To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical outcomes of using tracheoesophageal diversion for preventing intractable aspiration.
We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients who underwent tracheoesophageal diversion from 2003 to 2009 at our hospital (median age, 25 years; range, 0–78 years). End-to-side anastomosis was used in 16 cases and side-to-side anastomosis was used in 9.
The average operative time was 141 minutes for end-to-side anastomosis and 191 minutes for side-to-side anastomosis. Peri-operative complications were observed in only two (8 per cent) cases: one with infection and one with haematoma. No fistulas were observed. Aspiration was prevented in all cases, but the nutritional route depended on the swallowing function of the patient. Oral feeding was the main nutritional route after surgery in only four patients (16 per cent).
This procedure is well suited to patients who lack speech communication and are at high risk of aspiration.
In the present report, we describe the use of narrow band imaging during video-laryngomicrosurgery for laryngeal papillomatosis.
It is difficult to peri-operatively locate all the superficial papillomatous lesions when the disease is widespread, which then results in tumor recurrence. Therefore, we have constructed a narrow band imaging video-laryngomicrosurgery system, which we have used for two cases of laryngeal papillomatosis.
Our narrow band imaging-assisted video-laryngomicrosurgery system to visualise superficial laryngeal papillomatosis more clearly.
The mechanical properties and deformation behavior of each constituent layer of multilayered steel composites were examined using microtensile testing. Three-layered integrated steels consisting of SUS420 and SPCC (cold-reduced carbon steel sheets) were fabricated by a cold-rolling process. Different heat treatment processes were used to prepare three types of specimens (as-rolled, 823K-2 min heat-treated, and 823K-500 min heat-treated), and the effect of heat treatment on their mechanical properties was investigated. In the as-rolled specimens, the average tensile strengths in the SUS420 and SPCC layers were 1063 and 606 MPa, respectively, while in the specimens heat-treated for 500 min, they were 680 and 451 MPa, respectively. The tensile strength decreased with the increase in the heat treatment time. The tensile strength of the specimens was also calculated by using the rule of mixture. For the as-rolled specimens and the 823K-2 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was consistent with the measured value; however, for the 823K-500 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was lower than the measured value. This result suggests that the necking of this layered structure was effectively obstructed by the outer ductile layer. The micromechanical characterization technique used in this study is useful not only for investigating deformation behavior but also for designing multilayered steel composites with superior mechanical properties.
Eight strains of influenza C virus isolated in various areas of Japan between January 1985 and January 1989 were compared using monoclonal antibodies to the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoproteins and by oligonucleotide mapping of total vRNA. Five of six strains isolated during 1986–9 were closely related to one another and also resembled the virus, C/Aichi/1/81, isolated in 1981 in Aichi prefecture. This suggests that the C/Aichi/l/81-related viruses had an epidemiological advantage over any co-circulating viruses at least during that period. One of two 1985 isolates (C/Nara/1/85) was antigenically indistinguishable from the C/Mississippi/1/80 strain though their oligonucleotide patterns were markedly different from each other. This raises the possibility that C/Nara/1/85 may be a recombinant virus which receives its HE gene from the C/Mississippi/l/80-related parent.
Large-scale manufacturing of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) panels for lighting and display has been slowed by several manufacturing factors, prominent among which are low throughput due in part to the fine metal mask technology for patterning the red-, green-, and blue-light-emitting pixels and low materials utilization efficiency of the available vacuum deposition technology. To overcome these impediments to low-cost OLED manufacturing, Kodak developed a blanket white-emitting OLED architecture in combination with a pixilated color filter array to eliminate the need for fine metal masks and developed a vacuum deposition technology capable of high deposition rates and high materials utilization efficiency. These developments, taken together, allow much higher throughput and yield on fifth-generation and larger substrates that promise to enable low-cost manufacturing of OLED displays and lighting panels. This paper focuses on the deposition technology Kodak developed, a flash vaporization process that can deliver very high materials utilization efficiency at high deposition rates for small-molecule OLED materials without increasing material decomposition.
To investigate two clusters of diarrhoea cases observed in our geriatric hospital wards, the faecal specimens were analysed. Reversed passive latex agglutination assay revealed that 63·2% and 41·7% of the faecal specimens from each cluster were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. PCR assay revealed that 71·4% and 68·8% of C. perfringens isolates from each cluster were positive for the enterotoxin gene (cpe). These observations suggested that both the clusters were outbreaks caused by enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. Subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the two outbreaks were caused by different C. perfringens isolates. However, these outbreak isolates as well as other sporadic diarrhoea isolates shared a 75-kb plasmid on which the cpe gene and the tcp locus were located. The 75-kb plasmid had horizontally spread to various C. perfringens isolates and had caused outbreaks and sporadic infections. However, the site and time of the plasmid transfer are unclear.
PuO2 and AmO2 solid solutions: (Pu, Am)O2 are one of the candidates of fuels in a sub-critical accelerator-driven system (ADS). To understand the fuel performance, the thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity and heat capacity are quite important. However, it is very hard to experimentally determine the physical properties of plutonium as well as americium compounds due to their handling-difficulties. Molecular dynamics (MD) would be a specific method to describe the physical properties of such materials. In the present study, we have investigated thermophysical properties of PuO2, AmO2, and their solid solutions in the temperature range from 300 to 2,500 K. The lattice parameter, compressibility, heat capacity, linear thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal conductivity were evaluated. A Morse-type potential function added to the Busing-Ida type potential was employed as the potential for interatomic interactions. The calculated lattice parameters of (Pu, Am)O2 obeyed Vegard's law, and the values increased with temperature. The heat capacities of (Pu, Am)O2 were similar in any compositions. The thermal conductivities of (Pu, Am)O2 were lower than those of PuO2 and AmO2, indicating that a point-defect scattering effect of phonons could be realized in the MD calculations.
The molecular dynamics (MD) calculation was performed for minor actinide (MA: Np and Am)-containing mixed oxide (MOX) fuels, U0.7-xPu0.3MAxO2, in the temperature range from 300 to around 2500 K to evaluate the thermal expansion, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. The MD results showed that the calculated heat capacity and thermal conductivity were similar in all the composition ranges, indicating that MA scarcely affected the thermal properties of the MOX fuel in the perfect crystal system.
The propagation of intense laser pulses and the generation of high-energy electrons from underdense plasmas are investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that quasi-monoenergetic electron beams are generated in the regime where the laser pulse length is much longer than the plasma wavelength, when the condition of the focusing is appropriately controlled.
Three-dimensional electron motion in a linearly polarized tightly focused laser field is numerically calculated. A high-intensity laser pulse focused on the free electrons in vacuum generates relativistic electron bunches whose length is shorter than the laser wavelength. The extremely short electron bunches with low-energy spread less than 1% are generated for a wide range of the laser parameters.
Positive surgical indications for an only hearing ear were evaluated in order to improve patients' quality of life. Fifteen cases of surgery involving an only hearing ear over the past eight years were retrospectively reviewed. Of eight perforated chronic otitis media cases, seven underwent type one tympanoplasty and one underwent simple underlay myringoplasty regardless of otorrhoea at the time of surgery. Of six cholesteatoma cases, two received the canal wall up method and four received the canal wall down method. Ossiculoplasty was carefully performed in six cases. Hearing was improved in seven cases, whereas it remained unchanged in seven cases and deteriorated in one case. Of nine patients, two did not need a hearing aid after surgery. Five patients with severe combined hearing loss (>90 dB) were able to communicate with a hearing aid, alleviating their anxiety regarding hearing loss. Only hearing ears with chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma can be successfully treated by tympanoplasty with or without ossiculoplasty.
We have demonstrated the acceleration of a monoenergetic electron beam
by a laser-produced wakefield. Experiments were performed by focusing 2-TW
laser pulses of 50 fs on supersonic gas-jet targets. The focused intensity
was 5 × 1018 W/cm2 (a0
= 1.5). At an electron density of 1.5 × 1020
cm−3, the clear monoenergetic electron beam from the
plasma was obtained at 7 to 15 MeV. The Stokes satellite peak in the
forward scattering explained the energy spectra of electrons at various
plasma densities well. Although the wakefield propagated 500 microns,
which was far beyond the dephasing length, monoenergetic electron beams
Microcrystalline silicon was deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) using a graphite filament with and without a thin 50 nm microcrystalline silicon seed layer. Increasing silane concentration diluted in H2 led to a decrease in crystalline fraction as well in a decrease in dark conductivity and photo-conductivity. In addition, films deposited with a seed layer were found to have higher dark conductivity and photo-conductivity than those without a seed layer but deposited at slower growth rates. However, Raman spectroscopy showed that use of a seed layer resulted in only a small increase in crystalline fraction at the surface of the films which had thicknesses between 250-400nm. TEM measurements confirmed the crystalline nature of deposited films showing average grain sizes of 25 nm.
CeO2 thin films as insulating layers for high-temperature superconducting digital devices were studied. The dependence on substrate temperature and oxygen pressure of the surface morphology and crystallinity of CeO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition were investigated. CeO2 thin films with a flat and closely grained surface were obtained at a relatively low oxygen pressure of 3.6 Pa, whereas higher oxygen pressure led to CeO2 thin films with a rough surface and columnar grains. The recovery of oxygen content in superconducting layers was examined for multilayer structures with CeO2 thin films. Enough oxygen was supplied to the upper and lower superconducting layers when the multilayer was cooled slowly in 3 × 10−4 Pa oxygen pressure after deposition. Resistively shunted junction type I-V characteristics were confirmed for interface-engineered ramp-edge junctions in a multilayer structure including four superconducting layers with CeO2 thin films.
Y0.9Ba1.9La0.2Cu3Oy (La-YBCO) thin films were prepared by an off-axis magnetron sputtering method on MgO substrates with and without a BaZrO3 buffer layer. Insertion of BaZrO3 buffer layer was effective for obtaining La-YBCO films with pure c-axis orientation and in-plane alignment at low temperatures below 600 °C. We prepared La-YBCO thin films on BaZrO3-buffered MgO substrates using a temperature-gradient method, in which a template La-YBCO layer was first deposited at 600 °C, and then the temperature was continuously raised to 700 °C. By this method, La-YBCO thin films with improved crystallinity were successfully prepared. It was also proved that the insertion of the BaZrO3 buffer layer enables us to prepare high-quality La-YBCO films with high reproducibility.
Defect structures in ZnO thin films were studied to clarify the mechanism of charge compensation and crystallinity degradation induced by alloying. Regarding the undoped ZnO films, it was indicated that the degree of non-equilibrium behavior in the films deposited by PLD was much less than in the films prepared by the other two methods, i.e., MBE and sputtering, and, moreover, the solid-state diffusion behavior in the PLD-grown undoped ZnO was close to that of bulk ZnO. The heavily Al-doped films and alloy films with high concentrations of MgO exhibited significant non-equilibrium behavior, even for those prepared by PLD. It was indicated that the high concentration of extrinsic elements, e.g., Al and Mg, introduces non-equilibrium defects into ZnO films and those defects are the cause of the crystallinity degradation and thermal instability of the films.
Active matrix organic light emitting diode displays based on thin, flexible metal foil substrates offer a novel approach to fabricate light, flexible and rugged displays. Metal foils allows devices to be fabricated at higher process temperatures yielding better device characteristics than plastic substrates. Furthermore, the conductive nature of such substrates enables more efficient use of pixel area through the use of a global power electrode. We are implementing Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) displays on flexible stainless steel substrate using 2 TFT and 4 TFT pixel circuit topologies with two different layout realizations that exploit the conductive properties of the substrate.