. The items which loaded Factor 1 represent anxiety for interpersonal relationship. The items which loaded Factor 2 and Factor 3 represent the image of loss and the emotion of anger respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, Anxiety subscale was significantly associated with depression (odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.87).
Among children to age 13, high subscale score of Anxiety may increase odds of depression. Anxiety may lead children to depression. It is needed to help children deal with anxiety for interpersonal relationship.
To report a 9-year-old girl with semantic-pragmatic language disorder.
Clinical manifestations and neuropsychological findings of the girl are presented.
The difficulties have occurred in communication. The difficulties have interfered with peer communication since she was a toddler. She cannot find appropriate words to explain what she would like to do or what she had done. She has made vocabulary errors. It is sometimes to say incorrect grammar. She has had difficulty understanding words. Tasks involving memory (e.g., memorizing writing Kanji or Kanji compounds) has been excellent for her. Japanese children are made to study a lot of kanji. Kanji has a complex shape. Though she can read and write Kanji, she cannot understand the words. Qualitative impairment in social interaction or restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior had not been found. She has also short attention span. She had been diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder the Predominantly Inattentive Type when she was aged 5 years.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) was administered to her (FIQ = 103, VIQ = 97 and PIQ = 108). The scores on Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities Japanese-version were substantially below those obtained from standardized measures of nonverbal intellectual capacity. There was a discrepancy between the abilities of verbal and non-verbal semantic comprehension.
Atomoxetin has been administered to her. Her mother and her teachers understood her manifestations. Using pictures or other concrete examples, she has been educated. Gradually, she became to be interested in the meaning of words.
To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
We previously reported an association between human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) and epidemic myalgia with myositis in adults during summers in which an HPeV3 outbreak occurred in children. However, this disease association has not yet been reported elsewhere. We have since continued our surveillance to accumulate data on this disease association and to confirm whether myalgia occurs in children as well as adults. Between June and August 2014, we collected 380 specimens from children with infectious diseases. We also collected clinical specimens from two adult and three paediatric patients suspected of myalgia. We then performed virus isolation and reverse-transcription–PCR using the collected specimens. We detected HPeV3 in 26 children with infectious diseases, which we regarded as indicating an outbreak. We also confirmed HPeV3 infection in all patients suspected of myalgia. In particular the symptoms in two boys, complaining of myalgia and fever, closely matched the criteria for adult myalgia. Based on our findings from 2008, 2011 and 2014, we again urge that clinical consideration be given to the relationship between myalgia and HPeV3 infections during HPeV3 outbreaks in children. Furthermore, our observations from 2014 suggest that epidemic myalgia and myositis occur not only in adults but also in children.
K. Aoki, B. F. Windley, S. Maruyama & S. Omori reply: First, we thank Viete, Oliver & Wilde for their interesting and thought-provoking comments on the timing of the high-pressure granulite facies (HGR) metamorphism recorded in metamorphic rocks at Cairn Leuchan, Scotland, published by Aoki et al. (2013). Based on new metamorphic data of garnetites and garnet-amphibolites at Cairn Leuchan and new zircon U–Pb ages of amphibolitized eclogite at Tomatin, we suggested in our publication that the HGR metamorphism was retrograde after eclogite facies before the c. 470 Ma ‘Barrovian metamorphism’. Viete, Oliver & Wilde however speculate that the HGR metamorphism at Cairn Leuchan may have occurred at c. 1000 Ma, as a result of their new U–Pb zircon age of the Cowhythe Gneiss at Portsoy and from previous studies of the geological structure and geochronology. We are grateful for this opportunity to describe, albeit in a preliminary manner, our new understanding and tectonic model of the Caledonian orogen in Scotland and western Ireland of which the Barrovian metamorphism is a key component. A reply to a comment is not the correct place to propose an entirely new paradigm for such a classic orogen, but we will present our model more fully in a future publication.
The metamorphic P–T conditions and associated relationships of the Barrovian zones near Glen Muick were re-examined by focusing on the petrology and thermodynamics of rocks at Cairn Leuchan, where garnetite lenses and layers occur in surrounding garnet amphibolite in the highest-grade sillimanite zone. The representative mineral assemblages in the garnet-rich lenses and garnet amphibolite are garnet + quartz + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + amphibole ± epidote, and garnet + amphibole + quartz + plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± epidote, respectively. The chemical compositions of constituent minerals are the same in both garnetite and garnet amphibolite. The metamorphic P–T conditions of these rocks were estimated by thermodynamic calculations. The results show that the rocks underwent high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism at P = c. 1.2–1.4 GPa and T = c. 770–800°C followed by amphibolite facies metamorphism at P = c. 0.5–0.8 GPa and T = c. 580–700°C. Integration of our new results with previously published data suggests that the retrograde P–T trajectory of the highest-grade Barrovian metamorphic rocks marks a temperature decrease during decompression from a crustal depth of the high-pressure granulite facies, which is much deeper than previously considered.
The accident of the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake on 11 Mar. 2011. It is estimated that totally 1.2-1.5x1016 Bq for 137Cs and 1.5-1.6x1017 Bq for 131I were released until the beginning of Apr. and those radionuclides (RN) were deposited on soil surface and forest etc. widely around Fukushima Pref. This work was carried out as one of the investigations for making the distribution maps of radiation dose rate and soil contaminated by RNs which the MEXT promotes. The Geoslicer investigation on the depth distribution of RNs in soil was performed after 3 months from the accident. The investigation was conducted at 11 locations in Nihonmatsu City, Kawamata Town and Namie Town, and soil samples of depth 50 cm to 1 m were taken. Both of 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in all investigated locations, and 129mTe and 110mAg were detected only in locations where radiation dose rates are high. At many locations investigated, radiocaesium more than 99 % distributed within a depth of 10 cm in soil in the surface layer. On the other hand, RNs tended to distribute to deeper part in soil at locations that are supposed to have been used as farmland than in soil in the surface layer, and radiocaesium more than 99 % in soil at locations that are supposed to have been used as farmland also distributed within a depth of around 14 cm. The apparent diffusion coefficients (Da) of RNs derived from penetration profiles near the surface layer showed a tendency to be higher in soil at locations that are supposed to have been used as farmland (Da=0.1-1.5x10-10 m2/s) than in soil in the surface layer (Da=0.65-4.4x10-11 m2/s), and most Da-values were nearly 10-11 m2/s. The distribution coefficients (Kd) by a batch method were in the range of Kd=2,000-61,000 ml/g for Cs and Kd=0.5-140 ml/g for I. Although the Kd-values are different between cation (Cs+) and anion (I-), the Da-values (134Cs, 137Cs, 129mTe and 110mAg) were similar levels. This is considered to be due to that the Da-values were controlled by dispersion by flow of rain water.
We use LVDSMC (low-variance deviational Monte Carlo) simulations to calculate, under linearized conditions, the second-order temperature jump coefficient for a dilute gas whose temperature is governed by the Poisson equation with a constant forcing term, as in the case of homogeneous volumetric heating. Both the hard-sphere gas and the BGK model of the Boltzmann equation, for which slip/jump coefficients are not functions of temperature, are considered. The temperature jump relation and jump coefficient determined here are closely linked to the general jump relations for time-dependent problems that have yet to be systematically treated in the literature; as a result, they are different from those corresponding to the well-known linear and steady case where the temperature is governed by the homogeneous heat conduction (Laplace) equation.
(1) To investigate the incidence of laryngeal involvement in a large series of patients with pemphigus vulgaris, using endoscopic examination, (2) to describe the lesions, and (3) to establish a classification of laryngeal involvement in pemphigus vulgaris based on the location of the lesions.
A total of 40 sequentially treated pemphigus vulgaris patients, diagnosed using clinical, histological and immunofluorescence criteria, were evaluated for laryngeal manifestations using endoscopic examination. The results were used to establish a graded classification of laryngeal involvement according to the location of the lesions.
Active laryngeal lesions (ulcers or blisters) were found in 16 patients (40 per cent). Of these, 37.5 per cent were classified as grade I, 20 per cent as grade II, 20 per cent as grade III and 17.5 per cent as grade IV.
Laryngeal involvement is common in pemphigus vulgaris and must be considered at the point of diagnosis. Grade I lesions are the most frequent.
The transmission of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) among family members is not well understood. We identified 15 families in which multiple members were diagnosed with hMPV infection by real-time PCR in 2008 and 2010. Index patients ranged in age from 2 years to 11 years (median 5 years), and all 15 index cases were children who attended primary school, kindergarten, or nursery school. Contact patients ranged in age from 2 months to 46 years (median 6 years). Excluding five adult cases, contact patients were significantly younger than index patients (P = 0·0389). Of the 12 contact children, seven (58%) were infants who were taken care of at home. The serial interval between the onset of symptoms in an index patient and the onset of symptoms in a contact patient was estimated to be 5 days. These results suggest that the control of school-based outbreaks is important for preventing hMPV infection in infants.
The significance of the potential impacts of microbial activity on the transport properties of host rocks for geological repositories is an area of active research. Most recent work has focused on granitic environments. This paper describes pilot studies investigating changes in transport properties that are produced by microbial activity in sedimentary rock environments in northern Japan. For the first time, these short experiments (39 days maximum) have shown that the denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas denitrificans, can survive and thrive when injected into flow-through column experiments containing fractured diatomaceous mudstone and synthetic groundwater under pressurized conditions. Although there were few significant changes in the fluid chemistry, changes in the permeability of the biotic column, which can be explained by the observed biofilm formation, were quantitatively monitored. These same methodologies could also be adapted to obtain information from cores originating from a variety of geological environments including oil reservoirs, aquifers and toxic waste disposal sites to provide an understanding of the impact of microbial activity on the transport of a range of solutes, such as groundwater contaminants and gases (e.g. injected carbon dioxide).
The antibody responses of 194 volunteers were studied for up to 3 years after primary immunization with one, two or three doses of human diploid cell rabies vaccine, administered either in 0·1 ml volumes intradermally (i.d.) or as 1·0 ml intramuscularly (i.m.). Sero-conversion occurred in 95% of subjects after the first injection and in 100% after the second. The highest titres and most durable antibody responses were induced by three injections of vaccine.
Booster doses were administered either by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or i.d. route, after 6, 12 or 24 months to randomly grouped volunteers; these induced responses ≥ 5·0 i.u. per ml in 95% of subjects. The responses were rapid and were neither influenced by the primary regimen nor by the timing and route of the booster dose.
Antibody titres after i.d. immunization were only two-fold lower than those induced by the larger volume of vaccine. The findings suggest that the i.d. route is both effective and economic.
Probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria directly influence the host’s health and have beneficial effects such as decreasing the number of enteric pathogens, regulating intestinal immune responses and preventing diseases. Among domestic animals, probiotics have been expected to be an alternative to antibiotics added in the diet; and fermented liquid diet (FLD) containing probiotics has great potential as a diet for reducing the use of antibiotics. In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of FLD, prepared using Lactobacillus plantarum LQ80 (LQ80), on the immune response of weaning pigs. Ten weaning piglets were divided into two groups and were fed the FLD (n = 5) or a non-fermented liquid diet (NFLD) (n = 5) for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, the total immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in the sera of the FLD-fed piglets were significantly higher than those of the NFLD-fed piglets (P < 0.05). In contrast, the total immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in the feces and saliva were not significantly affected by FLD feeding. However, the mean fecal IgA levels of FLD-fed piglets at day 28 were higher than those at 14 and 21 days (P < 0.05). Blood cells from the FLD-fed piglets showed a low level of interferon-γ secretion and mitogen-induced proliferation compared to that of the NFLD-fed piglets. Furthermore, the levels of interluekin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α, which are proinflammatory cytokines, in the blood cells of the FLD-fed piglets were lower than those of the NFLD-fed piglets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the FLD used in this study could alter the immune responses of weaning piglets by stimulation of the systemic or mucosal antibody response, without unnecessary inflammatory reactions. This indicates, that the FLD feed prepared with the use of LQ80 may be a candidate feed, with regard to enhancing immune responses and preventing diseases in weaning piglets.
We propose a parallel resistance model (PRM) in which total resistance (Rtotal) is given by the parallel connection of resistance of a filament (Rfila) and that of a film excluding the filament (Rexcl)—that is, 1/Rtotal = 1/Rfila + 1/Rexcl—to understand direct current (dc) electric properties of resistive random-access memory (ReRAM). To prove the validity of this model, the dependence of the resistance on temperature, R(T), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of RHRS of Pt/NiO/Pt on the area of a top electrode, S, are investigated. It is clarified that both the R(T) and RSD depended on S, and all such dependencies can be explained by the PRM. The fact that Rtotal is decided by the magnitude relation between Rfila and Rexcl makes transport properties S-dependent and hinders the correct understanding of ReRAM. Smaller S is essential to observe the intrinsic transport properties of ReRAM filaments.