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There is limited evidence for effective interventions in the treatment of post-traumatic stress symptoms within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Clinicians have concerns about using exposure treatments with this patient group. The current trial was designed to evaluate a 16-session cognitive restructuring programme, without direct exposure, for the treatment of post-traumatic stress symptoms specifically within individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.
A multicentre randomized controlled single-blinded trial with assessments at 0 months, 6 months (post-treatment) and 12 months (follow-up) was conducted. A total of 61 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia and exhibiting post-traumatic stress symptoms were recruited. Those randomized to treatment were offered up to 16 sessions of cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT, including psychoeducation, breathing training and cognitive restructuring) over a 6-month period, with the control group offered routine clinical services. The main outcome was blind rating of post-traumatic stress symptoms using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Schizophrenia. Secondary outcomes were psychotic symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale.
Both the treatment and control groups experienced a significant decrease in post-traumatic stress symptoms over time but there was no effect of the addition of CBT on either the primary or secondary outcomes.
The current trial did not demonstrate any effect in favour of CBT. Cognitive restructuring programmes may require further adaptation to promote emotional processing of traumatic memories within people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder.
Irregularity in eating patterns could be a potential cardiometabolic risk factor. We aimed to study the associations of irregular intake of energy at meals in relation to cardiometabolic risk factors 10 and 17 years later. Variability of energy intake data – derived from 5-d estimated diet diaries of cohort members of the National Survey for Health and Development collected at ages 36 (n 1416), 43 (n 1505) and 53 years (n 1381) – was used as a measure for irregularity. Associations between meal irregularity scores with cardiometabolic risk factors measured 10 and 17 years later were investigated using linear mixed models and logistic regression models. The results showed that irregularity scores changed significantly over the years (P<0·05). At age 36 years, subjects with a more irregular intake of energy at lunch (OR 1·42; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·91) and between meals (OR 1·35; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·82) had an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome 17 years later; at lunch was also associated with an increased waist circumference (OR 1·58; 95 % 1·27, 1·96) and TAG levels (OR 1·33; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·72). At age 43 years, subjects with a more irregular intake at breakfast had an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome 10 years later (OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·15, 2·04), as well as an increased BMI (OR 1·66; 95 % CI 1·31, 2·10), waist circumference (OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·23, 1·90) and diastolic blood pressure (OR 1·42; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·78). In conclusion, subjects with a more irregular intake of energy, mostly at breakfast and lunch, appeared to have an increased cardiometabolic risk 10 and 17 years later.
The spectropolarimeter dimaPol measures circular polarization in spectral lines of stellar objects. The instrument is used to simultaneously detect polarization signals in the hydrogen Hβ line as well as nearby metallic lines. A fast switching ferro-electric liquid crystal waveplate synchronized with charge shuffling on the CCD is employed to greatly reduce instrumental systematics. dimaPol has been in use on the DAO 1.8-m Plaskett telescope since 2007. In this presentation we show the capabilities of the instrument as well as some of the main results obtained with it to date.
Probing behaviour (prior to parturition) and parturition of two clones (PS01 and N116) of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum on two genotypes (near-isogenic lines (NILs)) (Q174_5.13 and Q174_9.10) of Medicago truncatula were investigated using electrical penetration graph (EPG) coupled with simultaneous visual monitoring for parturition. Line Q174_5.13 has been reported to show a phloem-based resistance to feeding in the clone PS01 but to be susceptible to the clone N116, whereas Q174_9.10 has shown to be susceptible to both aphid clones. The time taken to first parturition by clone PS01 was similar on Q174_5.13 and Q174_9.10. Prior to parturition, no aphids on Q174_5.13 contacted phloem, but 5% of the aphids on Q174_9.10 showed phloem salivation (recognized by EPG pattern E1). No phloem contact was observed with aphid clone N116 on either NILs of Medicago before first parturition occurred, and the time taken to first larviposition was similar on Q174_5.13 and Q174_9.10. The results indicate that the initiation of parturition of the clone PS01 and N116 on both NILs does not require the phloem contact and seems unchanged by a phloem-based resistance mechanism to feeding on Medicago. This finding suggests that host recognition and decisions about parturition occur before phloem contact or ingestion, and act independently on R-gene-mediated resistance.
Cetacean species and their habitats are under threat and effective marine management mitigation strategies require knowledge and understanding of cetacean ecology. This requires data that are challenging and expensive to obtain; incidental sightings/strandings data are potential underused resources. In this study, incidental cetacean sightings (N = 6631) and strandings (N = 1856) in coastal waters of Cornwall, south-west Britain (1991 to 2008) were analysed for evidence of spatial and temporal patterns or trends. Eighteen species were recorded sighted and/or stranded; key species were identified as bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). There were significant decreases in bottlenose dolphin sightings and pod size but an increase in harbour porpoise and minke whale sightings. Cetacean strandings showed a recent decrease over time although there was a significant positive trend in harbour porpoise strandings that correlated with sightings. Incidence of sightings and strandings were both greater on the south coast than the north coast. When Marine Tour Operator data were analysed, distinct species-specific inshore and offshore habitat use was evident. With rigorous interrogation and editing, significant patterns and trends were gained from incidentally collected data, highlighting the importance of public engagement with such recording schemes and the potential of these underused resources.
Enhanced Loran (eLoran) is currently being implemented to provide back up to global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in many critical and essential applications. In order to accomplish this, eLoran needs to provide a high level of availability throughout its desired coverage area. While the current Loran system is generally capable of accomplishing this, worldwide, there remain a number of known areas where improved coverage is desirable or necessary. One example is in the middle of the continental United States where the transmitter density is not adequate for providing the desired availability for applications such as aviation in some parts. This paper examines the use of lower power, existing assets such as differential GPS (DGPS) and Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN) stations to enhance coverage and fill these gaps. Two areas covered by the paper are the feasibility and performance benefits of using the antennas at these sites.
Using DGPS, GWEN or other existing low frequency (LF) broadcast towers requires the consideration of several factors. The first is the ability of the transmitting equipment to efficiently broadcast on these antennas, which are significantly shorter than those at a Loran station. Recent tests at the US Coast Guard Loran Support Unit (LSU) demonstrated the performance of a more efficient transmitter. This technology allows for the effective use of smaller antennas at lower power levels. Second is the ability to broadcast a navigation signal that is compatible with the Loran system and the potential DPGS broadcast (when using a DGPS antenna). The paper examines some possibilities for navigation signals. The goal is to develop a suitable low power signal that enhances navigation and is feasible for the transmission system.
The second part of the paper examines the benefits of using these stations. The benefits depend on the location of the stations and the ability seamlessly to integrate them within the existing Loran infrastructure. Analysis of these factors is presented and the coverage benefits are examined.
The observed dependence of lacuna counts on the growth phase of colicinogenic cultures suggests a relationship between the probability of colicin synthesis, and the number of colicin factors, per cell.
Biological weathering is a function of biotic energy expenditure. Growth and metabolism of organisms generates acids and chelators, selectively absorbs nutrient ions, and applies turgor pressure and other physical forces which, in concert, chemically and physically alter minerals. In unsaturated soil environments, plant roots normally form symbiotic mycorrhizal associations with fungi. The plants provide photosynthate-carbohydrate-energy to the fungi in return for nutrients absorbed from the soil and released from minerals. In ectomycorrhiza, one of the two major types of mycorrhiza of trees, roots are sheathed in fungus, and 15—30% of the net photosynthate of the plants passes through these fungi into the soil and virtually all of the water and nutrients taken up by the plants are supplied through the fungi. Here we show that ectomycorrhizal fungi actively forage for minerals and act as biosensors that discriminate between different grain sizes (53—90 μm, 500—1000 μm) and different minerals (apatite, biotite, quartz) to favour grains with a high surface-area to volume ratio and minerals with the highest P content. Growth and carbon allocation of the fungi is preferentially directed to intensively interact with these selected minerals to maximize resource foraging.
Important material properties of dielectric oxide films fabricated by aqueous chemical solution deposition, such as crystallization, topography, contamination and interfacial layer were evaluated and related to the films' dielectric properties.
Functional ultrathin films (<20 nm thickness) of zirconia, barium zirconate and strontium niobate were deposited. The films were all subjected to the same thermal treatment, based on the high similarity of their precursors' thermal decomposition behavior. The evolution of the films' chemical purity as a function of temperature and the effect of annealing on the interfacial SiO2 layer was studied by grazing angle ATR-FTIR. The films' crystallization behavior was dependent on film thickness and composition as shown by high temperature XRD. C-V characterization of the films demonstrated a k-value in the same order of magnitude as for the ZrO2 reference material. This is lower than the bulk material's value, thus leaving room for further optimization of the current materials or alternatively selection of other material compositions.
Ultrathin lanthanide (Nd, Pr, Eu, Sm) oxide films with functional dielectric properties down to 3.3 nm thickness were deposited by aqueous chemical solution deposition (CSD) onto hydrophilic SiO2/Si substrates. Precursor solutions were prepared from the oxides via an intermediate, solid Ln(III)citrate. A film heat treatment scheme was derived from thermogravimetric analysis of the precursor gels, showing complete decomposition by 600 °C. Crystalline phase formation in the films depended on the lanthanide, annealing temperature, and citric acid content in the precursor. Through variation of the precursor concentration and number of deposited layers, thickness series of uniform films were obtained down to ∼3 nm. The film uniformity was demonstrated both by atomic force microscopy and cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The lanthanide oxide films possessed good dielectric properties. It was concluded that aqueous CSD allows deposition of uniform ultrathin films and may be useful for the evaluation of new high-k candidate materials.
Coherent phonon scattering and transmission via a three-terminal junction in
low-dimensional structures is investigated. The model system consists of
two-dimensional crystalline wave-guides, constructed of double atomic chains
that are joined together by a nanostructured T-shaped junction. The matching
method theoretical approach is used to study the dynamics of the system. A
calculation is presented for the coherent reflection and transmission
scattering probabilities of the system phonons, as elements of a Landauer
type scattering matrix. The scattering and transmission spectra via the
T-shaped junction are analyzed as a function of the incident frequency per
propagating mode of the perfect wave-guides. Our results show that the
junction is an effective phonon splitter and suggest that its
characteristics may be controlled by varying its nanometric parameters.
Asymmetric Fano-like resonances are observed in the spectra which result
from the coherent coupling between the localized modes of the T-shaped
junction and the propagating modes of the wave-guides.
In February and in June 1998, two people developed acute hepatitis B following in-patient care in a district general hospital. Initial enquiries indicated their infections were not attributable to staff undertaking exposure-prone procedures (EPPs). We report the findings and implications of the subsequent investigation: a multi-disciplinary, multi-agency investigation, including molecular epidemiological analysis. Occupational Health records showed that staff involved in EPPs with the patients were HBsAg negative. No contact between the patients was identified nor were there failures in sterilization. The patients' HBV strains were identical, indicating a common source. A total of 231 out of 232 staff who might have treated either patient were tested for HBsAg; the remaining doctor, working abroad, was HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive and had the same HBV strain as the patients. On two occasions the doctor's hand had been cut while breaking glass vials, but there was no documentation linking these events to the two patients. The doctor had been vaccinated in 1993 and tested for anti-HBs prior to commencing work in 1997. The doctor was recalled to Occupational Health but did not attend and was not followed up. In total, 4948 patients potentially treated by the doctor received an explanatory letter and 3150 were tested for HBsAg. Only one was positive, and HBV sequencing showed no link to the doctor. Occasionally transmission of HBV from heath-care workers can occur in a non-EPP setting and the implications of this require examination by those setting national policy. Occupational Health Services should investigate clinical heath-care workers who do not respond to vaccination. They should ensure HBV carriers are identified and offer them appropriate advice to prevent transmission to patients.
A commercial aluminum foil was used to braze alumina plates in air. Although the outer surface of the aluminum oxidizes in air, the majority of the aluminum underneath remains unoxidized during brazing, allowing the ceramic pieces to be joined together with adequate strength. Joint strength testing and subsequent examination of the fracture surfaces of the joints indicate that the joints are inherently ductile, even after long-term, high-temperature air exposure.
The spread of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus from quarantine on Wardang Island to mainland Australia in 1995 suggested that insects could be potential vectors. Field observations and laboratory experiments were conducted to address aspects of this hypothesis. Firstly, the variation in insect populations on the island during the field trials was examined. There was approximately a 1000-fold increase in the number of bushflies, Musca vetustissima, shortly before the spread of the virus. Secondly, M. vetustissima were tested in the laboratory as potential vectors of RHD virus, and it was demonstrated that disease could be transmitted between rabbits by flies. Finally, 13 of 16 insect samples, collected from Wardang Island and from several sites on the mainland following the spread of virus off the island, were positive for the presence of RHD virus by a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Only one sample contained sufficient infectious virus to kill a susceptible rabbit. These data, combined with previously published information on fly biology, suggested that flies, particularly bushflies, may be involved in the transmission of RHD virus. Other possible routes of spread were not assessed in this study.
As interest in high temperature electrochemical membrane devices for energy and gas generation has intensified, it has become apparent that developing an appropriate method of hermetically joining the ceramic and metallic components in these devices will be critical to their success. A recently developed technique referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has shown promise in the joining of components for planar solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFC) and oxygen generators. In the study described below, the relationship between braze composition, substrate wetting, and joint strenth was investigated to gain further understanding of the RAB process. It was found that braze wettability and joint strength are inversely related for the simple binary Ag-CuO braze system.
The room temperature mechanical properties of a mixed conducting perovskite Sm1?xSrxCo0.2Fe0.8O3 (x = 0.2 to 0.8) were examined. Density, crystal phase, and microstructure were characterized. It was found that the grain size increased abruptly with increasing Sr content. Mechanical properties of elastic modulus, microhardness, indentation fracture toughness, and biaxial flexure strength were measured. Young's modulus of 180–193 GPa and shear modulus of 70–75 GPa were determined. The biaxial flexure strength was found to decrease with increasing Sr content from ∼70 to ∼20 MPa. The drop in strength was due to the occurrence of extensive cracking. Indentation toughness showed a similar trend to the strength in that it decreased with increasing Sr content from ∼1.1 to ∼0.7 MPa m1/2. In addition, fractography was used to characterize the fracture behavior in these materials.
The successful demonstration of sequentially drying, calcining and vitrifying an oxalate slurry in the Drain Tube Test Stand (DTTS) vessel provided the process basis for testing on a larger scale in a cylindrical induction heated melter. A single processing issue, that of batch volume expansion, was encountered during the initial stages of testing. The increase in batch volume centered on a sintered frit cap and high temperature bubble formation. The formation of a sintered frit cap expansion was eliminated with the use of cullet. Volume expansions due to high temperature bubble formation (oxygen liberation from cerium reduction) were mitigated in the DTTS melter vessel through a vessel temperature profile that effectively separated the softening point of the glass cullet and the evolving oxygen from cerium reduction. An increased processing temperature of 1470°C and a two hour hold time to fine any remaining bubbles successfully reduced bubbles in the poured glass to an acceptable level. The success of the preliminary process demonstrations provided a workable process basis that was directly applicable to the newly installed Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM) system, making the batch flowsheet the preferred option for vitrification of the americium-curium surrogate feed stream.