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Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
In the present report, we describe the use of narrow band imaging during video-laryngomicrosurgery for laryngeal papillomatosis.
It is difficult to peri-operatively locate all the superficial papillomatous lesions when the disease is widespread, which then results in tumor recurrence. Therefore, we have constructed a narrow band imaging video-laryngomicrosurgery system, which we have used for two cases of laryngeal papillomatosis.
Our narrow band imaging-assisted video-laryngomicrosurgery system to visualise superficial laryngeal papillomatosis more clearly.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical outcomes of using tracheoesophageal diversion for preventing intractable aspiration.
We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients who underwent tracheoesophageal diversion from 2003 to 2009 at our hospital (median age, 25 years; range, 0–78 years). End-to-side anastomosis was used in 16 cases and side-to-side anastomosis was used in 9.
The average operative time was 141 minutes for end-to-side anastomosis and 191 minutes for side-to-side anastomosis. Peri-operative complications were observed in only two (8 per cent) cases: one with infection and one with haematoma. No fistulas were observed. Aspiration was prevented in all cases, but the nutritional route depended on the swallowing function of the patient. Oral feeding was the main nutritional route after surgery in only four patients (16 per cent).
This procedure is well suited to patients who lack speech communication and are at high risk of aspiration.
The mechanism of improvement in gate oxide integrity (GOI) characteristics by H2 annealing in CZ-grown Silicon wafers was investigated. Grown-in defects that are considered to degrade GOI and which can be detected correlatively as 0.1 μm level size pits appearing after SC-1 cleaning, decrease drastically by H2 annealing, while other inert gases, i.e., N2 and Ar, do not exhibit such effect. Besides, H2 annealing shrinks or extinguishes oxygen precipitates significantly, while other gases do not. On the other hand, oxygen outdiffusion is exactly the same among H2, N2 and Ar annealing. From these results, it was concluded that the dominant mechanism for GOI characteristics improvement by H2 annealing is due to decomposition of the grown-in defects having Si-O bonding by the reduction reaction between Si-O bonding and hydrogen, and not due to a mere thermal decomposition enhanced by oxygen outdiffusion.
The mechanical properties and deformation behavior of each constituent layer of multilayered steel composites were examined using microtensile testing. Three-layered integrated steels consisting of SUS420 and SPCC (cold-reduced carbon steel sheets) were fabricated by a cold-rolling process. Different heat treatment processes were used to prepare three types of specimens (as-rolled, 823K-2 min heat-treated, and 823K-500 min heat-treated), and the effect of heat treatment on their mechanical properties was investigated. In the as-rolled specimens, the average tensile strengths in the SUS420 and SPCC layers were 1063 and 606 MPa, respectively, while in the specimens heat-treated for 500 min, they were 680 and 451 MPa, respectively. The tensile strength decreased with the increase in the heat treatment time. The tensile strength of the specimens was also calculated by using the rule of mixture. For the as-rolled specimens and the 823K-2 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was consistent with the measured value; however, for the 823K-500 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was lower than the measured value. This result suggests that the necking of this layered structure was effectively obstructed by the outer ductile layer. The micromechanical characterization technique used in this study is useful not only for investigating deformation behavior but also for designing multilayered steel composites with superior mechanical properties.
The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the level of residual damage resulting from nitrogen and boron implants after different anneal processes are investigated using the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) technique. It is shown that after implantation there is a substantial defect concentration significantly below the range of the implants. However such damage is almost completely recovered after anneal in contrast with the damage close to the implant range point. Such residual damage has a strong effect on the electrical characteristics of double implanted bipolar transistors - principally though reduction in carrier mobility and lifetime. It is shown that the precise implant and anneal conditions play a strong role in the level of such damage and the subsequent electrical performance of bipolar devices.
We have investigated the atomic and electronic structure of symmetric tilt boundaries in ZnO by a first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method. Equilibrium boundary geometries with distorted- and dangling-bonds are obtained. Localized electronic states form mainly at the lower valence band and the bottom of the upper valence band owing to the bond disorder. However, the electronic states near the band gap are not significantly affected; deep states are not generated in the band gap. The small effects of the bond disorder on the electronic structure can be attributed to the band structure characteristic of ZnO.
[Ba2CuO2(CO3)]m[ACuO2]n(A=Sr) superlattices containing oxycarbonate blocks as charge reservoir have been prepared on SrTiO3 using the molecular beam epitaxy technique. First, thin films of the oxycarbonate cuprate Ba2CuO2(CO3) have been prepared on SrTiO3(001) using NO2 gas as an oxidant and CO2 gas. The films have been grown at 500°C. At higher substrate temperature or at lower CO2 pressure Ba2CuO3 was formed instead of Ba2CuO2(CO3), and the films becomes amorphous at lower temperature. X-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction observations indicated that (BaxSr1−x)2CuO2(CO3) grew along the  crystal orientation on SrTiO3(001) with the following epitaxial relationship: Ba2CuO2(CO3)//SrTiO3 and Ba2CuO2(CO3)//SrTiO3 . Depth profile of secondary ion mass spectrometry signals indicated the incorporation of carbon into the films. Secondly, the oxycarbonate cuprates and infinite layers have been alternately stacked. It was confirmed that Ba2CuO2(CO3)was inserted between several unit cells of SrCuO2. Electrical measurements show the as grown films to have a semiconducting behavior.
A simple ion-implanted bipolar transistor technology in 4H-SiC is presented. Suitable for both high-voltage vertical devices and lateral high-temperature transistors (for circuit applications), the technology is based on an implanted boron p-well with nitrogen and boron (or aluminium) implanted n+ and p+ regions respectively. The effects of base doping and carrier lifetime on device performance have been studied using TCAD techniques. It is shown that understanding the strong variation of carrier concentration with temperature (due to deep activation levels) and applied field (so-called field ionization) is critical in device design optimisation. The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the physical and electrical characteristics of the junctions are investigated. It is shown that annealing can remove much of the damage induced by high dose nitrogen implantation but that residual damage is still present. The electrical characteristics of simple BJT transistors with breakdown voltages in excess of 1000V and common-emitter gains of ∼2 is related to the level of such residual damage.
Formation of Au colloid particles and their optical property have been investigated in silica glasses implanted with Au+ ions at an acceleration energy of 1.5MeV and fluence levels of 1016-1017 ions/cm2. The Au colloid particles are formed in the as-implanted glasses. It is inferred that the average radius of Au colloid particles depends on the fluence level, although the fluence level does not affect the distribution of Au atomic concentration. The heat-treatment little affects the Au atomic distribution. The Au colloid particles grow to 4.3nm in average radius during heat treatment. It is revealed that the large nonlinear optical property of the Au+ -ion-implanted silica glass is attributed to the high concentration of the Au colloid particles in the narrow region.
The diamagnetic properties of NdCeCuO films with electron carriers were studied. The,critical current density ( Jc ) was calculated to be 0.73 x 106 A/cm2 . These films indicated the very strong magnetic relaxation with small activation energy, the significant resistive broadening in the critical region and the largely fluctuated diamagnetization. These results suggested the very weak pinning forces to cause the easily activated flux motion in these specimens.
Basic thin film deposition processes for the high-Tc superconductors of Bi-systems are described. There appear several superconducting phases including the low-Tc phase Bi2Sr2Ca1 Cu2Ox and the high-Tc phase Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox. Thin films with these superconducting phases are synthesized by a selection of the substrate temperature Ts during the deposition : the high-Tc phase with Tc=100K is synthesized at Ts>800 °C; the low-Tc phase with Tc=80K, at Ts<600°C. However, these films often comprise show structure comprizing the different superconducting phases.
The close control of the superconducting phase has been achieved by the layer-by-layer deposition in the atomic layer epitaxy process.
Defect structures in ZnO thin films were studied to clarify the mechanism of charge compensation and crystallinity degradation induced by alloying. Regarding the undoped ZnO films, it was indicated that the degree of non-equilibrium behavior in the films deposited by PLD was much less than in the films prepared by the other two methods, i.e., MBE and sputtering, and, moreover, the solid-state diffusion behavior in the PLD-grown undoped ZnO was close to that of bulk ZnO. The heavily Al-doped films and alloy films with high concentrations of MgO exhibited significant non-equilibrium behavior, even for those prepared by PLD. It was indicated that the high concentration of extrinsic elements, e.g., Al and Mg, introduces non-equilibrium defects into ZnO films and those defects are the cause of the crystallinity degradation and thermal instability of the films.
We report on the development of the first large area semi-transparent amorphous silicon solar modules on pre-shaped compound curved substrates. To date, we have achieved an active area (approximately 1800 cm2) efficiency of about 7%. It is shown that, because of enhanced internal reflection, a metal/dielectric back contact is a good alternative to one consisting of merely a transparent conducting oxide (TCO). The dielectric serves as both a passivating layer and an anti-reflection coating.
Active matrix organic light emitting diode displays based on thin, flexible metal foil substrates offer a novel approach to fabricate light, flexible and rugged displays. Metal foils allows devices to be fabricated at higher process temperatures yielding better device characteristics than plastic substrates. Furthermore, the conductive nature of such substrates enables more efficient use of pixel area through the use of a global power electrode. We are implementing Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode (AMOLED) displays on flexible stainless steel substrate using 2 TFT and 4 TFT pixel circuit topologies with two different layout realizations that exploit the conductive properties of the substrate.
Ultrathin films of perovskite PbTiO3, 10–100nm thick, were epitaxially grown on miscut (001)SrTiO3 substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering at 600°C. The electron microscope and high resolution x-ray diffraction analysis suggested the evidence of epitaxial growth of (001)PbTiO3/(001)SrTiO3 with three dimensional crystal orientation. The stoichiometric film shows extremely smooth surface with the surface roughness less than 3nm. Deposition on a miscut substrate under stoichiometric conditions is essential to make continuous thin films of single crystal perovskite PbTiO3.
The realization of a trivalent ion conduction in solids was successful by selecting the Sc2(WO4)3-type structure from the consideration of the mobile trivalent cations and the structure which decreases the electrostatic interaction between the migrating trivalent ionic species and the framework structure as much as possible. Among the rare earth tungstates, Sc2(WO4)3 (σ600°C=6.5× 10−5 S'cm−1, Ea=44.1 kJ.mo−1) was found to hold the most suitable size for the trivalent ion migration in the relation between the mobile ion size and the lattice volume. The ion conducting characteristics of rare earths were studied by means of both the polarization and dc electrolysis techniques. The mobile species was demonstrated to be the trivalent ions in the Sc2(WO4)3-type structure. By the dc electrolysis, the mobile ion species was definitely identified to be the trivalent ions in the Sc2(WO4)3-type tungstates. In addition, the demonstration of a macroscopic Al3+ ion conduction in the tungstate structure was directly accomplished.
The Gas Migration Test in the engineered barrier system (GMT) investigates the migration of waste-generated gas from low and intermediate level waste in a silo-type disposal concept. The EBS has now been emplaced and saturation was initiated in August 2001. The saturation patterns show heterogeneity within and between different layers of the EBS. Plans for the remaining test sequence are also presented.
The multiplet structures of Co2+ doped in ZnO, Co2+ doped in ZnS and Ni2+ doped in ZnS are calculated from first principles using the recently developed discrete variational-multielectron (DV-ME) method, in which the matrix elements of electron-electron repulsion are calculated numerically using the molecular orbitals obtained by cluster calculations. The transition probabilities between the multiplet states are also calculated from first principles using the many-electron wave functions obtained by the DV-ME calculations. The optical spectra of these materials are well reproduced, indicating that the effects of covalency and configuration interactions are properly taken into account in the present calculations.
The high temperature cubic phase of Ba2 nr2O5 shows large ion conductivity. It is interestingto examine, if the cubic phase can be stabilized in the low temperature region (920 C) by making solid solution of another element. In the present study, we investigated the ion conductivity and the crystal structure of Ba2(In2-x.Mx)O5 system by substituting In site for element M such as Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nb, Ta etc. By substituting 3 mole % Nb for In, the transition temperature decreased by about 300 C. High temperature X-ray diffraction analysis shows the crystal structure changes from orthorhombic to cubic at this transition temperature. The effective elements which decreased the transition temperature were pentavalent or tetra valent elements such as Nb or Si ,Ce. The substitution In site for 20 mole percentage Nb stabilizes the cubic structure down to room temperature. Considering the transport number, the tetravalent element doping is very effective to stabilize the cubic phase of Ba2In2O5 without lose of excellent characteristic of pure Ba2ln2O5.