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Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with inflammation and immunosenescence, as well as hyporeactivity of the HPA axis. Because the immune system and the HPA axis are tightly intertwined around the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we examined peripheral GR functionality in the EpiPath cohort among participants who either had been exposed to ELA (separation from parents and/or institutionalization followed by adoption; n = 40) or had been reared by their biological parents (n = 72).
Expression of the strict GR target genes FKBP5 and GILZ as well as total and 1F and 1H GR transcripts were similar between groups. Furthermore, there were no differences in GR sensitivity, examined by the effects of dexamethasone on IL6 production in LPS-stimulated whole blood. Although we did not find differences in methylation at the GR 1F exon or promoter region, we identified a region of the GR 1H promoter (CpG 1-9) that showed lower methylation levels in ELA.
Our results suggest that peripheral GR signaling was unperturbed in our cohort and the observed immune phenotype does not appear to be secondary to an altered GR response to the perturbed HPA axis and glucocorticoid (GC) profile, although we are limited in our measures of GR activity and time points.
Recently, large-scale trials of behavioural interventions have failed to show improvements in pregnancy outcomes. They have, however, shown that lifestyle support improves maternal diet and physical activity during pregnancy, and can reduce weight gain. This suggests that pregnancy, and possibly the whole periconceptional period, represents a ‘teachable moment’ for changes in diet and lifestyle, an idea that was made much of in the recent report of the Chief Medical Officer for England. The greatest challenge with all trials of diet and lifestyle interventions is to engage people and to sustain this engagement. With this in mind, we propose a design of intervention that aims simultaneously to engage women through motivational conversations and to offer access to a digital platform that provides structured support for diet and lifestyle change. This intervention design therefore makes best use of learning from the trials described above and from recent advances in digital intervention design.
Indonesia has reported the most human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus worldwide. We implemented enhanced surveillance in four outpatient clinics and six hospitals for HPAI H5N1 and seasonal influenza viruses in East Jakarta district to assess the public health impact of influenza in Indonesia. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI); respiratory specimens were obtained for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. During October 2011–September 2012, 1131/3278 specimens from ILI cases (34·5%) and 276/1787 specimens from SARI cases (15·4%) tested positive for seasonal influenza viruses. The prevalence of influenza virus infections was highest during December–May and the proportion testing positive was 76% for ILI and 36% for SARI during their respective weeks of peak activity. No HPAI H5N1 virus infections were identified, including hundreds of ILI and SARI patients with recent poultry exposures, whereas seasonal influenza was an important contributor to acute respiratory disease in East Jakarta. Overall, 668 (47%) of influenza viruses were influenza B, 384 (27%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, and 359 (25%) were H3. While additional data over multiple years are needed, our findings suggest that seasonal influenza prevention efforts, including influenza vaccination, should target the months preceding the rainy season.
A complex cerium bearing oxide, Gd2Ce2O7 was synthesized in order to simulate Pu in a fluorite derivative oxide. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data was collected using a lab diffractometer at room temperature and analyzed by Rietveld refinement method using the xnd program. The diffraction pattern obtained from the material could be indexed as a C-type cubic bixbyite crystal structure however several peaks showed peak broadening and could not be accounted for within the single-phase bixbyite model. A full pattern refinement, assuming a possible existence of short order disordered bixbyite regions within an average disordered fluorite phase gave a good fit with the experimental data, providing an estimate for correlation length of those bixbyite regions. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the existence of these correlated domains of disordered bixbyite type phase inside a defect fluorite lattice. Understanding the extent of these domains as a function of composition and the thermal history of the samples may have a profound effect on our understanding of miscibility gaps in Re2O3-CeO2 phase diagrams. These effects could be eventually exploited to design materials with increased radiation resistance, a desired feature for oxide matrices where actinides can be safely disposed.
Ho2O3-TiO2 based metal-insulator-metal capacitors were grown by ALD, using Ho(thd)3, Ti(OCH(CH3)2)4 and ozone as precursors. The thicknesses of the films were in the range of 7.7 to 25 nm. Some of the films were post-deposited annealed in order to study the treatment effects. The capacitors were electrically characterized. Leakage current decreases as the amount of holmium increased in the films. Resistive switching behavior was obtained in the samples where the leakage current was low. This effect was also observed in Ho2O3 films, where no titanium was present in the films.
NASA's NuSTAR observatory is the first focusing hard X-ray telescope. Launched in June 2012, NuSTAR is sensitive in the 3–79 keV range with unprecedented ~17″ FWHM angular resolution above 12 keV, a result of its multilayer-coated optics and 10-m focal length. With its large effective area (900 cm2 at 10 keV), NuSTAR has point-source sensitivity ~100 times better than previous hard X-ray telescopes. Here we describe NuSTAR and its planned work on rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars during its nominal 2-yr baseline mission that has just commenced.
Our aims were to estimate the prevalence of increased nuchal translucency in fetuses with a normal karyotype that were subsequently diagnosed with congenital cardiac disease on fetal echocardiography, and to assess whether there is a link between increased nuchal translucency and specific congenital cardiac malformations.
We reviewed all patients referred to King’s College Hospital and the Evelina Children’s Hospital in London for fetal echocardiography between January 1998 and December 2007. We investigated the proportion of chromosomally normal fetuses with congenitally malformed hearts in which nuchal thickness was increased, both overall and with specific defects.
We indentified 2133 fetuses with congenital cardiac disease by prenatal echocardiography. Of those, 707 were excluded due to abnormal karyotype, and 690 were excluded due to unknown karyotype. The remaining 736 were eligible for inclusion. Among 481 fetuses with documented congenital cardiac disease and normal chromosomes, making up 23% of the overall cohort, 224 had increased nuchal thickness defined as equal or greater than 2.5 millimetres, this being 0.47 of the inclusive cohort, with 95% confidence intervals from 0.42 to 0.51. These proportions were significantly higher than the expected proportion of the normal population, which was 0.05 (p < 0.001). The only diagnosis for which the proportion of fetuses with nuchal translucency measurement equal or greater than 2.5 millimetres was higher than the others was atrioventricular septal defect, with 0.62 of this cohort having abnormal values, with 95% confidence intervals from 0.47 to 0.77 (p = 0.038).
We found that nearly half of prenatally diagnosed fetuses with congenitally malformed hearts, when examined ultrasonically in the first or early-second trimester, had increased nuchal thickness. We recommend, therefore, referral of all fetuses with increased nuchal translucency for fetal echocardiography.
LSB galaxies have low metallicities, diffuse stellar disks, and massive HI disks. We have detected molecular gas in two giant LSB galaxies, UGC 6614 and F568-6. A millimeter continuum source has been detected in UGC 6614 as well. At centimeter wavelengths we have detected and mapped the continuum emission from the giant LSB galaxy 1300+0144. The emission is extended about the nucleus and is most likely originating from the AGN in the galaxy. The HI gas distribution and velocity field in 1300+0144 was also mapped. The HI disk extends well beyond the optical disk and appears lopsided in the intensity maps.
Thirty-five outpatients (25 women, 10 men) with a DSM-III-R principal diagnosis of OCD accepted exposure treatment at a psychiatric outpatient clinic. They were randomly assigned to one of two individual treatments for a 6-week exposure therapy treatment based on a treatment manual or to a 6-week waiting list condition. The 12 patients assigned to the waiting list were subsequently randomly assigned to one of the active treatments. Both treatment groups received in vivo or imaginal exposure in each of the 10 twice-weekly treatment sessions held after two assessment sessions. One group (n=16) received cognitive therapy interventions for comorbidity problems or to alter beliefs underlying patients' OCD. The other group (n=19) received relaxation training as an attention placebo control. Both groups received relapse prevention follow-up contacts. Twenty-seven patients completed intensive treatment. Both treatments overall showed satisfactory levels of clinical improvement and large effect sizes. ANCOVAS for treatment completers showed non-significantly lower levels of OCD symptoms, depression and state anxiety in the treatment condition that did not include cognitive interventions. The patients receiving additional cognitive therapy showed significantly lesser dropout than those in the other treatment condition, but there were no significant differences in the intention-to-treat analyses.
HAYNES 230 is a solid solution strengthened, face centered cubic (FCC), nickelbased superalloy, with a small amount (1–5 vol. %) of semi-coherent FCC carbides. Neutron diffraction experiments were performed to study the interaction of the carbides with the matrix during tensile and compressive loading. The behavior of the elastic lattice strains during in situ loading clearly showed a tension-compression asymmetry. Although the volume percentage is small, the interaction between the carbides and the matrix had a significant effect on the load sharing. In compression, the carbides began load sharing at the macroscopic yield point, while the tension test suggests no load sharing. Debonding at the carbide-matrix interface is proposed to explain the lack of load sharing during the tensile loading based on the disparities observed between the experimental results and the finite element models.
The crystalline quality of bonded Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers were examined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy. Both techniques detect slight structural defects in the SOI layer. If a pure crystalline silicon dielectric function is assumed for the SOI layer, the spectroscopic ellipsometry data fitting yields an unacceptably large discrepancy between the experimental and modeled data. The best fits for all the samples result in a dielectric function of the SOI layer that consists of a physical mixture of crystalline silicon and about 4 % to 7 % of amorphous silicon. Using such a mixture indicates that there are still some defects in the SOI layer when compared with the high-quality bulk crystalline silicon. This observation is further supported by Raman spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra of all SOI samples exhibit a feature at about 495 cm−1 that is not observed in the crystalline silicon spectrum. Features similar to the 495 cm−1 feature have been reported in the literature and attributed to dislocations or faults in the silicon lattice.