To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The design of high energy Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by coupling high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode ensures effective and safe energy-storage. LTO–LNMO full-cells (FCs) with difference in electrode grain sizes and presence of excess Mn3+ in cathode were studied using micron-sized commercial LTO, nanostructured LTO donuts (LTOd), P4332 LNMO nanopowders, and nanostructured Fd3m LNMO caterpillars (LNMOcplr). Among the studied FCs, LTOd–LNMOcplr was detected with a stable capacity of 69 mA h/g (1C rate), 99% coulombic efficiency, and 87% capacity retention under 200 cycles of continuous charge–discharge studies. The superior electrochemical performance observed in LTOd–LNMOcplr FC was due to the low charge transfer resistance, which is corroborated to the effect of grain sizes and the longer retention of Mn3+ in the electrodes. An effective and simple FC design incorporating both nanostructuring and in situ conductivity in electrode materials would aid in developing future high-performance LIBs.
GaN films have been grown on SiC substrates with an AlN nucleation layer by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Micro-cracking of the GaN films has been observed in some of the grown samples. In order to investigate the micro-cracking and microstructure, the samples have been studied using various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the AlN nucleation layer is related to the stress evolution in subsequent overgrown GaN epilayers. It is determined via TEM evidence that, if the AlN nucleation layer has a rough surface morphology, this leads to tensile stresses in the GaN films, which finally results in cracking. Raman spectroscopy results also suggest this, by showing the existence of considerable tensile residual stress in the AlN nucleation layer. Based on these various observations and results, conclusions or propositions relating to the microstructure are presented.
Using a multiscale blood flow solver, the complete diffusion tensor of nanoparticles (NPs) in sheared cellular blood flow is calculated over a wide range of shear rate and haematocrit. In the short-time regime, NPs exhibit anomalous dispersive behaviors under high shear and high haematocrit due to the transient elongation and alignment of the red blood cells (RBCs). In the long-time regime, the NP diffusion tensor features high anisotropy. Particularly, there exists a critical shear rate (
) around which the shear-rate dependence of the diffusivity tensor changes from linear to nonlinear scale. Above the critical shear rate, the cross-stream diffusivity terms vary sublinearly with shear rate, while the longitudinal term varies superlinearly. The dependence on haematocrit is linear in general except at high shear rates, where a sublinear scale is found for the vorticity term and a quadratic scale for the longitudinal term. Through analysis of the suspension microstructure and numerical experiments, the nonlinear haemorheological dependence of the NP diffusion tensor is attributed to the streamwise elongation and cross-stream contraction of RBCs under high shear, quantified by a capillary number. The RBC size is shown to be the characteristic length scale affecting the RBC-enhanced shear-induced diffusion (RESID), while the NP submicrometre size exhibits negligible influence on the RESID. Based on the observed scaling behaviours, empirical correlations are proposed to bridge the NP diffusion tensor to specific shear rate and haematocrit. The characterized NP diffusion tensor provides a constitutive relation that can lead to more effective continuum models to tackle large-scale NP biotransport applications.
To study infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and their association with nutritional status among young children.
A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten states of India, using a multistage random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements such as length/height and weight were conducted and nutritional assessment was done using the WHO child growth standards.
National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau survey, 2011–2012.
Children aged <3 years and their mothers.
Only 36 % of infants received breast-feeding within an hour of birth and 50 % were exclusively breast-fed up to 6 months. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 38, 41 and 22 %, respectively. The chance of undernutrition among <3-year-old children was significantly higher among those from scheduled caste/scheduled tribe communities, the lowest-income group, with illiterate mothers and lack of sanitary latrine. Among infants, the chance of undernutrition was significantly higher among low-birth-weight babies, and among children whose mother had not consumed iron–folic acid tablets during pregnancy. Immunization practices and minimum dietary diversity were observed to be associated with undernutrition among 12–23-month-old children.
Undernutrition is still an important public health problem in India and observed to be associated with low socio-economic status, illiteracy of mother, low birth weight and dietary diversity. Improving socio-economic and literacy status of mothers can help in improving maternal nutrition during pregnancy and thus low birth weight. Also, improving knowledge of mothers about IYCF practices will help in improving children’s nutritional status.
Nitrification potential of a tropical vertisol saturated with water was estimated during sequential reduction of nitrate (NO3−), ferric iron (Fe3+), sulphate (SO42−) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs). In general, the TEAPs enhanced potential nitrification rate (PNR) of the soil. Nitrification was highest at Fe3+ reduction followed by SO42− reduction, NO3− reduction and lowest in unreduced control soil. Predicted PNR correlated significantly with the observed PNR. Electron donor Fe2+ stimulated PNR, while S2− inhibited it significantly. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) highlighted population dynamics during the sequential reduction of terminal electron acceptors. Only the relative abundance of AOA varied significantly during the course of soil reduction. Relative abundance of AOB correlated with NO3− and Fe2+. Linear regression models predicted PNR from the values of NO3−, Fe2+ and relative abundance of AOA. Principal component analysis of PNR during different reducing conditions explained 72.90% variance by PC1 and 19.52% variance by PC2. Results revealed that AOA might have a significant role in nitrification during reducing conditions in the tropical flooded ecosystem of a vertisol.
Neuropsychological assessment tools are the staple of our field. The development of standardized metrics sensitive to brain-behavior relationships has shaped the neuropsychological questions we can ask, our understanding of discrete brain functions, and has informed the detection and treatment of neurological disorders. We identify key turning points and innovations in neuropsychological assessment over the past 40–50 years that highlight how the tools used in common practice today came to be. Also selected for emphasis are several exciting lines of research and novel approaches that are underway to further probe and characterize brain functions to enhance diagnostic and treatment outcomes. We provide a brief historical review of different clinical neuropsychological assessment approaches (Lurian, Flexible and Fixed Batteries, Boston Process Approach) and critical developments that have influenced their interpretation (normative standards, cultural considerations, longitudinal change, common metric batteries, and translational assessment constructs). Lastly, we discuss growing trends in assessment including technological advances, efforts to integrate neuropsychology across disciplines (e.g., primary care), and changes in neuropsychological assessment infrastructure. Neuropsychological assessment has undergone massive growth in the past several decades. Nonetheless, there remain many unanswered questions and future challenges to better support measurement tools and translate assessment findings into meaningful recommendations and treatments. As technology and our understanding of brain function advance, efforts to support infrastructure for both traditional and novel assessment approaches and integration of complementary brain assessment tools from other disciplines will be integral to inform brain health treatments and promote the growth of our field. (JINS, 2017, 23, 778–790)
This paper highlights major developments over the past two to three decades in the neuropsychology of movement and its disorders. We focus on studies in healthy individuals and patients, which have identified cognitive contributions to movement control and animal work that has delineated the neural circuitry that makes these interactions possible. We cover advances in three major areas: (1) the neuroanatomical aspects of the “motor” system with an emphasis on multiple parallel circuits that include cortical, corticostriate, and corticocerebellar connections; (2) behavioral paradigms that have enabled an appreciation of the cognitive influences on the preparation and execution of movement; and (3) hemispheric differences (exemplified by limb praxis, motor sequencing, and motor learning). Finally, we discuss the clinical implications of this work, and make suggestions for future research in this area. (JINS, 2017, 23, 768–777)
The ammonia molecule is known to be useful as a probe for studying conditions inside interstellar clouds and planetary atmospheres. Correct interpretation of interstellar and planetary spectra need to be supported by adequate laboratory measurements. in the present studies we report the high resolution Fourier transform spectra of ammonia recorded with a pathlength of 192m at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Transitions with intensities that are two orders of magnitude weaker than those that have been reported earlier, have been observed and assigned. These include high J transitions, hot bands and forbidden transitions. These transitions are not saturated under long paths such as those available in planetary atmospheres and are therefore useful in the estimation of temperatures. The forbidden transitions have been processed with other relevant data to provide complete information on the energy levels. Such information is required for the calculation of equilibrium population of energy levels and partition functions, which go into the estimation of spectral intensities and abundances in terrestrial, interstellar and planetary atmospheres.
Direct measurements of the horizontal divergence of the air flow close to the snow surface have been made. The mean vertical wind component has been derived from these observations. The temperature profile has been analyzed near the center of the snow-dome and a method to determine the sensible heat flux independent from the energy budget has been developed.
Systematic isotopic studies based on natural and artificial radio-isotopes (32Si, 137Cs), stable isotopes (δ18O) and total β activity measurements have been carried out on Chhota Shigri glacier, Himachal Pradesh, central Himalaya, to study the dynamics of the ice, meltwater composition and to identify the deposition of the Chernobyl fall-out in the Himalayan region.
Using 32Si concentrations, the snout ice has been dated at ~ 250 years, based on which the past average surface ice-flow rate has been estimated as ~ 28 m year−1. Based on δ18O variations, in a shallow ice core, the accumulation rate of the ice has been estimated at ~520kgm−2 year−1. 32Si measurements of snout ice and englacial meltwaters indicate that at least 55% of the snow meltwater mixed with 45% of the old ice-melt water that emerged from englacial streams in the month of August 1987. Deposition of the artificial radionuclide (137Cs) and the very high total β activity observed in snow samples on Chhota Shigri glacier give the first evidence of Chernobyl fall-out deposition in the Indian Himalaya.
Among various material nanoarchitectures, the nanotube geometry has received incredible attention due to the unique properties provided by its high surface area as well as nanoscale wall thickness and the availability of a variety of techniques to fabricate them. Since the beginning of this century, anodization has emerged as one of the most effective techniques for the fabrication of functional oxide nanotubes. Oxide nanotubes of a number of metals and alloys have been developed using this versatile technique. We review here the research activities on anodic nanotubes of various binary, ternary, and multinary materials and their selected applications.
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are highly prevalent in the working population, and are associated with long-term sickness absence and disability. Workers on sick leave with CMDs would benefit from interventions that enable them to successfully return to work (RTW). However, the effectiveness of RTW interventions for workers with a CMD is not well studied. The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of existing workplace and clinical interventions that were aimed at enhancing RTW. A systematic review of studies of interventions for improving RTW in workers with a CMD was conducted. The main outcomes were proportion of RTW and sick-leave duration until RTW. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, SocINDEX, and Human resource and management databases from January 1995 to 2016. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We pooled studies that we deemed sufficiently homogeneous in different comparison groups and assessed the overall quality of the evidence. We reviewed 2347 abstracts from which 136 full-text articles were reviewed and 16 RCTs were included in the analysis. Combined results from these studies suggested that the available interventions did not lead to improved RTW rates over the control group [pooled risk ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97–1.12], but reduced the number of sick-leave days in the intervention group compared to the control group, with a mean difference of −13.38 days (95% CI −24.07 to −2.69).
Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy-water reactors produce 14C by neutron activation of trace quantities of nitrogen in annular gas and reactor components (14N(n,p)14C), and from 17O in the heavy water moderator by (17O(n,α)14C). The radiocarbon produced in the moderator is removed on ion exchange resins incorporated in the water purification systems; however, a much smaller gaseous portion is vented from reactor stacks at activity levels considerably below 1% of permissible derived emission limits. Early measurements of the carbon speciation indicated that >90% of the 14C emitted was in the form of CO2. We conducted surveys of the atmospheric dispersion of 14CO2 at the Chalk River Laboratories and at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. We analyzed air, vegetation, soils and tree rings to add to the historical record of 14C emissions at these sites, and to gain an understanding of the relative importance of the various carbon pools that act as sources/sinks within the total 14C budget. Better model parameters than those currently available for calculating the dose to the critical group can be obtained in this manner. Global dose estimates may require the development of techniques for estimating emissions occurring outside the growing season.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
We have made photometric observations of the galactic superluminal jet source GRS 1915+105 in the energy bands of 2-6 and 6-18 keV during 1997 June 12-29 and August 8-10. During our observations, different types of very intense, quasi-regular X-ray bursts have been observed from this source. We present here the light curves and the power density spectra of our observation of this source in its bright state.
We have made observations of the black hole binary Cyg X-1 with the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE). Observations made with time resolution ranging from 0.4 ms to 1 s showed variations and flaring activity on sub-sec and longer time scales. Results on time variability on different time scales and flaring characteristics in the two states of Cyg X-1 are presented.
We are attempting to investigate the space distribution of carbon stars in our Galaxy by evaluating the distances of individual carbon stars. We estimate the distance by evaluating the total radiant energy of each star and assuming a value for the bolometric magnitude of carbon stars. Since the flux maxima of carbon stars are mostly in the near-infrared (NIR), NIR photometric data are most useful for evaluating the total energy. We have compiled NIR photometric data for 694 carbon stars at all galactic longitudes and have made new observations of 470 carbon stars in the galactic longitude region between 20° and 160°. We discuss the space distribution of 1164 galactic carbon stars.