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Motor Vehicle Accidents(MVA) are the main attendees of accident emergency unit in UMMC. Assessment by doctor found that some ot them used alcohol/substance prior to MVA event. They also found to have abnormal sleep pattern and “emotional problems” that contribute to MVA and injuries. Yet, limited study available in Malaysia that explore the relationship between sleep disorders, substance use, psychiatric morbidity and MVA events.
To investigate the prevalence and associations of sleep disoders, substance use and psychiatric comorbidity among attendees in accident emergency unit, UMMC.
This is a cross-sectional hospital based study that examine all MVA attendees age 18 and above with written consent in accident emergency unit UMMC from 30 September to 30 November 2011. We exclude those patients with Glasgow Coma Sale(GCS) less than 10, intoxication and refused consent. We measure sleep disorders using Epsworth Sleep Scale(ESS), Psychiatric morbidity using Hospital Anxiety Depresion Scale(HADS) and substance use with Drug abuse screening tool(DAST). We also do rapid urine test kits for opiates, canabis, amphetamine type stimulants(ATS) and benzodiazepines. Chi square test will be analyses for the variable asssociations using SPSS 16.
We expect that the prevalence of sleep disorders, subsatnce use and other psychiaric comorbidity are higher among MVA attendees. There are some association in between those factors that contributes to the MVA events.
MVA attendees probably need further assesment as routine e.g. sleep study, psychiatric morbidity and drug screening in order to better manage them and prevent further MVA in the future.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To assess the association between probable OSA and the sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP-7) risk profiling index in monitored adult inpatients with epilepsy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We analyzed 49 consecutive adults (>18 years) with refractory epilepsy admitted to our inpatient epilepsy monitoring unit. The SUDEP-7 inventory was performed for all subjects. Probable OSA was identified using overnight oximetry, the Sleep Apnea Sleep Disorder Questionnaire (SA-SDQ), and STOP-BANG inventory. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of participants screened positive for probable sleep apnea. Patients with high SUDEP-7 scores were more likely to have a positive screen for OSA. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: OSA is an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death. OSA may be a hitherto unrecognized contributor to sudden death risk in epilepsy. Further studies determining the relationship between OSA, neural circulatory control and SUDEP are warranted.
The Eastern Gangetic Plain is among the world's most intensively farmed regions, where rainfed and irrigated agriculture coexist. While the region and especially Bangladesh is a major producer of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica), there is potential to further develop sustainable rice production systems. Specifically, there is scope to include a replacement crop for the short fallow between rice crops in the dominant cropping pattern of rainfed monsoon rice harvest followed by irrigated spring rice. The aim of the current research was to identify a suitable cool-season legume crop – pea (Pisum sativum L.) or lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. ssp. culinaris) – that could be grown in the brief period between rice crops. The study comprised four crop sequence experiments comparing legume cultivars differing in maturity grown in between both long and short duration rice cultivars. These experiments were done at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute regional station at Rajshahi over three cropping cycles. This was followed by an evaluation of pea vs. fallow between rice crops on three farmers’ fields in one cropping cycle. Here it is demonstrated that green pod vegetable pea is one of the best options to intensify the rainfed monsoon rice–fallow–spring irrigated rice cropping system, notwithstanding other remunerative rabi cropping options that could displace boro rice. The inclusion of an extra crop, pea as green pod vegetable, increased farm productivity by 1·4-fold over the dominant cropping sequence (rice–fallow–rice) and farm net income by fourfold. The study highlighted the advantages in total system productivity and monetary return of crop intensification with the inclusion of a pea crop between successive rice crops instead of a fallow period.
Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) semiconductor crystal properties have been studied extensively with a focus on correlations to their radiation detector performance. The need for defect-free CZT crystal is imperative for optimal detector performance. Extended defects like Tellurium (Te) inclusions, twins, sub-grain boundaries, and dislocations are common defects found in CZT crystals; they alter the electrical properties and, therefore, the crystal's response to high energy radiation. In this research we studied the extended defects in CZT crystals from two separate ingots grown using the low-pressure Bridgman technique. We fabricated several detectors cut from wafers of two separate ingots by dicing, lapping, polishing, etching and applying gold metal contacts on the main surfaces of the crystals. Using infrared (IR) transmission microscope we analyzed the defects observed in the CZT detectors, showing three dimensional scans and plot size distributions of Te inclusions, twins and sub-grain boundaries observed in particular regions of the CZT detectors. We characterized electrical properties of the detectors by measuring bulk resistivity and detector response to gamma radiation. We observed that CZT detectors with more extended defects showed poor opto-electrical properties compared to detectors with fewer defects.
CZT is a semiconductor material that promises to be a good candidate for uncooled gamma radiation detectors. However, to date, we are yet to overcome the technological difficulties in production of large size, defect-free CZT crystals. The most common problem is accumulation of Tellurium precipitates as microscopic inclusions. These inclusions influence the charge collection through charge trapping and electric field distortion. We employed high energy transmission X-ray diffraction techniques to study the quality of the CdZnTe crystals grown by Bridgman Technique. Crystallinity and defects within two different growth set-ups, i.e. with and without choked seeding, were compared by imaging the crystal orientation topography with white beam X-ray diffraction topography (WBXDT). The X-ray diffraction topography results show high correlation with large-area infrared transmission images of the crystals. Grain boundaries that are highly decorated with Te inclusions are observed. Characteristic Te inclusion arrangements as a result of growth conditions are discussed. We also measured the electronic properties of the detectors fabricated from ingots grown using two Bridgman processes, and observed a reduction in electrical resistivity of choked-seeding-grown CdZnTe crystals. Our results show that although choked seeding technique holds a promise in the realization of high quality mono-crystalline CdZnTe, current growth parameters must be improved to obtain defect-free crystals. These results are helpful to attain optimal seeding process for Bridgman-growth of large single crystals of CdZnTe.
Homozygous homeobox A1 (HOXA1) mutations cause a spectrum of abnormalities in humans including bilateral profound deafness. This study evaluates the possible role of HOXA1 mutations in familial, non-syndromic sensorineural deafness.
Forty-eight unrelated Middle Eastern families with either consanguinity or familial deafness were identified in a large deafness clinic, and the proband from each family was evaluated by chart review, audiogram, neuroimaging, and HOXA1 sequencing.
All 48 probands had normal neuro-ophthalmologic and general medical examinations except for refractive errors. All had congenital non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss that was symmetric bilaterally and profound (>90 dBHL) in 33 individuals and varied from 40 to 90 dBHL in the remainder. Thirty-nine of these individuals had neuroimaging studies, all documenting normal internal carotid arteries and normal 6th, 7th, and 8th cranial nerves bilaterally. Of these, 27 had normal internal ear structures with the remaining 12 having mild to modest developmental abnormalities of the cochlea, semicircular canals, and/or vestibular aqueduct. No patient had homozygous HOXA1 mutations.
None of these patients with non-syndromic deafness had HOXA1 mutations. None had major inner ear anomalies, obvious cerebrovascular defects, or recognized congenital heart disease. HOXA1 is likely not a common cause of non-syndromic deafness in this Middle Eastern population.
We report, for the first time, effects of annealing of ZnO NWs grown on p-Si substrates. ZnO NWs are grown using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and thermal annealing was performed in situ under nitrogen ambient at different stages of the growth process. Increasing the annealing temperature of the ZnO seed epi-layer from 635 °C to 800 °C does not affect the morphology of the grown NWs. In contrast, annealing the NWs themselves at 800 °C results in a 48% decrease of the surface area to volume ratio of the grown NWs. The optical quality can be improved by annealing the seed layer at a higher temperature of 800 °C, although annealing the NWs themselves does not affect the defect density.
In this work, effects of thermal annealing on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown on p-Si and GaN substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are investigated. Annealing at 600 °C results in optimum crystal and optical qualities of the ZnO thin films on both substrates. Smaller lattice mismatch between grown ZnO epitaxial layer on GaN substrates results in better film morphology as compared to p-Si substrates. Higher annealing temperature along with a slower thermal ramp provides better crystal quality of ZnO thin films on both substrates. Annealing ZnO thin films at 700 °C with a slower thermal ramp results in better crystal quality as is evident from a 56% reduction in the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (002) peak compared to the as-grown films. The optical quality also enhances with a slower annealing rate. The determination of the optimum annealing conditions for different substrates has important implications in fabricating optimized and efficient ZnO based electronics.
We report the case of a 2.5-year-old patient with single-ventricle physiology who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance study for cyanosis after Kawashima operation. Magnetic resonance imaging study showed a veno-venous collateral redirecting systemic venous flow, responsible for cyanosis.
We studied a cross-sectional sample of the population of Kech, a small rural town in Pakistan to determine the prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C infection. The prevalence of hepatitis C was 110 out of 2000 persons (5·5%, 95% confidence interval 4·5–6·5). Higher rates were identified in males. Independent risk factors identified were age ⩾75 years, being a healthcare worker, and injecting drug use. There was a high prevalence of many potential routes of transmission of bloodborne viruses and most people reported at least one potential risk factor.
Large-volume cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) radiation detectors would greatly improve radiation detection capabilities and, therefore, attract extensive scientific and commercial interests. CZT crystals with volumes as large as hundreds of centimeters can be achieved today due to improvements in the crystal growth technology. However, the poor performance of large-volume CZT detectors is still a challenging problem affecting the commercialization of CZT detectors and imaging arrays. We have employed Pockels effect measurements and synchrotron X-ray mapping techniques to investigate the performance-limiting factors for large-volume CZT detectors. Experimental results with the above characterization methods reveal the non-uniform distribution of internal electric field of large-volume CZT detectors, which help us to better understand the responsible mechanism for the insufficient carrier collection in large-volume CZT detectors.
The stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, provides the body with a physiologically essential barrier to unregulated water loss and the influx of exogenous substances. Furthermore, the 10–20 micron thick SC, composed of overlapping protein-rich corneocytes surrounded by a heterogeneous multilamellar lipid matrix, displays tremendous mechanical cohesion and thermal integrity. To understand the contribution of these components to SC mechanical properties requires building a complete mechanical model of the skin. In this study we focus on modelling the hierarchical microstructure of the lipid phase and its relation to mechanical properties using a combination of atomistic and mesoscale simulations. The modelling approaches are parameterised with experimental data from FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray scattering and, in the case of the mesoscale simulations, with detailed density profiles derived from atomic models. The atomistic models are used to probe the role of specific lipid species in maintaining the thermal and structural stability of the SC extracellular lipid matrix and to investigate the role of hydrogen bonding networks in SC lipid cohesion. Mesoscale models are used to investigate domain formation and lipid bilayer organisation on length and time scales inaccessible with atomistic models. These coarse grained models display transitions between ordered hexagonal gel phases and fluid phases, reproducing the experimentally observed ordering of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
Antibody responses to Ascaris lumbricoides worm antigens were examined by ELISA in a case-control study of 2 groups of Bangladeshi children, one of which had been shown over a period of 12 months to be consistently lightly infected (controls) and the other consistently heavily infected (cases). The children showed a wide range in intensity of infection; children identified as cases were on average 4 times more heavily infected than the controls. There were no significant differences in weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness between the case or control subjects at the time blood samples for analyses by ELISA were collected. Children with repeatedly heavy infections with A. lumbricoides had higher concentrations of antibody isotypes to the antigens of A. lumbricoides than children who are repeatedly lightly infected. IgG1, IgG4 and IgE to worm antigens occurred in significantly higher concentrations in heavily infected subjects. This suggests that these antibody responses simply reflect the intensity of infection and may not play a significant role in protecting against heavy infections.
A patient was referred to us with a mass in her upper jaw. This was diagnosed to be a chondrosarcoma of the maxilla. The mass was removed surgically. We present the case here and discuss the salient features.
Schistosoma rodhaini is a parasite of rodents and dogs in some parts of Africa, south of the Sahara (Schwetz, 1952; Deramée et aly 1953; Berrie & Goodman, 1962; Nelson et al.f 1962). Occasional human infections have also been reported (Haenens & Santele, 1955).
The only comprehensive study reported in the literature on the histopathology of S. rodhaini is that of Thienpont et al. (1953) in naturally infected dogs. Saoud et ah (1966) briefly described the tissue reactions in chronic heavy infections of the Kenya strain in hamsters. It has been found that the pancreas is one of the visceral organs seriously involved in schistosomiasis rodhaini of hamsters.