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Across the history of radiotherapy, with gradual technological progress and various methods of irradiation, the purpose has always been to deliver homogeneously 100% of the prescribed dose to 100% of the target volume containing the identifiable tumour and/or tumour cells potentially present while limiting the dose to adjacent normal tissues.
Material and methods
The formula for triple point conformity scale is: CS3=(V95+V100+V105)/3VT. (a) Lower limit determination: CS3=(VT+0·93 VT+0·0)/3VT=0·643; (b) Upper limit determination: in order to find out an empirical relation in between V105 and VT, we studied over 593 cancer patients of various sites by taking planning target volume as target, and an empirical relation is derived out as: V105/VT=0·0007. Hence, CS3=(VT+VT+0·0007 VT)/3VT=0·6667~0·667.
Upper and lower limits of CS3 have been calculated at 0·643 and 0·667, respectively. Maximum value of CS3 index is recorded 0·656 while minimum value is 0·478.
The CS3 scale constitutes an attractive tool because it could facilitate decisions during analysis of various treatment plans proposed for conformal radiotherapy. Its major advantages are its simplicity and integration of multiple parameters.
The triple point conformity scale (CS3) provides better qualitative information about radiotherapy plans as compared to other conformity indices. This study advises the users to use the CS3 scale to evaluate a conformal radiotherapy plan which encompasses a wide range of relevant clinical volumes, and is able to extract qualitative dosimetric information.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister is a potential biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). This study was carried out to understand the effect of abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) on the induction and termination of diapause in Z. bicolorata. We also evaluated the effect of diapause on longevity and fecundity of Z. bicolorata. In Z. bicolorata the induction of diapause occurred between the months of July and December. No diapause was observed in May and June, which coincided with the commencement of the monsoon rains. The percentage of diapause induction in Z. bicolorata was found to increase from one generation to another as well as with the age of adults. Diapause significantly increased the fecundity of females as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapause conditions. Soil moisture (80% RH) played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. Similarly, 18.4 and 12.5% of diapause adults resumed their activity in 6 and 5 days when exposed to temperatures of 40° and 45° C for 2 h every day, respectively. Exposure of adults to low temperatures, i.e. 5° and 10° C induced 94.3 and 92.5% diapause, respectively, with no adult mortality. Thus, our findings reveal suitable conditions for preventing and inducing diapause in Z. bicolorata, which is of great importance in the suppression of P. hysterophorus. We discuss the implications of these findings in the control of P. hysterophorus.
UK guidelines recommend routine HIV testing in high prevalence emergency departments (ED) and targeted testing for HBV and HCV. The ‘Going Viral’ campaign implemented opt-out blood-borne virus (BBV) testing in adults in a high prevalence ED, to assess seroprevalence, uptake, linkage to care (LTC) rates and staff time taken to achieve LTC. Diagnosis status (new/known/unknown), current engagement in care, and severity of disease was established. LTC was defined as patient informed plus ⩾1 clinic visit. A total of 6211/24 981 ED attendees were tested (uptake 25%); 257 (4.1%) were BBV positive (15 co-infected), 84 (33%) required LTC. 100/147 (68%) HCV positives were viraemic; 44 (30%) required LTC (13 new, 16 disengaged). 26/54 (48%) HBV required LTC (seven new, 11 disengaged). 16/71 (23%) HIV required LTC (10 new, five disengaged). 26/84 (31%) patients requiring LTC had advanced disease (CD4 <350, APRI (AST-to-Platelet Ratio Index) >1, Fibroscan F3/F4 or liver cancer), including five with AIDS-defining conditions and three hepatocellular carcinomas. There were five BBV-related deaths. BBV prevalence was high (4.1%); most were HCV (2.4%). HIV patients were more successfully and quickly LTC than HBV or HCV patients. ED testing was valuable as one-third of those requiring LTC (new, disengaged or unknown status patients) had advanced disease.
In the light curves of some solar-type stars, both rotational modulation (caused by corotating bright or dark magnetic features) and flare phenomena can be seen simultaneously. Based on these light curve observations, the relation between stellar magnetic feature activity (reflected by the rotational modulation component of the light curves) and flare activity can be investigated. Here, we analyze the light curve data of a flare-abundant solar-type star, KIC 6034120, observed with Kepler space telescope, and describe magnetic feature activity property by fluctuation range of light curves and flare activity property by time occupation ratio of flares. Distinct phase difference between long-term magnetic feature activity and flare activity is found for this star, which indicates that the source regions of stellar flares (e.g., starspots) on this star do not dominate the rotational modulation of light curves, yet they might be related to a same stellar dynamo process.
B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-cell NHL) is the second commonest malignancy in the stomach. We determined the distribution of Helicobacter pylori outer membrane protein Q (HopQ) allelic type, cytotoxin-associated gene (cag)-pathogenicity activity island (cag-PAI) and vacuolation activating cytotoxin A (vacA) genes, respectively, in patients with B-cell NHL. We also compared them with their distribution in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). H. pylori was cultured from gastric biopsy tissue obtained at endoscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was performed. Of 170 patients enrolled, 114 (63%) had NUD and 56 (37%) had B-cell NHL. HopQ type 1 was positive in 66 (58%) in NUD compared with 46 (82%) (P = 0·002) in B-cell NHL; HopQ type 2 was positive in 93 (82%) with NUD compared with 56 (100%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. Multiple HopQ types were present in 46 (40%) in NUD compared with 46 (82%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. CagA was positive in 48 (42%) in NUD vs. 50 (89%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL; cagT was positive in 35 (31%) in NUD vs. 45 (80%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL; left end of the cagA gene (LEC)1 was positive in 23 (20%) in NUD vs. 43 (77%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. VacAs1am1 positive in B-cell NHL in 48 (86%) (P < 0·001) vs. 50 (44%) in NUD, while s1am2 was positive in 20 (17%) in NUD vs. 46 (82%) (P < 0·001) in B-cell NHL. H. pylori strains with multiple HopQ allelic types, truncated cag-PAI evidenced by expression of cagA, cagT and cag LEC with virulent vacAs1 alleles are associated with B-cell NHL development.
Background: One of the major risk factors for spine infection is IV drug use and HIV infection. An increase in these risk factors has coincided with increased rates of spinal infection in Saskatchewan. However, the exact incidence and the clinical significance of spine infection associated with high-risk behavior is poorly understood. Methods: A retrospective review was completed for adult patients with discitis, osteomyelitis, or epidural abscess admitted to the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan over the last eight years. Results: This study included 176 patients consisting of 41% with discitis, 69% with osteomyelitis and 45% with epidural abscess. Overall mortality was 3% and 16% of patients developed severe disability.40% of patients were intravenous drug users, 45% were hepatitis C positive and 12% were HIV positive. For the initial four years of our study we experienced 72 patients. We experienced 91 cases over the past four years. Geographical analysis showed high incidence areas within the city of Saskatoon. Conclusions: High rates of IV drug use, Hepatitis C, and HIV have important implications in terms of what measures would assist in prevention of this condition. Secondary prevention or early identification of patients may reduce the number of patients who require lengthy admission, surgery and long term care for disablity.
Background: Infection to the facet joints has been reported sporadically but the significance of this type of infection has not been clarified. In our study on spine infection, we identified the cases of spinal epidural abscess with septic joints and was able to compare to cases of epidural abscess with discitis and osteomyelitis. Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, we experienced 176 cases of spine infection including discitis, osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Retrospective review of the clinical data and radiological findings was performed. Among 176 cases, 80 patients had epidural abscess. They were divided to two groups, one with septic joint and the other with discitis and osteomyelitis. Results: 23 patients were found to have septic joints with epidural abscess based on the MRI findings. Mean age was 45.5. 15 of 23 patients (65%) required surgery and all treated with laminectomy. 78% had a good neurological outcome.
57 patients had epidural abscess with discitis and osteomyelitis. Mean age was 54. 51% required surgery. Only 62 % was treated with laminectomy alone. Good neurological outcome was seen in 67% of the patients. Conclusions: Infected facet joints are not as rare as generally believed. The patients with septic joints are younger. Surgery was done more often and laminectomy provided better neurological outcome
The design of vortex promoters in a heated-wall duct is often limited by the considerations of practicality, especially in complex systems such as fusion blankets. The present study investigates the use of current injection to invoke a street of vortices in quasi-two-dimensional high transverse magnetic field magnetohydrodynamic duct flows to enhance instability behind a cylinder. The intent is to generate intensive flow vorticity parallel to a magnetic field downstream of a field-aligned cylinder. Electric current enters the flow through an electrode embedded in one of the Hartmann walls, radiates outward, imparting a rotational forcing around the electrode due to the Lorentz force. The quasi-two-dimensional nature of these flows then promotes a vortical rotation across the interior of the duct with axis aligned to the magnetic field. The hot and cold walls are parallel to the magnetic field. Electric current amplitude and pulse width, excitation frequency and electrode position are systematically varied to explore their influences on the convective heat transport phenomenon. This investigation builds on a recommendation from previous work of Bühler (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 326, 1996, pp. 125–150) dedicated to understanding of the flow stability in a similar configuration. This study provides supportive evidence for the use of current injection as an alternative to the conventional mechanically actuated turbuliser, with heat transfer almost doubled for negligible additional pumping power requirements.
Diaphragmatic paralysis following phrenic nerve injury is a major complication following congenital cardiac surgery. In contrast to unilateral paralysis, patients with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis present a higher risk group, require different management methods, and have poorer prognosis. We retrospectively analysed seven patients who had bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following congenital heart surgery during the period from July, 2006 to July, 2014. Considerations were given to the time to diagnosis of diaphragm paralysis, total ventilator days, interval after plication, and lengths of ICU and hospital stays. The incidence of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis was 0.68% with a median age of 2 months (0.6–12 months). There was one neonate and six infants with a median weight of 4 kg (3–7 kg); five patients underwent unilateral plication of the paradoxical diaphragm following recovery of the other side, whereas the remaining two patients who did not demonstrate a paradoxical movement were successfully weaned from the ventilator following recovery of function in one of the diaphragms. The median ventilation time for the whole group was 48 days (20–90 days). The median length of ICU stay was 46 days (24–110 days), and the median length of hospital stay was 50 days (30–116 days). None of the patients required tracheostomy for respiratory support and there were no mortalities, although all the patients except one developed ventilator-associated pneumonia. The outcome of different management options for bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following surgery for CHD is discussed.
We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010–2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence.
The oil palm industry is blamed for the demise of iconic species such as the orang-utan Pongo pygmaeus in Borneo but production of, and demand for, this commodity continue to expand. Therefore, a better understanding of how the orang-utan is adapting to human-transformed environments is crucial for conserving the species. Results from a combination of repeated ground transects, aerial presence/absence surveys, and interviews of workers in mature plantations of the lower Kinabatangan River floodplain (eastern Sabah) provide an overall picture of the current status of orang-utans in an established agro-industrial oil palm landscape. Our results show that orang-utans disperse into mature plantations, use oil palm trees for nesting, and feed on mature fruits. Most oil palm workers report orang-utans of all age–sex classes within the estates but fail to report any negative effect of the animals on productivity of mature palms ≥5 years. Our surveys also show that orang-utan presence in the mature oil palm landscape is correlated with proximity to natural forest patches. These results suggest that forest patches, even when small, fragmented and degraded, are required to sustain the species in human-transformed landscapes. Homogenous oil palm plantations are incompatible with viable populations of orang-utans. The cessation of further forest conversion to agriculture and the enforcement of better management practices are needed to reduce the threat of oil palm development to orang-utan survival.
The Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is on the brink of extinction. Although habitat loss and poaching were the reasons of the decline, today's reproductive isolation is the main threat to the survival of the species. Genetic studies have played an important role in identifying conservation priorities, including for rhinoceroses. However, for a species such as the Sumatran rhinoceros, where time is of the essence in preventing extinction, to what extent should genetic and geographical distances be taken into account in deciding the most urgently needed conservation interventions? We propose that the populations of Sumatra and Borneo be considered as a single management unit.
Functional response of all instars, adult males and females of the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L. was studied against two species of aphids, namely Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) and Brevicoryne brassicae L., infesting mustard and cabbage crops, respectively. The predatory stages of C. septempunctata exhibited a type II response on both the prey species. The attack rate was highest (0.0192) with the lowest handling time (7.9 min) when the adult female consumed L. erysimi. There was a significant difference in the predicted values of consumption of L. erysimi by fourth instars, adult males and females compared with those of B. brassicae, indicating that the former prey is preferred over the latter one. The adult females prey upon significantly more numbers of aphids than the adult males.
Using scanning near-field lithography (SNP), it is possible to pattern molecules at surfaces with a resolution as good as 9 nm [M. Montague, R. E. Ducker, K. S. L. Chong, R. J. Manning, F. J. M. Rutten, M. C. Davies and G. J. Leggett, Langmuir23 (13), 7328–7337 (2007)]. However, in common with other scanning probe techniques, SNP has previously been considered a serial process, hindering its use in many applications. IBM’s “Millipede” addresses this problem by utilizing an array of local probes operating in parallel. Here, we describe the construction of two instruments (Snomipedes) that integrate near-field optical methods into the parallel probe paradigm and promise the integration of top–down and bottom–up fabrication methods over macroscopic areas. Both are capable of performing near-field lithography with 16 probes in parallel spanning approximately 2 mm. The instruments can work in both ambient and liquid environments, key to many applications in nanobiology. In both, separate control of writing is possible for each probe. We demonstrate the deprotection of self-assembled monolayers of alkylsilanes with photocleavable protecting groups and subsequent growth of nanostructured polymer brushes from these nanopatterned surfaces by atom-transfer radical polymerization.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space mission to detect the early moments of an explosion from Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), thus enhancing our understanding of the GRB mechanism. It consists of the UFFO Burst & Trigger telescope (UBAT) for the recognition of GRB positions using hard X-ray from GRBs. It also contains the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) for the fast detection of UV-optical photons from GRBs. It is designed to begin the UV-optical observations in less than a few seconds after the trigger. The UBAT is based on a coded-mask X-ray camera with a wide field of view (FOV) and is composed of the coded mask, a hopper and a detector module. The SMT has a fast rotatable mirror which allows a fast UV-optical detection after the trigger. The telescope is a modified Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with the aperture size of 10 cm diameter, and an image intensifier readout by CCD. The UFFO pathfinder is scheduled to launch into orbit on 2012 June by the Lomonosov spacecraft. It is a scaled-down version of UFFO in order to make the first systematic study of early UV/optical light curves, including the rise phase of GRBs. We expect UBAT to trigger ~44 GRBs/yr and expect SMT to detect ~10 GRBs/yr.