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Oscillatory flow features are common in the unstart of hypersonic mixed-compression intakes and can be classified as low-amplitude or high-amplitude oscillatory unstarted flows. The low-amplitude oscillatory unstarted flow is driven by the shear layer from shock interactions ahead of the cowl, while the high-amplitude oscillatory unstarted flow is driven by the separation caused by shock–boundary-layer interaction on the ramp. While previous studies have observed these flow features and reported their associated frequency, there is no simple criterion available for predicting which mode will occur, and there is a lack of consensus on the appropriate frequency scaling parameter. We study a mixed-compression hypersonic intake in a hypersonic wind tunnel by varying the internal contraction ratio and the throttling ratio to observe various kinds of unstart regimes. Two significant conclusions emerge from considering the results for high-throttling-ratio conditions $(TR > 0.55)$ from the current as well as previous studies. Firstly, the actual shock-on-lip condition at the cowl corresponding to the unthrottled condition, as observed from schlieren images, demarcates the boundary between the two modes of oscillatory unstart flows upon throttling. Secondly, a suitable length scale $(l^*)$, defined as the extent of the subsonic region in the unstarted flow (as observed from the experimental schlieren images), gives the appropriate frequency scaling parameter ($f^* = a_0/4l^*$ where $a_0$ is the stagnation acoustic speed).
A diverse set of 107 rice genotypes was evaluated for yield, shattering and dormancy traits. Analysis of variance revealed sizable variation while skewness and kurtosis values indicated near-normal distribution for most of the traits, thus quantitative nature controlled by many genes. A highly significant deviation from a normal distribution for dormancy and shattering % indicated their qualitative nature of inheritance. Four promising genotypes ‘IRGC1723’ (early with 65 days to flowering), ‘IRGC 11108’ and ‘RNR 15459’ (high grain number – 358 and low average shattering – <5%), ‘RNR 11718’ (high single plant yield – 56.73 g, low average shattering – <5% and dormancy period – 21 days) are identified. A significant positive correlation between shattering and dormancy confirms inter-relationship among domestication-related characteristics. The principal component analysis revealed the contribution of four PCs to maximum variability and hierarchical clustering grouped the genotypes into 18 divergent clusters. Five cultivars (Karimnagar Samba, Sheetal, PR 121, Pranahitha and Jagitial Samba) with a combination of low shattering ability (3.35–5.7%) and considerable dormancy period (13–20 days) falling in the same cluster can be used as donors for the improvement of rice genotypes with low shattering ability and incorporating a considerable period of dormancy so as to avoid pre-harvest sprouting due to delayed harvesting. Further, they can be crossed with ‘Pratyumna’ having less than 1 week dormancy period, a genotype of the cluster XVII with which they have a maximum genetic divergence of 51.4 and may serve as parents in the development of mapping populations for the identification of QTLs/genes for shattering and dormancy traits.
In March 2018, the US Department of Defense (DOD) added the smallpox vaccination, using ACAM2000, to its routine immunizations, increasing the number of persons receiving the vaccine. The following month, Fort Hood reported a cluster of 5 myopericarditis cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the DOD launched an investigation.
The investigation consisted of a review of medical records, establishment of case definitions, causality assessment, patient interviews, and active surveillance. A 2-sided exact rate ratio test was used to compare myopericarditis incidence rates.
This investigation identified 4 cases of probable myopericarditis and 1 case of suspected myopericarditis. No alternative etiology was identified as a cause. No additional cases were identified. There was no statistically significant difference in incidence rates between the observed cluster (5.23 per 1000 vaccinated individuals, 95% CI: 1.7–12.2) and the ACAM2000 clinical trial outcomes for symptomatic persons, which was 2.29 per 1000 vaccinated individuals (95% CI: 0.3–8.3).
Vaccination with ACAM2000 is the presumptive cause of this cluster. Caution should be exercised before considering vaccination campaigns for smallpox given the clinical morbidity and costs incurred by a case of myopericarditis. Risk of myopericarditis should be carefully weighed with risk of exposure to smallpox.
The White-bellied Heron Ardea insignis is currently known to be restricted to Bhutan, Myanmar, and north-east India. This ‘Critically Endangered’ species is under threat from the ever-changing river systems, primarily due to anthropogenic pressures including the large number of proposed hydropower projects. We report results of the first systematic, large-scale river survey for this species in the states of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam in north-east India with the aim of establishing its evidence-based distribution and assessing the severity of threats on the river systems in the region. We conducted river surveys along all seven major river basins in Arunachal Pradesh (October 2017–March 2018) and one in Assam (January 2019) along with 200 key informant surveys from 23 localities across the region. We encountered the White-bellied Heron six times in only three of 81 sites surveyed. Three interviewees reported observing the herons in three new localities, but we did not have a direct observation of the birds in any new sites. From field observations during the river surveys as well as the interview results, we found that certain fishing methods, garbage, and sand/gravel mining could be potential reasons for restricted occurrence of the White-bellied Heron in the region. Hunting is also a threat that prevails across the region. Our study calls for governmental commitment for the protection of the species and its vulnerable ecosystem and focussed research on understanding the anthropogenic impacts on the heron.
Alcoholism has a high prevalence and impacts on morbidity, mortality, life quality, and the economy. Heritability estimates of alcohol dependence are 50-61%. Putative psychological, cultural, and genetic susceptibilities to alcoholism have been identified but understanding of the genetic components is still underdeveloped.
Identify genetic vulnerabilities predisposing individuals to alcoholism and co-morbid psychiatric disorders in the largest study of its kind.
12 centres including 10 trainees are currently collecting blood and clinical samples. Nearly 1700 of 2000 cases of ICD-10/DSM-IV alcohol dependence have been collected; 500 with standardized assessments of alcohol use and comorbdity; and 2000 ancestrally-matched supernormal controls from UCL/collaborators. Genomic DNA will be isolated following standard procedures. Genotyping will be performed using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Human Mapping 1M Array to type up to 1 million single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variant (CNV) markers. Chi-square analysis of allelic association for the alcoholic sample versus controls will occur.
n=65; 57% male; mean age 45years; mean age onset harmful alcohol use 19years; mean age onset withdrawals 32y; mean alcohol intake 21 units; primary depression 27%; secondary depression 49%; antisocial personality disorder 14%. The candidate gene approach in this sample has shown that the GABA receptor B1 (GABRB1) and the tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) are involved in genetic susceptibility to alcoholism. The D2 dopamine receptor is next.
Preliminary data suggests high psychiatric comorbidity in a clinical alcohol dependence sample and implicated candidate genes. Next is genomewide analysis of markers, sequencing and biological pathway/systems alterations.
In the treatment of MDD, insufficient treatment outcome and the delayed onset of action still remain major problems.
Measuring plasma concentrations, i.e. TDM is a possible option to improve therapeutic outcomes.
The aim of this prospective and naturalistic study was to evaluate the economic and clinical benefit of TDM for depressed inpatients treated with citalopram.
Inpatients with MDD according to ICD-10 were included and treated with citalopram. Psychopathology was assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Depression (HAMD-17) rating scale in weekly intervals for five weeks. In parallel, serum concentrations of citalopram were measured.
55 patients were included (27f). 84% of the patients with citalopram plasma concentrations below 50 ng/ml (n = 36) were non-responders in week five. Among patients who achieved plasma concentrations ≥50 ng/ml (n = 19) on day 7, 47% became responder at week five (p = 0.025). Patients with plasma levels ≥50 ng/ml had a significantly shorter duration of hospitalization (49 ± 20) than patients below 50 ng/ml (72 ± 37; p = 0.033).
Our results show that citalopram plasma levels above 50 ng/ml are predictive for later treatment outcome and that TDM is cost effective due to reduced duration of hospitalization.
The main aim of the present studies is to determine whether, or to some extent, specific cognitive domains could differentiate the main subtypes of mood disorder in the depressed and clinically remitted status respectively.
Three groups of bipolar I (n = 92), bipolar II (n = 131) and unipolar depression patients (n = 293) were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment, contrasting with 202 healthy controls on cognitive performance.
At the acute depressive state, the three patients groups (bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression) showed cognitive dysfunction in processing speed, memory, verbal fluency and executive function but not attention compared with controls. And post comparisons revealed that bipolar I patients performed significantly worse in these impaired cognitive domain than bipolar II and unipolar depression patients in verbal fluency and executive function. After treatment, clinically remitted bipolar I and bipolar II patients only displayed cognitive impairment in processing speed and visual memory in relative to controls, while remitted unipolar depression patients showed cognitive impairment in executive function in addition to processing speed and visual memory.
Bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression patients have a similar pattern of cognitive impairment during the state of acute depressive episodes. At the clinically remission, still both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression patients showed cognitive deficits in processing speed and visual memory, and executive dysfunction might be a status-maker for bipolar disorder, but a trait-marker for unipolar depression
The main aim of this study is to investigate the capacity of a number of variables from four dimensions (clinical, psychosocial, cognitive and genetic domains) to predict the antidepressant treatment outcome, and combined the predictors in one integrate regression model with the aim to investigate which predictor contributed most.
In a semi-naturalistic prospective cohort study with a total of 241 fully assessed MDD patients, decrease in HAM-D scores from baseline to after 6 weeks of treatment was used to measure the antidepressant treatment outcome.
The clinical and psychosocial model (R2 = 0.451) showed that HAM-D scores at baseline and MMPI-2 scale paranoia was the best clinical and psychosocial predictor of treatment outcome respectively. The cognitive model (R2 = 0.502) revealed that combination of better performance on TMT-B test and worse performance on TOH and WAIS-R Digit Backward testes could predict decline in HAM-D scores. The genetics analysis only found median of percent improvement in HAM-D scores in G-allele of GR gene BclI polymorphism carriers (72.2%) was significant lower than that in non-G allele carriers (80.1%). The integrate model showed that three predictors, combination of HAM-D scores at baseline, MMPI-2 scale paranoia and TMT-B test, explained 57.1% of the variance.
Three markers, HAM-D scores at baseline, MMPI-2 scale paranoia and TMT-B test, might serve as predictor of antidepressant outcome in daily psychiatric practice.
The design of high energy Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by coupling high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode ensures effective and safe energy-storage. LTO–LNMO full-cells (FCs) with difference in electrode grain sizes and presence of excess Mn3+ in cathode were studied using micron-sized commercial LTO, nanostructured LTO donuts (LTOd), P4332 LNMO nanopowders, and nanostructured Fd3m LNMO caterpillars (LNMOcplr). Among the studied FCs, LTOd–LNMOcplr was detected with a stable capacity of 69 mA h/g (1C rate), 99% coulombic efficiency, and 87% capacity retention under 200 cycles of continuous charge–discharge studies. The superior electrochemical performance observed in LTOd–LNMOcplr FC was due to the low charge transfer resistance, which is corroborated to the effect of grain sizes and the longer retention of Mn3+ in the electrodes. An effective and simple FC design incorporating both nanostructuring and in situ conductivity in electrode materials would aid in developing future high-performance LIBs.
GaN films have been grown on SiC substrates with an AlN nucleation layer by using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Micro-cracking of the GaN films has been observed in some of the grown samples. In order to investigate the micro-cracking and microstructure, the samples have been studied using various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the AlN nucleation layer is related to the stress evolution in subsequent overgrown GaN epilayers. It is determined via TEM evidence that, if the AlN nucleation layer has a rough surface morphology, this leads to tensile stresses in the GaN films, which finally results in cracking. Raman spectroscopy results also suggest this, by showing the existence of considerable tensile residual stress in the AlN nucleation layer. Based on these various observations and results, conclusions or propositions relating to the microstructure are presented.
Using a multiscale blood flow solver, the complete diffusion tensor of nanoparticles (NPs) in sheared cellular blood flow is calculated over a wide range of shear rate and haematocrit. In the short-time regime, NPs exhibit anomalous dispersive behaviors under high shear and high haematocrit due to the transient elongation and alignment of the red blood cells (RBCs). In the long-time regime, the NP diffusion tensor features high anisotropy. Particularly, there exists a critical shear rate (
) around which the shear-rate dependence of the diffusivity tensor changes from linear to nonlinear scale. Above the critical shear rate, the cross-stream diffusivity terms vary sublinearly with shear rate, while the longitudinal term varies superlinearly. The dependence on haematocrit is linear in general except at high shear rates, where a sublinear scale is found for the vorticity term and a quadratic scale for the longitudinal term. Through analysis of the suspension microstructure and numerical experiments, the nonlinear haemorheological dependence of the NP diffusion tensor is attributed to the streamwise elongation and cross-stream contraction of RBCs under high shear, quantified by a capillary number. The RBC size is shown to be the characteristic length scale affecting the RBC-enhanced shear-induced diffusion (RESID), while the NP submicrometre size exhibits negligible influence on the RESID. Based on the observed scaling behaviours, empirical correlations are proposed to bridge the NP diffusion tensor to specific shear rate and haematocrit. The characterized NP diffusion tensor provides a constitutive relation that can lead to more effective continuum models to tackle large-scale NP biotransport applications.
To study infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and their association with nutritional status among young children.
A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten states of India, using a multistage random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements such as length/height and weight were conducted and nutritional assessment was done using the WHO child growth standards.
National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau survey, 2011–2012.
Children aged <3 years and their mothers.
Only 36 % of infants received breast-feeding within an hour of birth and 50 % were exclusively breast-fed up to 6 months. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 38, 41 and 22 %, respectively. The chance of undernutrition among <3-year-old children was significantly higher among those from scheduled caste/scheduled tribe communities, the lowest-income group, with illiterate mothers and lack of sanitary latrine. Among infants, the chance of undernutrition was significantly higher among low-birth-weight babies, and among children whose mother had not consumed iron–folic acid tablets during pregnancy. Immunization practices and minimum dietary diversity were observed to be associated with undernutrition among 12–23-month-old children.
Undernutrition is still an important public health problem in India and observed to be associated with low socio-economic status, illiteracy of mother, low birth weight and dietary diversity. Improving socio-economic and literacy status of mothers can help in improving maternal nutrition during pregnancy and thus low birth weight. Also, improving knowledge of mothers about IYCF practices will help in improving children’s nutritional status.
Nitrification potential of a tropical vertisol saturated with water was estimated during sequential reduction of nitrate (NO3−), ferric iron (Fe3+), sulphate (SO42−) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs). In general, the TEAPs enhanced potential nitrification rate (PNR) of the soil. Nitrification was highest at Fe3+ reduction followed by SO42− reduction, NO3− reduction and lowest in unreduced control soil. Predicted PNR correlated significantly with the observed PNR. Electron donor Fe2+ stimulated PNR, while S2− inhibited it significantly. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) highlighted population dynamics during the sequential reduction of terminal electron acceptors. Only the relative abundance of AOA varied significantly during the course of soil reduction. Relative abundance of AOB correlated with NO3− and Fe2+. Linear regression models predicted PNR from the values of NO3−, Fe2+ and relative abundance of AOA. Principal component analysis of PNR during different reducing conditions explained 72.90% variance by PC1 and 19.52% variance by PC2. Results revealed that AOA might have a significant role in nitrification during reducing conditions in the tropical flooded ecosystem of a vertisol.
Neuropsychological assessment tools are the staple of our field. The development of standardized metrics sensitive to brain-behavior relationships has shaped the neuropsychological questions we can ask, our understanding of discrete brain functions, and has informed the detection and treatment of neurological disorders. We identify key turning points and innovations in neuropsychological assessment over the past 40–50 years that highlight how the tools used in common practice today came to be. Also selected for emphasis are several exciting lines of research and novel approaches that are underway to further probe and characterize brain functions to enhance diagnostic and treatment outcomes. We provide a brief historical review of different clinical neuropsychological assessment approaches (Lurian, Flexible and Fixed Batteries, Boston Process Approach) and critical developments that have influenced their interpretation (normative standards, cultural considerations, longitudinal change, common metric batteries, and translational assessment constructs). Lastly, we discuss growing trends in assessment including technological advances, efforts to integrate neuropsychology across disciplines (e.g., primary care), and changes in neuropsychological assessment infrastructure. Neuropsychological assessment has undergone massive growth in the past several decades. Nonetheless, there remain many unanswered questions and future challenges to better support measurement tools and translate assessment findings into meaningful recommendations and treatments. As technology and our understanding of brain function advance, efforts to support infrastructure for both traditional and novel assessment approaches and integration of complementary brain assessment tools from other disciplines will be integral to inform brain health treatments and promote the growth of our field. (JINS, 2017, 23, 778–790)
This paper highlights major developments over the past two to three decades in the neuropsychology of movement and its disorders. We focus on studies in healthy individuals and patients, which have identified cognitive contributions to movement control and animal work that has delineated the neural circuitry that makes these interactions possible. We cover advances in three major areas: (1) the neuroanatomical aspects of the “motor” system with an emphasis on multiple parallel circuits that include cortical, corticostriate, and corticocerebellar connections; (2) behavioral paradigms that have enabled an appreciation of the cognitive influences on the preparation and execution of movement; and (3) hemispheric differences (exemplified by limb praxis, motor sequencing, and motor learning). Finally, we discuss the clinical implications of this work, and make suggestions for future research in this area. (JINS, 2017, 23, 768–777)
Among various material nanoarchitectures, the nanotube geometry has received incredible attention due to the unique properties provided by its high surface area as well as nanoscale wall thickness and the availability of a variety of techniques to fabricate them. Since the beginning of this century, anodization has emerged as one of the most effective techniques for the fabrication of functional oxide nanotubes. Oxide nanotubes of a number of metals and alloys have been developed using this versatile technique. We review here the research activities on anodic nanotubes of various binary, ternary, and multinary materials and their selected applications.
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are highly prevalent in the working population, and are associated with long-term sickness absence and disability. Workers on sick leave with CMDs would benefit from interventions that enable them to successfully return to work (RTW). However, the effectiveness of RTW interventions for workers with a CMD is not well studied. The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of existing workplace and clinical interventions that were aimed at enhancing RTW. A systematic review of studies of interventions for improving RTW in workers with a CMD was conducted. The main outcomes were proportion of RTW and sick-leave duration until RTW. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, SocINDEX, and Human resource and management databases from January 1995 to 2016. Two authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We pooled studies that we deemed sufficiently homogeneous in different comparison groups and assessed the overall quality of the evidence. We reviewed 2347 abstracts from which 136 full-text articles were reviewed and 16 RCTs were included in the analysis. Combined results from these studies suggested that the available interventions did not lead to improved RTW rates over the control group [pooled risk ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97–1.12], but reduced the number of sick-leave days in the intervention group compared to the control group, with a mean difference of −13.38 days (95% CI −24.07 to −2.69).