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The evolution of glaciers and ice sheets depends on processes in the subglacial environment. Shear seismicity along the ice–bed interface provides a window into these processes. Such seismicity requires a rapid loss of strength that is typically ascribed to rate-weakening friction, i.e., decreasing friction with sliding or sliding rate. Many friction experiments have investigated glacial materials at the temperate conditions typical of fast flowing glacier beds. To our knowledge, however, these studies have all found rate-strengthening friction. Here, we investigate the possibility that rate-weakening rock-on-rock friction between sediments frozen to the bottom of the glacier and the underlying water-saturated sediments or bedrock may be responsible for subglacial shear seismicity along temperate glacier beds. We test this ‘entrainment-seismicity hypothesis’ using targeted laboratory experiments and simple models of glacier sliding, seismicity and sediment entrainment. These models suggest that sediment entrainment may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of basal shear seismicity. We propose that stagnation at the Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica may be caused by the growth of a frozen fringe of entrained sediment in the ice stream margins. Our results suggest that basal shear seismicity may indicate geomorphic activity.
Procedures and tools for evaluation of reference x-ray powder patterns in the JCPDSICDD Powder Diffraction File are illustrated by a review of air-stable binary oxides. The reference patterns are evaluated using an available microcomputer version of the NBS*A1DS83 editorial program and PDF patterns retrieved directly from the CD-ROM in the program's input format. The patterns are compared to calculated and experimental diffractograms. The majority of the oxide patterns have been found to be in good agreement with the calculated and observed diffractograms, but are often missing some weak reflections routinely observed with a modern diffractometer. These weak reflections are added to the PDF pattern. For the remainder of the phases, patterns are redetermined.
Established methods of recruiting population controls for case–control studies to investigate gastrointestinal disease outbreaks can be time consuming, resulting in delays in identifying the source or vehicle of infection. After an initial evaluation of using online market research panel members as controls in a case–control study to investigate a Salmonella outbreak in 2013, this method was applied in four further studies in the UK between 2014 and 2016. We used data from all five studies and interviews with members of each outbreak control team and market research panel provider to review operational issues, evaluate risk of bias in this approach and consider methods to reduce confounding and bias. The investigators of each outbreak reported likely time and cost savings from using market research controls. There were systematic differences between case and control groups in some studies but no evidence that conclusions on the likely source or vehicle of infection were incorrect. Potential selection biases introduced by using this sampling frame and the low response rate are unclear. Methods that might reduce confounding and some bias should be balanced with concerns for overmatching. Further evaluation of this approach using comparisons with traditional methods and population-based exposure survey data is recommended.
Cyg X-3 underwent a series of giant radio outbursts beginning on September 28, 1982 (Geldzahler et al. 1983). The flux densities at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz (11.1, 3.71 cm respectively, see Figure 1) were measured with the 2.4 km baseline of the Green Bank interferometer once every three days before October 5, 1982 (= JD 244 5248) and three times daily thereafter.
In Table I we present the list of 38 celestial objects that have been observed since January 1978 at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz with the Green Bank interferometer. The sources fall naturally into three categories: radio stars, possibly Galactic sources, and extragalactic sources. SS433, Cyg X-3, and each extrgalactic source is measured several times per day while the other sources are measured once every three days. Reports on the entire program will be found in Geldzahler et al. (1983a), and on specific sources: SS433—Johnston et al. (1983a), BL Lac—Johnston et al. (1983b), Cyg X-3—Geldzahler et al. (1983b) and elsewhere in this volume), and CTA 26—Spencer et al. (1983).
Most known galaxies at high redshifts have been found by concentrating on ultra steep spectrum (α≳l) sources in low frequency radio surveys (eg. Rottgering et al., 1994; McCarthy et al., 1990). We have been carrying out a systematic study of a large and complete sample from the 408 MHz Molonglo Reference Catalogue which is not biased by any spectral index criterion. Containing 558 sources, defined by S408 ≥ 0.95 Jy; −30° < δ < −20° and the RA ranges of 20h 20m to 06h00m and 09h20m to 14h00m, our sample is about 3 times larger in size and 5 times deeper in flux density than the well studied 3CRR sample.
We are engaged in using the HIRES echelle spectrograph (Vogt et al. 1994) on the 10 m Keck I Telescope to significantly increase the number of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) studied spectroscopically at high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. With Keck we are able to extend our previous work (Méndez et al. 1988, 1992; McCarthy 1988) to much fainter magnitudes. In short, comparisons of the observed HI Balmer, HeI, and He II line profiles to the Munich grid of plane-parallel non-LTE model atmosphere line profiles provide distance- and nebula-independent determinations of CSPN effective temperature, surface gravity, and helium abundance. For CSPN showing wind emission, the comparisons are made to new “unified” models (reviewed by Kudritzki et al., this meeting) which include radiation-driven winds. The first results of this on-going program are shown below.
For this review we have chosen to concentrate on recent progress concerning the model atmosphere analysis of stellar winds in central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs). Since there is another review in these proceedings (by W.R. Hamann) devoted specifically to Wolf-Rayet type CSPNs, we will not consider them here. The reader interested in recent work on windless model atmospheres applied to CSPNs is referred to reviews by Napiwotzki (1995) and Werner et al. (1996). There is also an interesting paper by Werner (1996) on the Balmer line problem.
The viewing angle of ≃45° (between the jet axis and the line of sight) dividing quasars and radio galaxies in the orientation-based unified scheme (Barthel 1989) is based largely on the observation that in the redshift range of 0.5 < z < 1.0 in the low-frequency 3CRR sample, there are about twice as many radio galaxies than quasars and the median linear size of galaxies is about twice that of the quasars. The relative numbers and sizes of quasars in other redshift ranges in the 3CRR are however in conflict with the simple unified scheme even if the opening angle is considered to evolve with epoch or radio luminosity (Kapahi 1990; Singal 1993). Larger sources samples, preferably selected at low radio frequencies, are clearly important in such statistical studies.
The triennial report of Commission 19 was composed from the contributions of its members. Space does not permit a listing of their names, but their contributions are sincerely appreciated. Unfortunately because of limited space it is also not possible to provide in this report the extensive list of publication of the Commission members. The list of publications is however available on the Commission 19 web site at maia.usno.navy.mil/iauc19.
We present preliminary results from two parallel programs to search for new substellar companions to nearby, young M-stars and to characterize the atmospheres of known planetary mass and temperature substellar companions. For the M-star survey, we are analyzing high angular resolution archival data on systems within 15pc, complementing a subset with well-determined young ages based on measurements of several age indicators. The results include stellar and substellar companion candidates, which we are currently pursuing with follow-up second epoch images. The characterization component of the project involves using LBT LMIRCam and MMT ARIES direct imaging and spectroscopy data to investigate the atmospheres of known young substellar companions with masses overlapping the planetary regime. These atmospheric studies will represent an analogous comparison to the atmospheres of young imaged planets, and provide a means to fundamentally test evolutionary models, enhancing our understanding of the overall substellar population.
We sought to explain seasonality and other aspects of Campylobacter jejuni epidemiology by integrating population genetic and epidemiological analysis in a large 3-year longitudinal, two-centre, population-based study. Epidemiological information was collected for 1505 isolates, which were multilocus sequence-typed. Analyses compared pathogen population structure between areas, over time, and between clinical presentations. Pooled analysis was performed with published international datasets. Subtype association with virulence was not observed. UK sites had nearly identical C. jejuni populations. A clade formed by ST45 and ST283 clonal complexes showed a summer peak. This clade was common in a Finnish dataset but not in New Zealand and Australian collections, countries with less marked seasonality. The UK, New Zealand and Australian collections were otherwise similar. These findings map to known in-vitro differences of this clade. This identifies a target for studies to elucidate the drivers of the summer peak in human C. jejuni infection.
The technical hasis for codisposal of gasification ash from the Great Plains Gasification Associates plant, combined with cementitious “scrubber ash” and bottom ash from the adjoining Antelope Valley generating station, both located in Beulah, North Dakota, has been explored. Nine blends containing only the ashes and tap water were fabricated into cylinders and tested for compressive strength and other physical properties. A blend having the ash proportions of the two plants was tested for leachability with respect to several regulated and minor elements. Mineralogical characterization by XRD was performed on the individual waste solids and the cured mixes. Most of the blends had compressive strengths greater than 400 psi after 7-day/38 C and 28-day/21 C curing. The 7-day treatment led to better consolidated test cylinders. Leaching behavior, evaluated by the EPA-EP and ASTM tests, was determined for As, Se, B, V, Mo, Ba, Sr, and K. Average fixation factors (the ratio of leaching expected from a weighted average of its components to the actual leaching of the specimen) of 2 to 4 were observed for the 7-day cured specimens and 1 to 2 for the 28-day specimens. Not all elements had reduced leaching in the fabricated specimens; Se and V leaching increased in the fabricated specimens. In addition to ash proportions, curing conditions (T, pH2O, time) and water to solid ratio appear to key parameters in obtaining well-consolidated and lower leachability products. XRD indicated that ettringite and minor calcite were the only crystalline reaction products of the cementitious reactions in the cured codisposal mix.
This paper gives physical and chemical properties of some Canadian fly ashes. Specific surface area, magnetic fraction, water soluble fraction and fraction finer than 45 μm were determined as part of the physical tests. Thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA) in oxygen and nitrogen were conducted on raw ash samples. The change of pH with time in suspensions of the different ashes in water was also determined. Pozzolanic activity of the ashes with lime for all the ashes was evaluated to measure ash reactivity.
The ash activity seems to be related to fineness of the ash measured by the Blaine air permeability method, but not to the fineness measured by nitrogen sorption. Generally the greater the specific surface area, the higher the reactivity of the ash. The correlation was, however, not strong and no other physical or chemical parameter measured in this investigation seems to be related to pozzolanic activity.
The results of pH and TGA tests indicated that the ashes differ in many respects from each other. The TGA data suggest that loss on-ignition in many of the ashes is not entirely due to the presence of unburned carbon. Specific surface area determined by various methods seems to provide different values. No characterization parameter was found that was uniquely related to coal type.
three different fixed-bed gasifiers have been leached using: (1) the EPA-EP leaching test; (2) a similar test that starts with a synthetic North Dakota groundwater; (3) the ASTM D3987–81 method; (4) a long-term (120 day) leaching experiment. The gasification ashes were highly alkaline and produced pH's in the range 10–13 during tests 2 through 4. Compositions of major, minor and trace elements were determined by AAS and ICAP analyses of leachates. None of the EPA-EP test leachates from any of the ashes exceeded the EP Trigger values that define a hazardous waste according to the RCRA criteria. The long-term leaching experiments provided insights into the rates of extraction of elements from ash and could be useful in modeling selected failure scenarios in an ash disposal pit. At various times during the long-term leaching experiments, substantial fractions of the Na, K, Al, S, As, Mo, Se and V in the ash were extracted. Liquid to solid (l:s) ratios were important in determining the quantities of elements extracted and in controlling solution pH; during most of the 120 day experiments, pH's were near 13 in a 2:1 ratio experiment and just below 10 in a 20:1 ratio experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis of the leaching residue indicated that only a portion of the ash reacted with the leaching solutions. The reaction products were largely noncrystalline, but minor amounts of zeolites, calcite and gibbsite were identified. The formation of such secondary solid phases appears to be important in controlling leachant concentrations.