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Mental health and wellbeing, including addressing impacts of historical trauma and substance use among young people, has been identified as a key priority by Indigenous communities and leaders across Canada and globally. Yet, research to understand mental health among young Indigenous people who have used drugs is limited.
To examine longitudinal risk and strengths-based factors associated with psychological distress among young Indigenous people who use drugs.
The Cedar Project is an ongoing cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in Vancouver, Prince George, and Chase, British Columbia, Canada. This study included participants who completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, returned for follow-up between 2010 and 2012, and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Adjusted linear mixed-effects models estimated effects of study variables on changes in area T-scores of psychological distress.
Of 202 eligible participants, 53% were women and the mean age was 28 years. Among men, childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect), any drug use, blackouts from drinking, and sex work were associated with increased distress. Among women, childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect), blackouts from drinking, and sexual assault were associated with increased distress, while having attempted to quit using drugs was associated with reduced distress. Marginal associations were observed between speaking their traditional language and living by traditional culture with lower distress among men.
Culturally safe mental wellness interventions are urgently needed to address childhood trauma and harmful coping strategies that exacerbate distress among young Indigenous people who use drugs.
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) has well-documented positive effects in agricultural and industrial production systems, human nutrition and food security. Limited Nr supply was a key constraint to European food and industrial production, which has been overcome by Nr from the Haber–Bosch process.
Given the huge diversity in Nr uses, it becomes a major challenge to summarize an overall inventory of Nr benefits. This full list of benefits needs to be quantified if society is to develop sound approaches to optimize Nr management, balancing the benefits against the environmental threats.
When reviewing trends in European Nr production rates, including those from chemical and biological fixation processes, and the consumption of this Nr in human activities, agriculture is by far the largest sector driving Nr creation.
Particular attention has been given to relationships between N application rates, productivity and quality of products from major crops and livestock types, including consideration of the mechanisms underlying variations in N response/outputs and the derived impacts on land use and land requirements.
Key findings/state of knowledge
The economic value of N benefits to the European economy is very substantial. Almost half of the global food can be produced because of Nr from the Haber–Bosch, and cereal yields in Europe without fertilizer would only amount to half to two-thirds of those with fertilizer application at economically optimal rates.
Techniques have been developed to produce microbial phytase for addition to diets for simple-stomached animals, with the aim to improve phosphorus availability from phytate-P in plant sources. The activityof the crude microbial phytase showed pH optima at pH 5-5 and 2·5. The enzyme was able to degradephytate in vitro in soya-bean meal, maize and a liquid compound feed for pigs. When microbial phytasewas added to low-P diets for broilers the availability of P increased to over 60 % and the amount of Pin the droppings decreased by 50%. The growth rate and feed conversion ratio on the low-P dietscontaining microbial phytase were comparable to or even better than those obtained on control diets.Addition of microbial phytase to diets for growing pigs increased the apparent absorbability of P by24%. The amount of P in the faeces was 35% lower.
Techniques have been developed to produce microbial phytase for addition to diets for simple-stomached animals, with the aim to improve phosphorus availability from phytate-P in plant sources. The activity of the crude microbial phytase showed pH optima at pH 5.5 and 2.5. The enzyme was able to degrade phytate in vitro in soya-bean meal, maize and a liquid compound feed for pigs. When microbial phytase was added to low-P diets for broilers the availability of P increased to over 60% and the amount of P in the droppings decreased by 50%. The growth rate and feed conversion ratio on the low-P diets containing microbial phytase were comparable to or even better than those obtained on control diets. Addition of microbial phytase to diets for growing pigs increased the apparent absorbability of P by 24%. The amount of P in the faeces was 35% lower.
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