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The present article argues that rather than look for a traditional Jewish model behind Mark's passion narrative (such as an account of the Suffering Righteous One), we would do better to understand the composition of the whole gospel – both the central body of teaching in 8.22–10.45 and the passion narrative – as influenced by the genre of ancient philosophical lives. After considering ways in which biographies tended to present the deaths of philosophers, the article examines the death of the Markan Jesus as an example of a shameful, humiliating end. What redeems it for Mark is the fact that Jesus dies in perfect conformity with his teaching. The carefully composed central section of teaching material (8.22–10.52), it is argued, was put together by the evangelist with the specific intention of showing that Jesus died in accordance with his teaching. Thus the crucifixion could become the perfect embodiment of Jesus’ counter-cultural message of self-denial and servanthood, and therefore a powerful symbol of its truth.
Recently, several incidents of glyphosate failure on junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] have been reported in the midsouthern United States, specifically in Mississippi and Tennessee. Research was conducted to measure the magnitude of glyphosate resistance and to determine the mechanism(s) of resistance to glyphosate in E. colona populations from Mississippi and Tennessee. ED50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values for a resistant MSGR4 biotype, a resistant TNGR population, and a known susceptible MSGS population were 0.8, 1.62, and 0.23 kg ae ha−1 of glyphosate, respectively. The resistance index calculated from the these ED50 values indicated that the MSGR4 biotype and TNGR population were 4- and 7-fold, respectively, resistant to glyphosate relative to the MSGS population. The absorption patterns of [14C]glyphosate in the TNGR and MSGS populations were similar. However, the MSGS population translocated 13% more [14C]glyphosate out of the treated leaf compared with the TNGR population at 48 h after treatment. EPSPS gene sequence analyses of TNGR E. colona indicated no evidence of any point mutations, but several resistant biotypes, including MSGR4, possessed a single-nucleotide substitution of T for C at codon 106 position, resulting in a proline-to-serine substitution (CCA to TCA). Results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses suggested that there was no amplification of the EPSPS gene in the resistant populations and biotypes. Thus, the mechanism of resistance in the MSGR population (and associated biotypes) is, in part, due to a target-site mutation at the 106 loci of the EPSPS gene, while reduced translocation of glyphosate was found to confer glyphosate resistance in the TNGR population.
Piglet mortality in outdoor production systems varies across the year, and a reason for this variation could be fluctuations in hut climate, as ambient temperature might influence piglet survival, both directly and indirectly. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of farrowing hut climate and year variation on stillbirth and liveborn mortality. A large-scale observational study was conducted at five commercial organic pig-producing herds in Denmark from June 2015 to August 2016. Both year variation (F3,635=4.40, P=0.004) and farrowing hut temperature (F2,511=6.46, P=0.002) affected the rate of stillbirths. The risk of stillborn piglets was lowest in winter and during this season larger changes in hut temperature between day 1 prepartum and the day of farrowing increased the risk of stillbirths (F1,99=6.39, P=0.013). In addition, during the warm part of the year stillbirth rate increased at temperatures ⩾27°C. Year variation also affected liveborn mortality (F3,561=3.86, P=0.009) with a lower rate of liveborn deaths in spring. However, the hut climate did not influence liveborn deaths. Consequently, other factors than hut climate may explain the influence of year variation on liveborn mortality. These could be light differences causing seasonality in reproduction and lactation.
Benzobicyclon will be the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)–inhibiting herbicide available in US rice production pending registration completion. An observation of benzobicyclon controlling weedy rice in two field trials prompted a greenhouse and field evaluation to determine if benzobicyclon would control weedy rice accessions from Arkansas, Mississippi, and southeastern Missouri. A total of 100 accessions were screened in the greenhouse and field. Percentage mortality was determined in the greenhouse, and percentage control was recorded in the field. Benzobicyclon at 371 g ai ha–1 caused at least 80% mortality of 22 accessions in the greenhouse and at least 80% control of 30 accessions in the field. For most accessions, individual plants within the accession varied in response to benzobicyclon. Based on these results, the sensitivity of weedy rice to benzobicyclon varies across accessions collected in the midsouthern United States, and it may provide an additional control option for weedy rice in some fields.
Herbicide resistance, and in particular multiple-herbicide resistance, poses an ever-increasing threat to food security. A biotype of junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] with resistance to four herbicides, imazamox, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, quinclorac, and propanil, each representing a different mechanism of action, was identified in Sunflower County, MS. Dose responses were performed on the resistant biotype and a biotype sensitive to all four herbicides to determine the level of resistance. Application of a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, malathion, with the herbicides imazamox and quinclorac resulted in increased susceptibility in the resistant biotype. Differential gene expression analysis of resistant and sensitive plants revealed that 170 transcripts were upregulated in resistant plants relative to sensitive plants and 160 transcripts were upregulated in sensitive plants. In addition, 507 transcripts were only expressed in resistant plants and 562 only in sensitive plants. A subset of these transcripts were investigated further using quantitative PCR (qPCR) to compare gene expression in resistant plants with expression in additional sensitive biotypes. The qPCR analysis identified two transcripts, a kinase and a glutathione S-transferase that were significantly upregulated in resistant plants compared with the sensitive plants. A third transcript, encoding an F-box protein, was downregulated in the resistant plants relative to the sensitive plants. As no cytochrome P450s were differentially expressed between the resistant and sensitive plants, a single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis was performed, revealing several nonsynonymous point mutations of interest. These candidate genes will require further study to elucidate the resistance mechanisms present in the resistant biotype.
Soybean consultants from Arkansas, Louisiana, southeast Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee were surveyed in 2016 to assess weed management practices and the prevalence of herbicide-resistant weeds in midsouthern U.S. soybean production. The consultants surveyed represented 13%, 28%, 8%, 16%, and 5% of the total soybean area planted in Arkansas, Louisiana, southeast Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee, respectively. Of the total scouted area, 78% of the consultants said their growers planted glyphosate-resistant soybean in 2016, with 18% planting glufosinate-resistant (LibertyLink®), primarily due to familiarity with and cost of the technology. Although 94% of the consultants determined that glufosinate was most effective on killing Palmer amaranth, the primary concern associated with controlling herbicide-resistant weeds was the associated cost, followed by return profit and time constraints. Palmer amaranth, morningglory species, horseweed, barnyardgrass, and Italian ryegrass were the five most problematic weeds in soybean across the five states. Palmer amaranth was the most problematic and important weed in each state individually. The increased concern (77% of consultants) with this species was attributed to the rising concern with and occurrence of protoporphyrinogen oxidase–resistant Palmer amaranth. Consultants were of the opinion that more research was needed on cover crops and the new traited technologies in order to improve weed management in soybean.
Tonsillectomy is a common procedure with significant post-operative pain. This study was designed to compare post-operative pain, returns to a normal diet and normal activity, and duration of regular analgesic use in Coblation and bipolar tonsillectomy patients.
A total of 137 patients, aged 2–50 years, presenting to a single institution for tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were recruited. Pain level, diet, analgesic use, return to normal activity and haemorrhage data were collected.
Coblation tonsillectomy was associated with significantly less pain than bipolar tonsillectomy on post-operative days 1 (p = 0.005), 2 (p = 0.006) and 3 (p = 0.010). Mean pain scores were also significantly lower in the Coblation group (p = 0.039). Coblation patients had a significantly faster return to normal activity than bipolar tonsillectomy patients (p < 0.001).
Coblation tonsillectomy is a less painful technique compared to bipolar tonsillectomy in the immediate post-operative period and in the overall post-operative period. This allows a faster return to normal activity and decreased analgesic requirements.
Introduction: The CJEM Social Media Team was created in 2014 to assist the journal with the dissemination of its research online. It consists of two Social Media Editors (Junior and Senior) and a team of volunteer medical students and residents to assist their work. Collaborative promotional agreements were developed to promote CJEM articles on the Skeptics’ Guide to Emergency Medicine (SGEM) podcast through the ‘Hot off the Press’ (HOP) series and the CanadiEM blog through an infographic series. Methods:CJEM papers were selected for promotion by the Team based on their perceived interest to the online community of emergency physicians. Altmetric scores, which are a measure of online dissemination derived from a weighted algorithm of social media metrics, were collated for articles promoted using the SGEM HOP or CanadiEM blogs. A control group was created using the articles with the top two Altmetric scores in each CJEM issue in 2015 and 2016. Erratum, Letters, and articles written by the social media editors were excluded from the control groups. The success of the social media promotion was quantified through the measurement of Altmetric scores as of January 1, 2017. Unpaired two-tailed t-tests with unequal variance were used to test for significant differences. Results: 106 and 82 eligible articles were published in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Four articles in 2015 and two articles in 2016 were excluded from the control groups because they were written by the social media editors. SGEM HOP podcasts promoted one article in 2015 and five articles in 2016. CanadiEM infographics promoted three articles in 2015 and eight articles in 2016. No articles were promoted in both series. The average Altmetric score was higher for SGEM HOP (61.0) than CanadiEM Infographics (31.5, p<0.04), 2015 controls (15.8, p<0.01), and 2016 controls (13.6, p<0.01). The average Altmetric score for CanadiEM Infographics was higher than 2015 controls (p<0.04) and 2016 controls (p<0.02). There was no significant difference between the control groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that collaborating with established social media websites to promote CJEM articles using podcasts and infographics increases their social media dissemination. Given the nonrandomized design of these results, causative conclusions cannot be drawn. A randomized study of the impact of social media promotion on readership is underway.
Belize contains important habitat for Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) and provides refuge for the highest known population density of this subspecies. As these animals face impending threats, knowledge of their dietary habits can be used to interpret resource utilization. The contents of 13 mouth, six digestive tract (stomach, duodenum and colon) and 124 faecal samples were microscopically examined using a modified point technique detection protocol to identify key plant species consumed by manatees at two important aggregation sites in Belize: Southern Lagoon and the Drowned Cayes. Overall, 15 different items were identified in samples from manatees in Belize. Five species of seagrasses (Halodule wrightii, Thalassia testudinum, Ruppia maritima, Syringodium filiforme and Halophila sp.) made up the highest percentage of items. The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) was also identified as an important food item. Algae (Ulva sp., Chara sp., Lyngbya sp.) and invertebrates (sponges and diatoms) were also consumed. Variation in the percentage of seagrasses, other vascular plants and algae consumption was analysed as a 4-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with main effects and interactions for locality, sex, size classification and season. While sex and season did not influence diet composition, differences for locality and size classification were observed. These results suggest that analysis of diet composition of Antillean manatees may help to determine critical habitat and use of associated food resources which, in turn, can be used to aid conservation efforts in Belize.
A population of junglerice from Sunflower County, MS, exhibited resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. An 11-fold difference in ED50 (the effective dose needed to reduce growth by 50%) values was observed when comparing the resistant population (249 g ae ha–1) with susceptible plants (20 g ae ha–1) collected from a different field. The resistant population was controlled by clethodim and sethoxydim at the field rate. Sequencing of the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, which encodes the enzyme targeted by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, did not reveal the presence of any known resistance-conferring point mutations. An enzyme assay confirmed that the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in the resistant population is herbicide sensitive. Further investigations with two cytochrome P450 inhibitors, malathion and piperonyl butoxide, and a glutathione-S-transferase inhibitor, 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan, did not indicate involvement of any metabolic enzymes inhibited by these compounds. The absence of a known target-site point mutation and the sensitivity of the ACCase enzyme to herbicide show that fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in this population is due to a non–target-site mechanism or mechanisms.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
Transfer of herbicide resistance among closely related weed species is a topic of growing concern. A spiny amaranth × Palmer amaranth hybrid was confirmed resistant to several acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors including imazethapyr, nicosulfuron, pyrithiobac, and trifloxysulfuron. Enzyme assays indicated that the ALS enzyme was insensitive to pyrithiobac and sequencing revealed the presence of a known resistance conferring point mutation, Trp574Leu. Alignment of the ALS gene for Palmer amaranth, spiny amaranth, and putative hybrids revealed the presence of Palmer amaranth ALS sequence in the hybrids rather than spiny amaranth ALS sequences. In addition, sequence upstream of the ALS in the hybrids matched Palmer amaranth and not spiny amaranth. The potential for transfer of ALS inhibitor resistance by hybridization has been demonstrated in the greenhouse and in field experiments. This is the first report of gene transfer for ALS inhibitor resistance documented to occur in the field without artificial/human intervention. These results highlight the need to control related species in both field and surrounding noncrop areas to avoid interspecific transfer of resistance genes.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
During Cycle 5 of the HST General Observer program we have been carrying out a “snapshot” survey of central stars of planetary nebulae. The snapshots are short exposures in the V (F555W) and I (F814W) filters, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) during brief scheduling opportunities.
We have used the High Speed Photometer (HSP) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope to observe the magnetic cataclysmic variables VV Pup, AM Her, and V834 Cen in the UV (1400…3300 Å) with 0.01 s time resolution. We detected low frequency flickering in all three systems, and compare the time-scales with the predictions of King (1989). At higher frequencies we searched for shock oscillations from the accretion column(s) in these systems. The data were analyzed using the Gabor transform wavelet-like technique (Heil & Walnut 1989) to search for frequency evolution throughout each observation. Preliminary analysis suggests the detection of rapid UV quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in VV Pup at 0.74 Hz, and at 4.4 Hz in V834 Cen. As in ground based observations, our observations failed to yield any rapid QPOs in AM Her itself.
The red variables whose amplitude is larger than 1.3 mag in the MOA database are studied for the LMC. Among 3 196 such stars, 532 stars are likely to be Miras or red semiregular variables. The period–colour relation of these stars is shown.