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Without the release of histamines, patients with rhinosinusitis may not benefit from antihistamines. Additionally, anticholinergic effects may do more harm than good. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of antihistamines in treating rhinosinusitis.
An electronic search was performed. Randomised controlled trials comparing antihistamines with either placebo or other treatments for patients with rhinosinusitis were selected.
Two studies (184 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Loratadine decreased nasal obstruction in allergic rhinitis patients with acute rhinosinusitis (mean difference = −0.58; confidence interval = −0.85 to −0.31, p < 0.01), but had no benefit on total symptom score (mean difference = −1.25; confidence interval = −2.77 to 0.27, p = 0.11), or rhinorrhoea symptoms (mean difference = −0.06; confidence interval = −0.37 to 0.25, p = 0.71).
There is limited evidence to support the use of antihistamines in treating rhinosinusitis. The number of included studies in this systematic review is limited. Antihistamines may relieve nasal obstruction in allergic rhinitis patients with acute rhinosinusitis.
Intra-operative bleeding diminishes visualisation during functional endoscopic sinus surgery and can cause unfavourable outcomes. Dexmedetomidine is a potent alpha-2 agonist, with sympatholytic effects. This systematic review aimed to assess whether dexmedetomidine decreases intra-operative bleeding and improves operative field quality.
All randomised, controlled trials that assessed the ability of dexmedetomidine to provide good operative fields for functional endoscopic sinus surgery were identified from Medline and Embase. The outcomes of interest were: operative field quality, intra-operative bleeding, operative time and adverse events.
Five studies (254 patients) met the inclusion criteria. When compared to saline, dexmedetomidine improved the quality of the operative field. The operative time was similar between groups. When compared to other drugs, dexmedetomidine was as effective as esmolol and remifentanil. There were no adverse incidents.
Dexmedetomidine is beneficial in providing good visibility during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Controlled hypotensive anaesthesia with this medicine decreases intra-operative bleeding and enhances surgical field quality.
Effective tissue removal techniques are essential in endoscopic skull base surgery. Improvements in technology permit more accurate application of CO2 laser and coblation during endonasal procedures. This study assessed the thermal injury patterns associated with fibre CO2 laser and coblation.
Fresh frozen cadaveric heads were used. Mucosal removal was performed at the ethmoid roof. Structured lesions were created using either CO2 laser or coblation. The corresponding thermal injury patterns on dural tissue were assessed and compared between the two groups.
Five cadaveric heads were obtained; five sides received CO2 laser lesions and five coblation lesions. Forty per cent (n = two sides) of the CO2 specimens had macroscopic foci of grey-black discolouration on the dural aspect. No macroscopic dural changes were seen in the coblation specimens.
Dural injury was seen following CO2 laser use despite attempts to avoid it. Both CO2 laser and coblation have their advantages; however, the lower thermal working power of coblation and superior depth control may make it more suitable for endoscopic endonasal periorbital and peridural surgery.
To evaluate the outcome of mobile ear surgery, in terms of tympanic membrane perforation closure, absence of otorrhoea and hearing threshold improvement.
The study enrolled patients with chronic ear disorders requiring surgery who presented to the mobile ear surgery unit at Sakaeo Hospital, Thailand, from 1 to 4 July 2008. The following data were recorded: pre-operative audiogram, post-operative middle-ear and mastoid infection, wound infection, graft condition, any complications, and post-operative audiogram. Patients were followed up at one week, two weeks, four weeks and 24 weeks post-operatively.
For the 31 cases of tympanic membrane perforation, the closure rate was 90.3 per cent. For the 32 patients with otorrhoea, the rate of ear dryness was 87.5 per cent. All 35 patients had impaired hearing initially; the rate of hearing improvement was 74.3 per cent (95 per cent confidence intervals = 56.7–87.5 per cent). Patients' mean hearing improvement was 22.9 dB.
The assessed ear surgery procedures had good results.
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