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People with severe neuromuscular trunk impairment cannot maintain or control upright posture of the upper body in sitting while reaching. Passive orthoses are clinically available to provide support and promote the use of upper extremities in this population. However, these orthoses only position the torso passively without any degree of trunk movement.
We introduce for the first time a novel active-assistive torso brace called Wheelchair Robot for Active Postural Support (WRAPS). It consists of two rings over the hips and chest connected by a 2RPS-2UPS parallel robotic device. WRAPS can modulate the displacement of the upper ring and/or the forces applied on the torso through the ring in four degrees-of-freedom (DOF), including rotations and translation in the sagittal and frontal planes.
In the present study, we evaluate the design of WRAPS and its functions. Moreover, we discuss the potential effectiveness of WRAPS as a therapeutic robotic tool in people with severe trunk control deficits. The performance of WRAPS was evaluated in seated healthy subjects. Kinematics and surface electromyography (sEMG) were collected when the participants performed selective trunk movements. First, the torso range of motion (tROM) was calculated with WRAPS in transparent mode—zero-force control mode—which was compared with free-guided tROM (no WRAPS) with motion capture system. Second, a position control mode was configured to mobilize the torso along the trajectories obtained with the transparent mode.
Our results show that the design of WRAPS suited well the subject’s anthropometrics while supporting the weight of the torso. Importantly, WRAPS can be programmed to replicate the subject’s tROM, without the full activation of torso muscles. This can be critical in individuals with no trunk control. Altogether, these preliminary results indicate the potential applicability of WRAPS to promote active-assistive trunk mobility in people who cannot sit independently because of trunk dysfunction.
Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders.
We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls). All data were based on standard diagnostic criteria. Eight psychiatric disorders were studied: (1) alcohol dependence (AD), (2) anorexia nervosa, (3) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (4) autism spectrum disorder, (5) bipolar disorder, (6) major depressive disorder, (7) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and (8) schizophrenia.
Heritability estimates from sibling data varied from 0.30 for Major Depression to 0.80 for ADHD. The estimates based on the measured genotypes were lower, ranging from 0.10 for AD to 0.28 for OCD, but were significant, and correlated positively (0.19) with national sibling-based estimates. When removing OCD from the data the correlation increased to 0.50.
Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research.
We describe the case of a 52-day-old child who was diagnosed with a rare combination of corrected transposition of great vessels – hypoplastic right ventricle with supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.
The C14 dates given below are in years b.p. calculated on the basis of τ1/2 = 5568 years. For converting to a.d./b.c scale, 1950 was used as reference year. Ninety-five per cent activity of NBS oxalic acid was used as a modern standard.
Presented below are dates from some important archaeologic and Quaternary sites. For the first time, a large number of dates have been reported here on the eustatic changes on the Eastern Indian coast. All dates are based on τ1/2 — 5568 yr; to convert the radiocarbon dates for archaeological samples into ad/bc scale, 1950 has been used as base year as per resolution passed at the Ninth International Radiocarbon Conference, San Diego, 1976. The dates are not corrected for 13C fractionation.
The dates presented below are from some important archaeologic and Quaternary sites. All the dates are in years bp, based on τ½ = 5568 years. When converting archaeologic dates into the ad/bc scale, 1950 should be used as the base year. The dates are not corrected for 13C fractionation. All the dates older than 10,000 years have been given with 2σ errors.
Presented below are dates from some important archaeologic and Quaternary sites. All dates are based on τ ½ = 5568 yr; to convert the radiocarbon dates for archaeologic samples into ad/bc scale, 1950 has been used as base as per the resolution passed at the Ninth International Radiocarbon Conference, San Diego, 1976. The dates are not corrected for 13C fractionation. All the dates older than 10,000 yr have been given with 2σ errors. Due to uncertainty about the contribution of the biogenic carbon in caliche (CaCO3) samples, the dates represent apparent and not true ages.
We continue to give dates based on the half-life of 5568 years according to the decision of the Sixth Pullman Conference (Internatl. Conf., Pullman, 1965). The year 1950 has been used as a reference year for converting the dates to A.D./B.C. scale. A value corresponding to 95% net counting rate of the NBS oxalic acid has been used as the modern reference standard.
As the Radiocarbon Lab of the Tata Institute, Bombay, has now been shifted to the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad, our new date lists will be termed as above and the samples will be given PRL numbers instead of the former TF. All the pending TF samples were given new PRL numbers.
Legume consumption is associated with lower fasting glucose (FG) and insulin levels in nutrition trials and lower CVD mortality in large-scale epidemiological studies. In India, legumes are widely consumed in various preparations, yet no epidemiological study has evaluated the association of legumes with FG levels, insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The present study aimed to fill this gap.
Fasting blood samples, in-person interviews to obtain information on demographic/socio-economic factors, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Dietary intakes were assessed by an interviewer-administered, validated, semi-quantitative FFQ.
Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore, India.
Men and women (n 6367) aged 15–76 years – urban residents, urban migrants and their rural siblings.
In multivariate random-effects models adjusted for age, BMI, total energy intake, macronutrients, physical activity and rural/migration status, daily legume consumption was not associated with FG (P-for-trend=0·78), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment score; P-for-trend=0·73) or the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-for-trend=0·41). Stratified analyses by vegetarian diet and migration status did not change the findings. Inverse associations between legumes and FG emerged for participants with lower BMI and higher carbohydrate, protein, fat and sugar intakes.
Although legumes are essential in traditional Indian diets, as well as in prudent and Mediterranean diets in the West, we did not find an association between legumes and markers of glycaemic control, insulin resistance or diabetes, except for subgroups based on BMI and macronutrient intake. The ubiquitous presence and complexity of legume preparations in Indian diets may contribute to these findings.
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the genetic relationship between two isolates of Opisthorchis (O. pedicellata sp. 1, O. pedicellata sp. 2) from two siluroid fish hosts, based on three nuclear DNA (18S, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2). Molecular analysis revealed that both isolates of 18S sequences showed low intraspecific variability (1.6%), while this was 1.9% for ITS1 and 2.6% for ITS2. The secondary structure of the ITS2 region exhibited a remarkable four-helix model, with helices 1 and 4 being relatively short, three U–U mismatches in helix 2 and the longest helix (3) having two UGGG motifs. The phylogenetic analyses, using neighbour–joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods of MEGA 6, demonstrate that both isolates form a sister clade with significant support (100%). Therefore, we concluded that both the isolates of O. pedicellata are of the same species but some variations may be due to the sympatric environment of variant hosts.
We have made photometric observations of the galactic superluminal jet source GRS 1915+105 in the energy bands of 2-6 and 6-18 keV during 1997 June 12-29 and August 8-10. During our observations, different types of very intense, quasi-regular X-ray bursts have been observed from this source. We present here the light curves and the power density spectra of our observation of this source in its bright state.
We have made observations of the black hole binary Cyg X-1 with the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE). Observations made with time resolution ranging from 0.4 ms to 1 s showed variations and flaring activity on sub-sec and longer time scales. Results on time variability on different time scales and flaring characteristics in the two states of Cyg X-1 are presented.
Fast photometric observations of a nova-like variable KR Aurigae and the intermediate polar BG CMi (3A0729+103) were made in the B and U bands during 1984–89 to study pulsations in them. The light curves of KR Aur show large amplitude quasi-periodic pulsations with periods in the range 500–800s which can be ascribed to inhomogeneities in the accretion disc. The light curves of the X-ray emitting intermediate polar BG CMi show variable amplitude pulsations with 913s period. From the times of maxima of the pulsations obtained from observations over the period 1984–1989, the pulsation period is derived to be 0.010572966 ± 8 days and the spin-up rate to be (−5.7 ± 0.5) × 10−11 ss−1. The spin-up rate is consistent with the pulsating source being a white dwarf and not a neutron star.
This study examined the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment of reconstructed buffalo embryos, produced by hand-made cloning using somatic cells isolated from over a decade old frozen–thawed semen, on their in vitro and in vivo developmental competence, quality and epigenetic status. Following treatment of reconstructed embryos with TSA (0, 50 or 75 nM) for 10 h prior to culture, the cleavage (100.0 ± 0, 94.5 ± 2.3 and 96.1 ± 1.2%, respectively) and blastocyst rate (50.6 ± 2.3, 48.4 ± 2.7 and 48.1 ± 2.6%, respectively), total cell number (275 ± 17.4, 289 ± 30.1 and 317 ± 24.2, respectively) and apoptotic index (5.6 ± 0.7, 3.4 ± 0.9 and 4.5 ± 1.4, respectively) were not significantly different among the three groups. However, TSA treatment increased (P < 0.05) the global level of H4K5ac and decreased (P < 0.05) that of H3K27me3 in blastocysts whereas the global level of H3K18ac was not affected significantly. Transfer of embryos treated with 75 nM TSA (n = 10) to recipients resulted in two pregnancies (20%), one out of which was aborted in the second and the other in the third trimester whereas transfer of control embryos (n = 20) or those treated with 50 nM TSA (n = 12) did not result in any pregnancy. In conclusion, these results suggest that TSA treatment of cloned buffalo embryos produced using somatic cells isolated from frozen–thawed semen improved their epigenetic status but not the in vitro developmental potential and offspring rate.
This study aimed to evaluate the ability of positron emission tomography with contrast-enhanced computed tomography to correctly stage head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, in comparison with pathological staging.
Positron emission tomography computed tomography was used to determine the tumour–node–metastasis classification and overall cancer stage in 85 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients who underwent pre-operative imaging using this modality and primary surgery between July 2010 and January 2013. Staging by positron emission tomography computed tomography was retrospectively compared with staging using pathological specimens. Agreement between imaging stage and pathological stage was examined by univariate and multivariate analysis both overall and for each primary tumour site.
This imaging modality was 87.5 per cent sensitive and 44.8 per cent specific in identifying regional cervical metastases, and had false positive and false negative rates of 18.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent, respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values were 75.4 per cent and 65.0 per cent, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a significant agreement between positron emission tomography computed tomography and pathological node classification in older patients and for the oral cavity primary tumour site. There was significant agreement between both methods in the overall classification only for tumours classified as T3 or greater.
Positron emission tomography computed tomography should be used with caution for the pre-operative staging of head and neck cancers because of its high false positive and false negative rates.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has consistently been linked with adverse outcomes including substance use disorders and adult sexual revictimization. Adult sexual victimization itself has been linked with psychopathology but has predominately been studied in women. The current investigation examines the impact of CM and co-occurring psychopathology on adult sexual victimization in men and women, replicating findings in three distinct samples.
We investigated the association between continuous CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization in the Childhood Trauma Study (CTS) sample (N = 2564). We also examined the unique relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual victimization while adjusting for co-occurring substance dependence and psychopathology. We replicated these analyses in two additional samples: the Comorbidity and Trauma Study (CATS; N = 1981) and the Australian Twin-Family Study of Alcohol Use Disorders (OZ-ALC; N = 1537).
Analyses revealed a significant association with CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization for both men and women across all three samples. The CSA factor score was strongly associated with adult sexual victimization after adjusting for substance dependence and psychopathology; higher odds ratios were observed in men (than women) consistently across the three samples.
A continuous measure of CSA is independently associated with adult sexual trauma risk across samples in models that included commonly associated substance dependence and psychopathology as covariates. The strength of the association between this CSA measure and adult sexual victimization is higher in magnitude for men than women, pointing to the need for further investigation of sexual victimization in male community samples.