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Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: “Cure Quest” is an adventure quest game for mobile tablets that aims to teach the player about the complexities of discovery and development of new medicines. The game instills a sense of wonderment into the learning process, taking the player to a world of magic where a mysterious condition has affected the land and they must follow the steps of the discovery and development process to find a treatment. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The game is being developed through a collaboration between faculty and students at ISMMS and the Games and Simulation Arts and Science Program at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The first target audience is 2nd–3rd year medical students, with the future goal of adapting the game to a broader population. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The game is currently in development, but the project has yielded insight into the design process for serious games in medicine. We found that for a game of this type it is essential not just to have both designers and subject matter experts, but to enable cross-pollination of modes of thinking. Through multiple design iterations and focus groups, we found that a game design approach rooted in narrative and allegorical abstraction would have a better ability to engage the target audience than one focused only on realistic simulation. When complete, we anticipate that the game will improve understanding of the core concepts in drug discovery. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: If successful, the game-based learning approach can help fill key gaps in current formal medical and scientific training, as well as gaps in understanding among the general public. The design process serves as an informative model of evolving collaborative team science.
Rumen protected fats are often included in dairy cow rations in order to increase the energy density of the ration without compromising rumen function. Various studies have examined the effects of protected fats, with some studies reporting an improvement in various fertility parameters (McNamara et al., 2003). This study examined the effect of feeding protected fat (Megalac™) on production parameters, and on the reproductive performance of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.
Changing management in UK lowland pasture systems has lead to larger fertiliser inputs, increased intensity and frequency of cutting and a movement towards silage rather than hay based systems. This has lead to changes in both floral diversity and the seasonal characteristics of sward architectural complexity, which include the loss of key vegetation structures at critical times of the year. e.g., seed heads. This has had large impacts on invertebrate communities in pasture systems and is thought to be the cause of large-scale declines in both the abundances and diversity of invertebrates (Duffey et al., 1974). This decline in invertebrate abundance has also been linked to a concomitant decline in farmland bird populations reliant on invertebrates as a food sources (Vickery et al., 2001). By manipulating cattle grazing, cutting and fertiliser regimes in intensively managed pasture systems the role of vegetation structure for a variety of invertebrate communities has been investigated.
The Darwin–Hatherton Glacial system (DHGS) connects the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) with the Ross Ice Shelf and is a key area for understanding past variations in ice thickness of surrounding ice masses. Here we present the first detailed measurements of ice thickness and grounding zone characteristics of the DHGS as well as new measurements of ice velocity. The results illustrate the changes that occur in glacier geometry and ice flux as ice flows from the polar plateau and into the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice discharge and the mean basal ice shelf melt for the first 8.5 km downstream of the grounding line amount to 0.24 ± 0.05 km3 a−1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 m a−1, respectively. As the ice begins to float, ice thickness decreases rapidly and basal terraces develop. Constructed maps of glacier geometry suggest that ice drainage from the EAIS into the Darwin Glacier occurs primarily through a deep subglacial canyon. By contrast, ice thins to <200 m at the head of the much slower flowing Hatherton Glacier. The glaciological field study establishes an improved basis for the interpretation of glacial drift sheets at the link between the EAIS and the Ross Ice Sheet.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
Over the last several years we have obtained photometric observations of the four suspected (W Men, HV 5637, HV 12671, HV 12842) R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Fourier analyses of the light curves has revealed some periodicity in HV 12842, where there appear to be at least two closely spaced periods of 55 and 60 d. High resolution spectra of HV 12842, obtained with the Ango-Australian Telescope (AAT), indicate that it has similar atmospheric properties to a number of warmer galactic RCB and hydrogen-deficient Carbon (HdC) stars, e.g. R CrB, RY Sgr and XX Cam.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes lead to dramatically increased risks of atherosclerosis and CHD. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote atherosclerosis by increasing endothelial oxidative stress and up-regulating expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. Microvesicles (MV) are small ( < 1 μm) circulating particles that transport proteins and genetic material, through which they are able to mediate cell–cell communication and influence gene expression. Since MV are increased in plasma of obese, insulin-resistant and diabetic individuals, who often exhibit chronic vascular inflammation, and long-term feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) to rats is a well-described model of obesity and insulin resistance, we hypothesised that this may be a useful model to study the impact of MV on endothelial inflammation. The number and cellular origin of MV from HFD-fed obese rats were characterised by flow cytometry. Total MV were significantly increased after feeding HFD compared to feeding chow (P< 0·001), with significantly elevated numbers of MV derived from leucocyte, endothelial and platelet compartments (P< 0·01 for each cell type). MV were isolated from plasma and their ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression was measured in primary rat cardiac endothelial cells in vitro. MV from HFD-fed rats induced significant ROS (P< 0·001) and VCAM-1 expression (P= 0·0275), indicative of a pro-inflammatory MV phenotype in this model of obesity. These findings confirm that this is a useful model to further study the mechanisms by which diet can influence MV release and subsequent effects on cardio-metabolic health.
Finch trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas gallinae, emerged in the Canadian Maritime provinces in 2007 and has since caused ongoing mortality in regional purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus) and American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) populations. Trichomonas gallinae was isolated from (1) finches and rock pigeons (Columbia livia) submitted for post-mortem or live-captured at bird feeding sites experiencing trichomonosis mortality; (2) bird seed at these same sites; and (3) rock pigeons live-captured at known roosts or humanely killed. Isolates were characterized using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and iron hydrogenase (Fe-hyd) gene sequences. Two distinct ITS types were found. Type A was identical to the UK finch epidemic strain and was isolated from finches and a rock pigeon with trichomonosis; apparently healthy rock pigeons and finches; and bird seed at an outbreak site. Type B was obtained from apparently healthy rock pigeons. Fe-hyd sequencing revealed six distinct subtypes. The predominant subtype in both finches and the rock pigeon with trichomonosis was identical to the UK finch epidemic strain A1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Fe-hyd sequences suggest there is fine-scale variation amongst isolates and that finch trichomonosis emergence in this region may not have been caused by a single spill-over event.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
According to the Family Ecological Model (FEM), parenting behaviours are shaped by the contexts in which families are embedded. In the present study, we utilize the FEM to guide a mixed-methods community assessment and summarize the results. Additionally, we discuss the utility of the FEM and outline possible improvements.
Using a cross-sectional design, qualitative and quantitative methods were used to examine the ecologies of parents' cognitions and behaviours specific to children's diet, physical activity and screen-based behaviours. Results were mapped onto constructs outlined in the FEM.
The study took place in five Head Start centres in a small north-eastern city. The community assessment was part of a larger study to develop and evaluate a family-centred obesity prevention programme for low-income families.
Participants included eighty-nine low-income parents/caregivers of children enrolled in Head Start.
Parents reported a broad range of factors affecting their parenting cognitions and behaviours. Intrafamilial factors included educational and cultural backgrounds, family size and a lack of social support from partners. Organizational factors included staff stability at key organizations, a lack of service integration and differing school routines. Community factors included social connectedness to neighbours/friends, shared norms around parenting and the availability of safe public housing and play spaces. Policy- and media-related factors included requirements of public assistance programmes, back-to-work policies and children's exposure to food advertisements.
Based on these findings, the FEM was refined to create an evidence-based, temporally structured logic model to support and guide family-centred research in childhood obesity prevention.
An experimental and numerical study was performed on a Clark Y aerofoil with a 10% chord leading edge Kruger flap to examine its aerodynamic performance at Reynolds numbers of 0·6 × 106, 1 × 106, and 1·6 × 106, to help to identify the forces and moments acting on a basic configuration. A detailed comparison of the numerical and experimental data is presented in this paper. The leading edge flap was effective at high angles of attack with an increase in CL of up to 18% over a conventional no flap configuration and delayed separation by up to 3°. The moments around the Kruger flap rotation point were calculated from the numerical analysis as an initial stage in the design of a UAV passive flap system and they are also presented in the paper.
We sought to explain seasonality and other aspects of Campylobacter jejuni epidemiology by integrating population genetic and epidemiological analysis in a large 3-year longitudinal, two-centre, population-based study. Epidemiological information was collected for 1505 isolates, which were multilocus sequence-typed. Analyses compared pathogen population structure between areas, over time, and between clinical presentations. Pooled analysis was performed with published international datasets. Subtype association with virulence was not observed. UK sites had nearly identical C. jejuni populations. A clade formed by ST45 and ST283 clonal complexes showed a summer peak. This clade was common in a Finnish dataset but not in New Zealand and Australian collections, countries with less marked seasonality. The UK, New Zealand and Australian collections were otherwise similar. These findings map to known in-vitro differences of this clade. This identifies a target for studies to elucidate the drivers of the summer peak in human C. jejuni infection.
Nonlinear optical properties of transition metal-phosphine complexes have been measured at 532 nm by degenerate four-wave mixing. Large second-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities, γ, have been found for complexes containing two phosphine ligands. The measured γ values are closely related to the type and coordination geometry of the phosphine ligands, and the γ values vary as the fifth power of the number of substituents with π-electrons structure.
Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in doped lanthanum manganite thin films (Lai.xMx, where M is a divalent ion) has been shown to result in a factor of 106 suppression of the resistance. The driving force for the CMR transition is thought to be the double-exchange (DE) interaction. Many studies of both the crystal structure and the local structure of the Lai.xMxMnO3 (with M = Ca, Sr and Ba, as well as Pb) system have now been carried out. As expected, these systems all show a strong coupling of the lattice to the CMR transition. On the other hand, neutron diffraction data and x-ray absorption studies for the Ti2mn2O7 pyrochlore, which also exhibits CMR, shows no deviations from ideal stoichiometry, mixed valency, or Jahn-Teller distortions of the MnO6 octahedron. We present results of crystallographic and local structural studies of these two important classes of CMR materials. compare the differences in structural response, and discuss the implications of these findings to our understanding of these materials.
Objectives: Alterations in serotonin impact bone metabolism in animal models, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with increased fracture risk in older adults. SSRIs are commonly used in anorexia nervosa (AN), a condition that predisposes to low bone mineral density (BMD). Our objective was to determine whether SSRI use is associated with low BMD in AN.
Methods: We examined Z-scores for spine, hip, and whole body (WB) BMD, spine bone mineral apparent density, and WB bone mineral content/height (BMC/Ht) in females 12–21 years of age with AN who had never been on SSRIs, had been on SSRIs for <6 months (<6M), or had been on SSRIs for >6 months (>6M).
Results: Subjects on SSRIs for >6M had lower spine, femoral-neck, and WBBMD Z-scores than those on SSRIs for <6M. Hip BMD and WBBMC/Ht Z-scores were lowest in subjects on SSRIs for >6M. Duration of SSRI use, duration since AN diagnosis and duration of amenorrhea inversely predicted BMD, whereas BMI was a positive predictor. In a regression model, duration of SSRI use remained an independent negative predictor of BMD.
Discussion: Duration of SSRI use >6M is associated with low BMD in AN.
Conclusion: It may be necessary to monitor BMD more rigorously when duration of SSRI use exceeds 6M.
Shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions (SWTBLIs) with separation are known to be inherently unsteady but their physical mechanisms are still not totally understood. An experimental investigation has been performed in a supersonic wind tunnel at a freestream flow Mach number of 2·42. The interaction between a shock wave created by a shock generator (α = 3°, α = 9°, α = 13° and α = 15° deflection angles) and a turbulent boundary layer with thickness δ = 5mm has been studied. High-speed Schlieren visualisations have been obtained and used to measure shock wave unsteadiness by means of digital image processing. In the interactions with separation, the reflected shock’s unsteadiness has been in the order of 102Hz. High-speed wall pressure measurements have also been obtained with fast-response micro-transducers along the interactions. Most of the energy of the incoming turbulent boundary layer is broadband and at high frequencies (>104Hz). An addition of low-frequency (<104Hz) fluctuation energy is found at separation. Along the interaction region, the shock impingement results in an amplification of fluctuation energy due to the increase in pressure. Under the main recirculation region core there is only an increase in high frequency energy (>104Hz). Amplification of lower frequency fluctuation energy (>103Hz) is also observed close to the separation and reattachment regions.