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I am so happy to have been associated with this festschrift in honour of Professor Upendra Baxi. It is, indeed, a privilege. Professor Baxi is sui generis. The best living law teacher within and beyond India. He is matchless. His contribution to legal literature and constitutional jurisprudence is rich and huge. Unparalleled. He is a living legend and a legal laureate, with a rich harvest of students spreading across different generations. Students of Professor Baxi, who are accomplished professors of law, senior advocates, and judges, bask in the reflected glory of their professor. In turn, Professor Baxi also lives equally in the reflected glory of his students. They have done him proud. This is very satisfying.
My association with Professor Baxi goes back to the year 1979 when he delivered the Mehr Chand Mahajan Memorial Lecture at the Panjab University. At that time, I was teaching law at the Panjab University. During those three to four days, we used to have good long morning walks at the Chandigarh Lake. Discussions used to be intellectually stimulating. Refreshing too. My understanding of the Indian Constitution and administrative law got a new focus and shape. During my short stint at the London School of Economics, I was asked if I had been to Lord Denning's court? I said no. I was told that I was missing free entertainment. Soon, I made it a point to be in Denning's court. True, the court environment was very comfortable. The barristers arguing matters could give their best. The grand old man was in action. It was a feast to watch him. The court was full of life. No tenseness. I realized that the court atmosphere makes all the difference in the performance and contribution of the Bar. On my return, I wrote a short piece, ‘Lord Denning—the Matchless’, which appeared in the journal part of SCC. This piece had been written in short sentences. After this, whenever I happened to meet Professor Baxi at a seminar, conference, or a discussion, he spontaneously would say, here comes Lord Denning. This was, no doubt, amusing. However, to be honest, I did like it. Ever since, I developed the habit of writing in short sentences.
I am not only delighted by the request to contribute to this festschrift by writing its foreword, but the occasion is also an honour vested upon me, for Professor Upendra Baxi is one of those who have made a lasting contribution to the strength of jurisprudence globally.
Professor Baxi, an international celebrity and a sartorially elegant Professor of Law, had his stints at the University of Sydney, Duke University, American University Washington College of Law, New York University School of Law, and the University of Toronto.
With innumerable articles and books to his name, he has won many laurels and has been conferred many and varied awards, fellowships, distinctions, and honours. Being a judge of judges is a highly complex task. It is easy to be critical of the judgments of the courts, but critiquing the judgments in a scholarly manner is the prerogative of only a few. Professor Baxi falls in that coveted category, whose critical comments are taken with solemnity as he writes with a sense of responsibility. That is the reason that respectability is attached to whatever he says. For his contribution to legal and political affairs, Professor Baxi was awarded the prestigious civic honour—the Padmashri—by the president of India in 2011. More recently, Professor Baxi has been the recipient of an award for his contributions to constitutional law, conferred upon him by the Supreme Court of India. A more befitting honour would have been to elevate him as a Supreme Court judge in the 1980s.
Professor Upendra Baxi is a role model for the thousands of students whom he has taught. Many of them have scaled great heights in their careers—as teachers or lawyers or judges or in other callings chosen by them. He is adored and respected by all. I am blessed to belong to this category. He was our dean when I was a student of law. I feel privileged to have had close association with Professor Baxi in multiple ways. Not only as a student but I also had the privilege of being his colleague in the University of Delhi during my stint as a teacher. I have the continuing honour of sharing the dais with him on a regular basis. I keep learning from his wisdom.
This undergraduate textbook examines environmental pollution ranging from our homes to the global environment. Completely updated and with over 50% new and rewritten material, this new edition assesses the international scope of pollution, including water, climate change, acidification, energy, solid and hazardous waste, persistent chemicals, and pesticides. The pollutants of current major concern are examined, including plastics and electronic waste. Both the impacts and the sources of pollution are addressed, as well as governmental, corporate, and personal responsibility for pollution. Pollution prevention is emphasized throughout, but students will come to see that prevention is not enough. The text moves on to examine a circular economy with closed-loop systems, where by-products are reused, wastes become raw materials, water is recycled, and energy is recovered from waste energy. Understanding Environmental Pollution engages students with the idea that humanity holds the tools to confronting the daunting pollution issues by considering a circular economy.
For centuries, theologians and philosophers, among others, have examined the nature of religious experience. Students and scholars unfamiliar with the vast literature face a daunting task in grasping the main issues surrounding the topic of religious experience. The Cambridge Companion to Religious Experience offers an original introduction to its topic. Going beyond an introduction, it is a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, with critical analyses of and creative insights into its subject. Religious experience is discussed from various interdisciplinary perspectives, from religious perspectives inside and outside traditional monotheistic religions, and from various topical perspectives. Written by leading scholars in clear and accessible prose, this book is an ideal resource for undergraduate and graduate students, teachers, and scholars across many disciplines.
The interplay of geometry, spectral theory and stochastics has a long and fruitful history, and is the driving force behind many developments in modern mathematics. Bringing together contributions from a 2017 conference at the University of Potsdam, this volume focuses on global effects of local properties. Exploring the similarities and differences between the discrete and the continuous settings is of great interest to both researchers and graduate students in geometric analysis. The range of survey articles presented in this volume give an expository overview of various topics, including curvature, the effects of geometry on the spectrum, geometric group theory, and spectral theory of Laplacian and Schrödinger operators. Also included are shorter articles focusing on specific techniques and problems, allowing the reader to get to the heart of several key topics.
Are you ready to create an online course, but do not know where to start? Do your online learners seem isolated and disengaged? Are your online courses effective enough for the current, competitive market? Whether you are an instructor, instructional designer, or part of a team, this interactive workbook will help you create effective online courses to engage your learners. Key features of the workbook include integrating cognitive, social, and emotional aspects of learning; explaining the central role of self-reflection, dialogue, and realistic application; the incorporation of themes, scenarios, and characters to provide relevant and meaningful learning experiences; and the use of semiotics for inclusion of diverse learners. As you journey through the course creation process in this workbook, you will expand your ideas and discover new possibilities for the students taking your online course.
In this commentary, Michael Bird and Nijay Gupta situate Paul's letter to the Philippians within the context of his imprisonment as well as the Philippians' situation of suffering and persecution. Paul draws the Philippians' attention to the power and progress of the gospel in spite of difficult circumstances. He also warns them about the dangers of rival Christian groups who preach out of poor motives or have a truncated gospel. Bird and Gupta unpack the rich wisdom and theology of the Christ Hymn (2:6-11). Throughout the commentary, they apply a broad range of exegetical tools to interpret this letter including historical, sociological, rhetorical, and literary analysis, and they give attention to the reception of this important Pauline text throughout history. Bird and Gupta also includes short reflections on the meaning of Philippians for today.
Decades of research have demonstrated that normal aging is accompanied by cognitive change. Much of this change has been conceptualized as a decline in function. However, age-related changes are not universal, and decrements in older adult performance may be moderated by experience, genetics, and environmental factors. Cognitive aging research to date has also largely emphasized biological changes in the brain, with less evaluation of the range of external contributors to behavioral manifestations of age-related decrements in performance. This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge cognitive aging research through the lens of a life course perspective that takes into account both behavioral and neural changes. Focusing on the fundamental principles that characterize a life course approach - genetics, early life experiences, motivation, emotion, social contexts, and lifestyle interventions - this handbook is an essential resource for researchers in cognition, aging, and gerontology.
Because the triarchic model of psychopathy posits that psychopathy encompasses the three dispositional constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition, this formulation serves as an inclusive framework that can incorporate the primary elements of most models of psychopathy. Such a broad framework has numerous advantages for generating and organizing research on psychopathy. One limitation of this framework, however, is that it may not clarify what aspects of psychopathy are necessary or sufficient for identifying the condition. In the current commentary, the authors argue that none of the elements of the triarchic model are necessary or sufficient for psychopathy. Cleckley’s psychopaths were not mean, Karpman’s psychopaths were not disinhibited, and many contemporary theorists argue that boldness is not a necessary component of psychopathy. This difficulty defining the essential elements of psychopathy is not unique to the triarchic model and remains a challenge for the field.
Darla K. Deardorff’s chapter provides an overview of established definitions of intercultural competence before it examines how it is developed in a variety of contexts, including education, healthcare and within international organizations. The chapter concludes by outlining some principles of intercultural competence assessment, as well as the changing assessment paradigm.
Turner and colleagues (this volume) have written a thoughtful and comprehensive overview of theory and research across a vast literature: environmental and sociocultural influences on the development of personality disorders (PDs). They review behavioral genetics studies and studies on the prevalence of PDs in different countries and from different socioeconomic backgrounds. They describe a wide variety of theories of how PDs develop and review environmental risk factors from early childhood adversity to the quality of communities. This commentary, focusing on borderline PD (for which there is the most research), extends this work in two ways. First, the authors propose an overarching theory of environmental and sociocultural influences on the development of PDs. Second, they add empirical support for two of the theories that Turner and colleagues present: attachment and biosocial theories. In this way, the authors aim to identify processes underlying the development of PDs that may be the focus of interventions. An appropriate intervention at the level of the individual would include Young’s Schema Therapy (Young, 1994), and at the level of the family system the Family Connections Program (Hoffman et al., 2005).
Thomas Nakayama discusses the importance of ‘critical intercultural communication’, i.e. an approach that he has proposed, defined and very substantially developed, with particular regard for interactions in an environment increasingly shaped by Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat. Since, despite the rise of the network society, overall little attention has been paid to the ways that social media influence intercultural communication, the chapter introduces examples that allow for an in-depth exploration of the ways that social inequality is reinforced in the digital environment, as well as the ways that people utilize social media to resist that inequality.
This handbook provides an overview of the research on the changing nature of work and workers by marshalling interdisciplinary research to summarize the empirical evidence and provide documentation of what has actually changed. Connections are explored between the changing nature of work and macro-level trends in technological change, income inequality, global labor markets, labor unions, organizational forms, and skill polarization, among others. This edited volume also reviews evidence for changes in workers, including generational change (or lack thereof), that has accumulated across domains. Based on documented changes in work and worker behavior, the handbook derives implications for a range of management functions, such as selection, performance management, leadership, workplace ethics, and employee well-being. This evaluation of the extent of changes and their impact gives guidance on what best practices should be put in place to harness these developments to achieve success.
Algorithms are probably the most sophisticated tools that people have had at their disposal since the beginnings of human history. They have transformed science, industry, society. They upset the concepts of work, property, government, private life, even humanity. Going easily from one extreme to the other, we rejoice that they make life easier for us, but fear that they will enslave us. To get beyond this vision of good vs evil, this book takes a new look at our time, the age of algorithms. Creations of the human spirit, algorithms are what we made them. And they will be what we want them to be: it's up to us to choose the world we want to live in.
Johansen examines the role of internal heat in the theories of nutrition and animal generation in Plato’s Timaeus. There, Plato does not ascribe the status of being besouled to all beings which engage in nutrition, but to beings with perceptive faculties. This raises questions as to the status of nutrition in the explanation of life and besouled beings.
The liturgical history of the Church in Wales since 1920 has been characterised by a movement from uniformity towards diversity in worship. In 1920 the church continued to use the inherited 1662 Book of Common Prayer. After World War Two, liturgical revision was largely conservative - to maintain a single usage. 1984 saw the introduction of a new but again single-use Book of Common Prayer. Today, however, variety is positively encouraged, and technology enables each worshipping community to have its own tailor-made liturgy. As a result, the Prayer Book of the Church in Wales offers at least two different liturgies – a traditional and a contemporary - for each of the major acts of worship of the church; and those acts are supplemented by a multiplicity of further optional texts and ceremonies. This caters for those in both the catholic and evangelical traditions. This can lead to a pick-and-mix approach to liturgy - but this reflects the times, where context is privileged, and worshippers’ needs prioritised. Variety represents a growing realisation that worship does not consist in the words of the text, but in the vibrant interplay of text and action. The congregation is increasingly invited to take part in liturgy, which reflects a shift from passivity to participation in liturgy, as well as from formality to informality in worship.
In this chapter we examine linguistic and language-encoded cultural data from two indigenous groups of South Siberia. Both groups practice a traditional lifeway of hunting and gathering accompanied by herding of domesticated reindeer. Both speak languages that arose through in situ language shift and belong to the Siberian areal group of the Turkic family.
A Δ-point x of a Banach space is a norm-one element that is arbitrarily close to convex combinations of elements in the unit ball that are almost at distance 2 from x. If, in addition, every point in the unit ball is arbitrarily close to such convex combinations, x is a Daugavet point. A Banach space X has the Daugavet property if and only if every norm-one element is a Daugavet point. We show that Δ- and Daugavet points are the same in L1-spaces, in L1-preduals, as well as in a big class of Müntz spaces. We also provide an example of a Banach space where all points on the unit sphere are Δ-points, but none of them are Daugavet points. We also study the property that the unit ball is the closed convex hull of its Δ-points. This gives rise to a new diameter-two property that we call the convex diametral diameter-two property. We show that all C(K) spaces, K infinite compact Hausdorff, as well as all Müntz spaces have this property. Moreover, we show that this property is stable under absolute sums.