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Despite the much improved therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment that have been developed over the past 50 years, cancer remains a major cause of mortality globally. Considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence has demonstrated an association between ingestion of food and nutrients with either an increased risk for cancer or its prevention. There is rising interest in exploring agents derived from natural products for chemoprevention or for therapeutic purposes. Honey is rich in nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds, as well as in natural antioxidants, and its potential beneficial function in human health is becoming more evident. A large number of studies have addressed the anti-cancer effects of different types of honey and their phenolic compounds using in vitro and in vivo cancer models. The reported findings affirm that honey is an agent able to modulate oxidative stress and has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and anti-metastatic properties. However, despite its reported anti-cancer activities, very few clinical studies have been undertaken. In the present review, we summarise the findings from different experimental approaches, including in vitro cell cultures, preclinical animal models and clinical studies, and provide an overview of the bioactive profile and bioavailability of the most commonly studied honey types, with special emphasis on the chemopreventive and therapeutic properties of honey and its major phenolic compounds in cancer. The implications of these findings as well as the future prospects of utilising honey to fight cancer will be discussed.
This cross-sectional study analysed data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011 to investigate factors associated with diabetes in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using logistic and log-binomial regressions to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and prevalence ratios (PRs), respectively. Among the 7544 respondents aged ≥35 years, the estimated prevalence of diabetes was 11.0%. In the adjusted analysis, survey participants in the age group 55–64 years (adjusted PR [APR]: 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.4, 2.2; adjusted OR [AOR]: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.5) and those with at least secondary education level (APR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.6; AOR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7) were more likely to have diabetes than those in the age group 35–44 years and those with no education. Furthermore, respondents living in Khulna (APR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.6; AOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.6) were less likely to have diabetes than people living in Barisal. While adjusted estimates of PR and OR were similar in terms of significance of association, the magnitude of the point estimate was attenuated in PR compared with the OR. Nevertheless, the measured factors still had a significant association with diabetes in Bangladesh. The results of this study suggest that Bangladeshi adults would benefit from increased education on, and awareness of, the risk factors for diabetes. Focused public health intervention should target these high-risk populations.
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.
The problems associated with exposure to excessive heat are a key health concern throughout the world, and are likely to become increasingly important as Earth’s climate warms. Heat exposure is particularly problematic when large groups of people gather, but there is relatively little literature on the subject. Islam requires all adherents who are able to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca (Saudi Arabia), known as the Hajj. This can result in huge numbers of pilgrims travelling to Mecca in the summer months, during which the temperatures can be very high, and to undertake physically demanding activities.
The aim of this study was to identify the perception level of heat-related health issues and the coping behaviors adopted by pilgrims in the face of excessive heat exposure.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mecca, Saudi Arabia among male Arab pilgrims performing Hajj of the Islamic calendar year 1436 (Summer 2015). Sample was divided into two strata: domestic pilgrims and international Arabs. A total of 14 camps were selected randomly, seven from each stratum. A total of 412 participants completed the questionnaire.
Mean age was 43.48 (SD = 13.42) years. Majority of pilgrims had never performed Hajj before (68.2%). Almost 89.5% among pilgrims more than 40 years of age had more water intake compared to only 76.5% for people under 40 years. Only 7.3% of educated people used to go out at noon time, and almost two-fold of pilgrims with lower educational level did so (15.4%). Approximately 51.8% among those who were aware of Mecca’s weather used cotton clothes, compared to 36.0% among pilgrims unaware of Mecca’s weather.
This study reveals the extent of pilgrims’ understanding of, and abilities to cope with, excessive heat and also suggests coping strategies and options for improved understanding of heat-related health issues world-wide.
Al Mayahi ZK, Ali Kabbash I. Perceptions of, and practices for coping with, heat exposure among male Arab pilgrims to the Hajj, 1436. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):161–174
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
The objective of the study was to investigate the seasonal variations in proximate and fatty acid composition of wild sobaity (Sparidentex hasta) for a one-year period during (i) pre-spawning (October–December), (ii) spawning (January–March), (iii) post-spawning (April–June) and summer (July–September). Five male and five female fish were collected from market each month and used for the study. Skinless fillets from both sides of sobaity were taken, chopped, minced, frozen and freeze dried. Freeze-dried ground male and female fish samples were pooled separately and homogenized for proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. The results of the investigation showed that the muscle proximate composition and fatty acid profile of sobaity differed significantly (P < 0.05) among different seasons with the highest muscle lipid during the pre-spawning and spawning season. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the most dominant muscle fatty acid followed by oleic acid (C18:1n-9). The muscle docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) levels in pre-spawning and spawning seasons were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in other seasons. A good n-3/n-6 ratio (2.26–3.11) and the higher DHA levels (10.16–11.47%) observed in muscles during the pre-spawning and spawning season indicated a better nutritional value of sobaity at this time of the year.
A gastrointestinal outbreak was reported among 154 diners who attended a Christmas buffet on the 9 and 10 December 2016. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Faecal samples, water, ice and an air ventilation device were tested for indicators and routine pathogens. Altogether 26% (24/91) fulfilled the case definition of having typical viral gastrointestinal symptoms. Norovirus genogroup I was detected in faecal samples from three cases. One of these cases tested positive also for sapovirus and had a family member testing positive for both norovirus and sapovirus. A diner who drank water or drinks with ice cubes (risk ratios (RR) 6.5, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.5–113.0) or both (RR 8.2, 95% CI 1.7–145.5) had an increased risk in a dose-response manner. Ice cubes from three vending machines had high levels of heterotrophic bacteria. A faulty air ventilation valve in the space where the ice cube machine was located was considered a likely cause of this outbreak. Leaking air ventilation valves may represent a neglected route of transmission in viral gastrointestinal outbreaks.
Green manures (GM) as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer offer considerable potential as a source of plant nutrients and organic matter (OM). Hence, field experiments were carried out during 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons to compare impacts of GM and NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer on soil properties, growth, fruit yield, mineral, lycopene and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). GMs were composed by green tender stems and leaves of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.), neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) or gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp.) and applied at 5 Mg ha−1, whereas NPK was applied at 300 kg ha−1 and there was a no fertilizer plot (control). Application of GMs reduced soil bulk density and increased soil OM, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, growth, number of fruits and fruit yield of tomato compared with the control. NPK fertilizer had no effect on soil bulk density and soil OM, but it increased soil fertility and tomato yield as compared with the control. When comparing treatments, the highest tomato yield and best cost:benefit ratio were obtained with gliricidia as GM. The GMs and NPK fertilizer increased mineral, lycopene and vitamin C contents in tomato fruits and the highest K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, lycopene and vitamin C contents in tomato fruits were found with moringa as GM. Our results revealed that GM has potential to improve soil properties, tomato yield and quality, being an alternative for cropping management.
The bulk of health care service provision in Saudi Arabia is undertaken by the public health care sector through the Ministry of Health, which is funded annually by the total government budget, which, in turn, is derived primarily from oil revenue. Public health care services in Saudi Arabia are characterised by an overload, overuse, and shortage of medical personnel, which can result in dissatisfaction with the quality of the current public health care services. This study uses a contingent valuation method to investigate the willingness of Saudi people to pay for improvements to the quality of public health care services. This study also determines the association between the willingness to pay for quality improvements and respondents’ demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1187 heads of household in Jeddah Province over a five-month period. Multi-stage sampling was employed to recruit participants. Partial Tobit regression and corresponding marginal effects analyses were used to analyse the data. These empirical analyses show that the majority of the sample was willing to pay for quality improvements in the public health care services. The results of this study might be of use to policymakers to help with both priority setting and fund allocation.
To validate a newly introduced cartilage rim augmented temporalis fascia tympanoplasty technique by statistically comparing it with the morphological and audiological outcomes of traditional temporalis fascia tympanoplasty.
A retrospective comparative study was conducted on 115 patients who underwent tympanoplasty during 2013 and 2015. Fifty-eight patients underwent temporalis fascia tympanoplasty and 57 underwent cartilage rim augmented fascia tympanoplasty.
In the cartilage fascia group, graft healing was achieved in 94.7 per cent of cases; in the temporalis fascia group, the graft take-up rate was 70 per cent. In those with a normal ossicular chain, the post-operative air–bone gap was within 20 dB in 92.6 per cent of cartilage fascia group cases and in 69.7 per cent of the temporalis fascia group cases, which was a statistically significant difference. Among the defective ossicular chain cases, the post-operative air–bone gap was within 20 dB in 76.9 per cent in the cartilage fascia group, as against 57.1 per cent in the temporalis fascia group.
Cartilage rim augmented temporalis fascia tympanoplasty has a definite advantage over the temporalis fascia technique in terms of superior graft take up and statistically significant hearing gain in those with normal ossicular mobility.
Introduction: The accuracy of ultrasound (US) for diagnosing lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in non-pregnant patients has been well validated. However, in pregnant women with suspected DVT and an initial negative US (with imaging of the iliac veins), serial US is recommended. We aimed to determine the ability of single negative US to exclude DVT in symptomatic pregnant women. Methods: Two authors independently reviewed the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed and EMBase from inception until May 2017. Three authors reviewed all full text papers and data were extracted from included studies by four authors. An overlap among study populations was identified in 4 of the manuscripts, all from one multicentre Canadian study. Two authors performed data re-extraction from the hard copy research charts from this study. We assessed the risk of bias using the CLARITY group tool for prognostic studies. Results: Of 109 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (7 prospective studies and 1 retrospective) were included. Risk of bias was low for the included populations, and low or moderate for method of measurement and for completeness of follow up. A total of 635 pregnant patients with symptoms of DVT had an initial negative US examination. Of those, 6 had positive DVT during serial US (0.94%) and 3 developed DVT during 3-month follow-up after serial ultrasound (0.47%). Using random-effects model, the pooled false negative rate of a single ultrasound was 1.27% (95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 2.56), I2= 27%. Conclusion: The false negative rate of a single ultrasound with iliac vein imaging for DVT in pregnancy is low. Our results will help inform shared decision making around planning repeat ultrasound scans in these patients.
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8–14 years) among 236 mother–child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology. Next, we used multivariable linear regression models that accounted for maternal education and parity, and child’s age, sex and pubertal status, to examine associations of PUFA intake with the offspring outcomes. In models where BMI z-score was the outcome, we also adjusted for height z-score. We found that higher second trimester intake of EPA, DHA and AA were associated with lower offspring BMI and height z-score. For example, each 1-s.d. increment in second trimester EPA intake corresponded with 0.25 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.47) z-scores lower BMI and 0.20 (0.05, 0.36) z-scores lower height. Accounting for height z-score in models where BMI z-score was the outcome attenuated estimates [e.g., EPA: −0.16 (−0.37, 0.05)], suggesting that this relationship was driven by slower linear growth rather than excess adiposity. Maternal PUFA intake was not associated with the offspring metabolic biomarkers. Our findings suggest that higher PUFA intake during mid-pregnancy is associated with lower attained height in offspring during peripuberty. Additional research is needed to elucidate mechanisms and to confirm findings in other populations.
Organo-kenyaites were prepared from a cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (C16TMAOH) solution and solid sodium kenyaite (Na2Si22O45.10H2O) mixture. The effect of the initial cetyltrimethylammonium solution on the structure of the intercalated materials was investigated by CHN analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, SEM, and 29Si and 13C solid NMR techniques. For C16TMAOH concentration 0.25 mM, the Na+ cations were fully exchanged. Initial C16TMAOH concentrations higher than 0.25 mM had little effect on the intercalated amount of C16TMA+ cations. The organic cations content reached a plateau of 0.66 mmol/g. The arrangement model of C16TMA+ cations corresponded to a tilt of the organic cations to the silicate layers with an angle of 42° as deduced by XRD studies. The C16TMA+ cations exhibited mainly trans-configuration of the methyl chains, as was shown by solid 13C NMR. The thermal stability of the organo-silicates was studied using in situ FTIR and in situ XRD in the range 25–450°C. The C16TMA-kenyaites were stable at temperatures below 200°C. They collapsed at higher temperatures due to the decomposition of the intercalated surfactants. These organo-kenyaites were used to remove the acidic dye molecule, eosin. The removal tests were performed at varying conditions of initial dye concentrations, organic content in the organo-kenyaites and heating temperatures. In general, the organic modification improved the removal capacity of the Na-kenyaite from 2 mg of eosin/g to 60 mg of eosin/g, and this capacity was related to the organic contents and the calcination temperatures of the organo-kenyaites.
In July 2014, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among visitors to lakes in Tampere, Finland. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using an internet-based survey, solicited by public announcement, to identify source of infection and to implement control measures. Of 1453 persons enrolled in the study, 244 met the case definition (attack rate, 17%). In the pooled univariate analysis, risk factors for gastroenteritis included getting water in the mouth while swimming (Risk ratio (RR) 3.32; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 2.36–4.68) and playing on the wet sand at the beach (RR 1.90; 95% CI 1.50–2.41). In a multivariable analysis (logistic regression), the source of the infection was likely at two lakes (lake A Odds ratio (OR) 1.66; 95% CI 1.15–2.39 and lake B, OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.49–3.72). Norovirus (NoV) was found in 19 stool samples. All water samples from implicated beaches had acceptable values of fecal indicator bacteria and were negative for NoV. The likely source of the outbreak was lake-water contaminated with NoV at two popular lakes. Closure of swimming beaches, advice on hygienic precautions and rapid outbreak alerts were efficient in controlling the outbreak. Results suggest a need for new indicators of water quality and development of evidence-based recommendations regarding timing of safe reopen of recreational water venues associated with outbreaks.
In this brief report, computed tomography perfusion (CTP) thresholds predicting follow-up infarction in patients presenting <3 hours from stroke onset and achieving ultra-early reperfusion (<45 minutes from CTP) are reported. CTP thresholds that predict follow-up infarction vary based on time to reperfusion: Tmax >20 to 23 seconds and cerebral blood flow <5 to 7 ml/min−1/(100 g)−1 or relative cerebral blood flow <0.14 to 0.20 optimally predicted the final infarct. These thresholds are stricter than published thresholds.
Architected materials are materials engineered to utilize their topological aspects to enhance the related physical and mechanical properties. With the witnessed progressive advancements in fabrication techniques, obstacles and challenges experienced in manufacturing geometrically complex architected materials are mitigated. Different strut-based architected lattice structures have been investigated for their topology-property relationship. However, the focus on lattice design has recently shifted toward structures with mathematically defined architectures. In this work, we investigate the architecture-property relationship associated with the possible configurations of employing the mathematically attained Schoen's I-WP (IWP) minimal surface to create lattice structures. Results of mechanical testing showed that sheet-based IWP lattice structures exhibit a stretching-dominated behavior with the highest structural efficiency as compared to other forms of strut-based and skeletal-based lattice structures. This study presents experimental and computational evidence of the robustness and suitability of sheet-based IWP structures for different engineering applications, where strong and lightweight materials with exceptional energy absorption capabilities are required.
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
This paper presents the design of all dielectric non-absorptive phase gradient reflective surfaces that can be used to manipulate the reflected electromagnetic waves at millimeter-wave regime. Compared with a bare perfect electrical conductor reflector which obeys the classical Snell's law of reflection, the presented design can effectively alter both the shape and level of the backscattered energy and thus radar cross section (RCS) reduction is achieved in the specular direction. One- and two-dimensional phase gradient reflective dielectric surfaces of phase change about 72° across their apertures are designed and their ability to manipulate the reflected waves under normal incidence are investigated both by means of full-wave simulations and experimentally tested for validation. More than 6 dB of specular RCS reduction is achieved from about 66.5–78.2 GHz.