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We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
First we show that any complex Lie group is complete Kähler. Moreover we obtain a plurisubharmonic exhaustion function on a complex Lie group as follows. Let the real Lie algebra of a maximal compact real Lie subgroup K of a complex Lie group G. Put q := dimC
Then we obtain that there exists a plurisubharmonic, strongly (q + 1)-pseudoconvex in the sense of Andreotti-Grauert and K-invariant exhaustion function on G.
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is now recognized as a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to describe the first ETEC O169 outbreak identified in Korea. In this outbreak, we identified 1642 cases from seven schools. Retrospective cohort studies were performed in two schools; and case-control studies were conducted in five schools. In two schools, radish kimchi was associated with illness; and in five other schools, radish or cabbage kimchi was found to have a higher risk among food items. Adjusted relative risk of kimchi was 5·87–7·21 in schools that underwent cohort studies; and adjusted odds ratio was 4·52–12·37 in schools that underwent case-control studies. ETEC O169 was isolated from 230 affected students, and was indistinguishable from the isolates detected from the kimchi product distributed by company X, a food company that produced and distributed kimchi to all seven schools. In this outbreak, we found that the risk of a kimchi-borne outbreak of ETEC O169 infection is present in Korea. We recommend continued monitoring regarding food safety in Korea, and strengthening surveillance regarding ETEC O169 infection through implementation of active laboratory surveillance to confirm its infection.
The clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance on the outcome of pneumococcal bacteraemia has remained unclear. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for mortality and determine the impact of antimicrobial resistance on clinical outcomes. A total of 150 adult patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia were identified over a period of 11 years at Seoul National University Hospital. Of the 150 patients, 122 (81·3%) had penicillin-susceptible (Pen-S) strains and 28 (18·7%) penicillin-non-susceptible (Pen-NS) strains; 43 (28·7%) had erythromycin-susceptible (EM-S) strains and 107 (71·3%) erythromycin-non-susceptible (EM-NS) strains. On multivariate analysis, elevated APACHE II score [odds ratio (OR) 1·24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·14–1·34, P<0·001) and presence of solid organ tumour (OR 2·99, 95% CI 1·15–7·80, P=0·025) were independent risk factors for mortality. Neither erythromycin resistance nor penicillin resistance had a significant effect on clinical outcomes. However, for the 76 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, the time required for defervescence was significantly longer in the EM-NS group than in the EM-S group (5·45±4·39 vs. 2·93±2·56, P=0·03 by log rank test). In conclusion, antimicrobial resistance does not have an effect on mortality in adult patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia.
A series of ZnO thin films with various deposition temperatures were prepared on (100) GaAs substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using ZnO target. The ZnO films were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope(FESEM), x-ray diffraction(XRD), photoluminescence(PL), cathodoluminescence(CL), and Hall measurements. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films were discussed as a function of the deposition temperature. With increasing temperature, the compressive stress in the films was released and their crystalline and optical properties were improved. From the depth profile of As measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry(SIMS), As doping was confirmed, and, in order to activate As dopant atoms, post-annealing treatment was performed. After annealing treatment, electrical and optical properties of the films were changed.
The relation between the ion irradiation induced grain growth in bilayer system and the basic parameters involved in ion beam mixing process was studied. TEM micrographs showed that a significant grain growth has been induced by Ar+ irradiation at room temperature. The grain size increases rapidly in low dose region, while it approaches a saturated value in high dose region, and it has close relationship with thermodynamic properties such as cohesive energy ( ΔHc ) and heat of mixing( ΔHm ). The experimental results are in good agreement with the model for the grain growth based on the thermal spike induced atomic migration.
This paper presents the recent achievements of ZnO/GaN heteroepitaxy. The general controlling method and mechanism for the polarity of heteroepitaxial ZnO and GaN films by interface engineering via Plasma-assisted Molecular beam epitaxy(P-MBE) are introduced in a viewpoint of principle for polarity control. We propose the principle of crystal polarity: Crystal polarity can succeed at the heterointerface when no interface layer is formed, while an interface layer with inversion symmetry is formed, the crystal polarity is inverted at the heterointerfae. The effects of polarity on the interface, surface and bulk structure, and the structural and optical properties of ZnO/GaN epitaxy are also included. The polarity of GaN on ZnO is successfully controlled based on the proposed principle for control of crystal polarity. Additionally, the electronic characteristics such as electron concentration, band-line-up, and C-V characteristics of ZnO/GaN heterointerface are dicussed.
The asymmetric amorphous silicon thin film transistors are fabricated and exposed to various stress environments. A visible light illumination of 200,000 Ix and gate bias of 30 V are applied to both asymmetric and widely used symmetric a-Si TFT's. It is observed that the leakage current of asymmetric structure, where only one electrode is fully overlapped by gate electrode, is much less than that of symmetric one. The visible light illumination as well as gate bias stress do not degrade the leakage current of the asymmetric a-Si TFT's, while the leakage current in die symmetric TFT's are increased considerably due to the stress. Also, the degree of degradation in the threshold voltage, the field effect mobility and the subthreshold slope of asymmetric TFT's are relatively much less than that of conventional symmetric TFT's.
The accelerated degradation phenomena in amorphous silicon thin film transistors due to both electrical stress and visible light illumination under the elevated temperature have been investigated systematically as a function of gate bias, light intensity, and stress time. It has been found that, in case of electrical stress, the threshold voltage shifts of a-Si TFT's may be attributed to the defect creation process at the early stage, while the charge trapping phenomena may be dominant when the illumination periods exceed about 2 hours. It has been also observed that the degradation in the device characteristics of a-Si TFT's is accelerated due to multiple stress effects, where the defect creation mechanism may be more responsible for the degradation rather than the charge trapping mechanism.
We present a new analytical model of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (a-Si TFT) suitable for circuit simulators such as SPICE. The effects of localized gap state distributions of a-Si as well as temperatures on the a-Si TFT performances have been fully considered in the presented model. The parameters used in SPICE, such as transconductance, channel-length modulation, and power factor of source-drain current, are evaluated from the measured current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics by employing the proposed extraction method. It has been found out that the analytical model is in good agreement with experimental data at both room temperature and elevated temperature and successfully implemented in a widely used circuit simulator.
In contrast to the bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Cd1−xMnxSe which occurs with the wurtzite structure, its epilayers grown on (001) GaAs substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy exhibit the cubic zinc-blende structure. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies on this novel DMS show (1) a “two-mode” behavior of the zone center optical phonons, (2) the Raman line associated with the spin-flip in the Zeeman split S = 5/2 ground state of Mn2+, and (3) large Raman shifts associated with the spin-flip of donor-bound electrons. The large magnetic field dependence in (3) with saturation at high fields and low temperature shows that the s-d exchange interaction characteristic of DMS's is also manifested strikingly in the zinc-blende phase of Cd1−xMnxSe.
The experimental and analytical results regarding to the effects of temperature and electrical stress on the characteristics of amorphous silicon thin-film transistors (a-Si TFT's) have been presented. The variations in the device parameters of a-Si TFT, such as threshold voltage and field-effect mobility, have been examined under various operating temperatures and electrical stress conditions. The hysteresis in the transfer characteristics and the trapped charges at the a-Si/silicon nitride interface were measured at the operating temperature ranges. From the experimental results, it has been found out that the increase of the interface charge trapping may be responsible for the degradation in the a-Si TFT characteristics. Also, an analytical formulation, employing the interface charge trapping, is presented to clarify the instability phenomena and verified successfully with the experimental results.
The experimental results regarding to the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light illumination on the characteristics of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistors (TFT's) have been presented. The device parameters of a-Si:H TFT, such as threshold voltage, field-effect mobility, and subthreshold slope, have been degraded by electrical stress and visible light illumination, but substantially improved by UV radiation. This may be attributed to an annealing effect on the dangling-bond defects, involving a number of phonons generated by absorption of high energy UV photons in the a-Si:H TFT channel. It has been also observed that the off-current of a-Si:H TFT decreases remarkably while the on-current changes very little. From the experimental results, we report that the improved on/off current ratio of a-Si:H TFT may be achieved by UV radiation.
The reaction of Bi4Ti3O12-x with lithium iodide under an atmosphere of iodine at 400°C was found to afford a novel intercalation compound Lil3Bi4Ti3O11. The brownish red bismuth titanate is monoclinic with the lattice parameters of a=5.7417(2), b=5.4016(2), c=36.787(1) Å and ß=88.93(1) deg. The pathway to the new intercalation compound is proposed on the basis of X-ray, XPS, SEM and compositional observations.