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Unavailability of irrigation water for early sowing has remained a constant problem in cold arid deserts of Ladakh. In order to get a solution to this problem, a 2-yr farmers’ participatory research trial with best bet agronomic management on artificial glacier water harvesting technology was conducted. The technology involves collecting water from natural glaciers that melt during late December. The water is diverted toward a shed constructed with stone embankments set up at regular intervals. The area is chosen where there is minimum interference of solar radiation, generally between two mountain slopes or ridge that is on the leeward side. The melted water is that melts from the natural glacier impeded by the embankments and get frozen here. This frozen water starts melting in late March and is used for both pre sowing and initial crop water requirement. It also ensures early sowing of wheat by creating additional 45-day window which leads to introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties to replace decades old locally grown short-duration varieties. The work was initiated with a benchmark survey of 100 farmers to get an understanding of present irrigation scenario, crop management practices and date of sowing. Data from 99 farmer participating trial of wheat conducted after or from bench mark survey clearly indicated that the effect of water shortage can be seen on yield and yield attributing characters due to unavailability of pre sowing irrigation and water requirement at imperative growth stages and may also lead to terminal heat stress in wheat crop. Out of total number of irrigations applied, initial two irrigations can be compensated by artificial glacier water harvesting technique, leading to a revolution in the agriculture scenario of the tribal population by introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties in cold arid desert of Ladakh for the very first time. It was observed that wheat seeding done in first fortnight of April gave better yields in comparison to late seeded wheat. Moreover, the long-duration varieties (LDVs) or medium-duration varieties (MDVs) sown under late condition gave better yield in comparison to locally grown short-duration varieties sown at same time. Yield potential of LDVs and MDVs of wheat under late sowing was found quite low in comparison to early-sown wheat, still when compared with the performance of locally grown wheat the yields were more even if the local varieties were sown early. The outcome of this study will help the farmers of tribal, cold arid community in harvesting better wheat yields by timely sowing of the wheat crop accompanied with better bet agronomic management practices. Government initiative is further required to ensure better outreach of complete crop management strategies to the tribal farming community of the region in order to ensure food security and improve their socioeconomic status.
A cardiac source is often implicated in strokes where the deficit includes aphasia. However, less is known about the etiology of isolated aphasia during transient ischemic attack (TIA). Our objective was to determine whether patients with isolated aphasia are likely to have a cardioembolic etiology for their TIA.
We prospectively studied a cohort of TIA patients in eight tertiary-care emergency departments. Patients with isolated aphasia were identified by the treating physician at the time of emergency department presentation. Patients with dysarthria (i.e., a phonation disturbance) were not included. Potential cardiac sources for embolism were defined as atrial fibrillation on history, electrocardiogram, Holter monitor, atrial fibrillation on echocardiography, or thrombus on echocardiography.
Of the 2,360 TIA patients identified, 1,155 had neurological deficits at the time of the emergency physician assessment and were included in this analysis, and 41 had isolated aphasia as their only neurological deficit. Patients with isolated aphasia were older (73.9±10.0 v. 67.2±14.5 years; p=0.003), more likely to have a history of heart failure (9.8% v. 2.6%; p=0.027), and were twice as likely to have any cardiac source of embolism (22.0% v. 10.6%; p=0.037).
Isolated aphasia is associated with a high rate of cardioembolic sources of embolism after TIA. Emergency patients with isolated aphasia diagnosed with a TIA warrant a rapid and thorough assessment for a cardioembolic source.
An ELISA was developed for serological detection of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dromedary camels. Antigen B (AgB) partially purified from hydatid cyst fluid of camels or sheep naturally infected with cystic echinococcosis (CE) due to E. granulosus, as well as a recombinant antigen B product (r-AgB) were used in an ELISA to screen panels of serum samples from slaughtered camels naturally infected with CE. Native hydatid cyst fluid antigen preparations were able to detect antibodies in sera from a significant proportion of camels with CE, as confirmed at post-mortem. Seroreactivity however, was variable. ELISA specificity for sera from naturally infected camels versus inspection-negative animals ranged from 90 to 99%. Native antigen B gave the highest sensitivity (97%) in ELISA for camel CE confirmed at slaughter. In contrast, r-AgB gave lower sensitivity for camel (84%) and sheep (28%) CE. The r-AgB-ELISA was, however, highly specific (90 and 95%) respectively for both camel and sheep natural CE infection. These results indicate that an ELISA based on serum antibody detection to AgB could be developed for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in camels.
Inorganic elements as micronutricnts play a vital role in metabolism and in immune mechanisms (Ballerker & Prasad, 1983) and a significant role in the physiology of parasites. Their importance is shown by the harmful effects of mineral deficiencies in the host diet, particularly on gastro-intcstinal parasites (Von Brand, 1966). The presence of aluminium, cadmium, iron, manganese, nickel, sodium and tin has been shown in the corpuscles of Echinococcus granulosus which causes hydatid disease in man (Agosin, 1968). In this preliminary report, the quantities of trace elements in hydatid fluid from sheep and man are reported to show their possible importance as nutrients or as cofactors in the metabolism of the parasite.
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