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Product-service systems (PSSs) are regarded as one of the promising ways to contribute to a sustainable society. Despite the well-developed knowledge, PSS design lack of long-term perspective to treat related changes and uncertainties. To address this issue, this paper proposes a conceptual framework of sustainable PSS design for sustainability transition by integrating insight from design approach for system innovation and transition. Applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through application to example of PSS development project for wildlife nuisance in a suburban city.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
We mapped the NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of the molecular cloud associated with the Monkey Head Nebula (MHN) with 1′.6 angular resolution using Kashima 34 m telescope. Its kinetic temperature distribution was contrary to what is expected for a molecular cloud at the edge of an expanding H II region and suggested that the massive star associated with S252A compact HII region formed spontaneously rather than through a sequential process.
A serious sugarcane pest, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, remains in the soil during most of its life cycle except for a short period for mating. Mating disruption by an artificial release of the sex pheromone (R)-2-butanol (R2B), therefore, may be a feasible method to control this pest. We examined the effects of artificial release of R2B and its related compounds, (S)-2-butanol (S2B) and the racemic 2-butanol (rac-2B), on the mating success of this beetle both in the laboratory and in the field. In flight tunnel experiments, almost all males orientated towards a R2B-releasing source and 40% of them landed on the source. When the atmosphere was permeated with R2B, the frequency of males landing on the model was significantly reduced. Both rac-2B and S2B were less effective, but substantial reduction in landing success by males was achieved at higher rac-2B concentrations. R2B released from polyethylene dispensers in sugarcane plots greatly reduced not only the proportion of females mated with males but also the number of males caught by R2B-baited traps, indicating that male mate-searching behaviour was strongly affected by the released R2B. Similar inhibitory effects on male behaviour were also observed when tube- or rope-type dispensers released high rac-2B concentrations in the field. These results indicate that it would be highly possible to control D. ishigakiensis through the disruption of the sexual communication by releasing either synthetic R2B or rac-2B.
We have developed a Wide Field Cryogenic Telescope II (WFCT-II), which contains
a whole telescope-optics in a cryostat to suppress thermal emission from the whole telescope.
The cryostat is of a cylindrical shape of 800 mm length and 300 mm diameter.
The telescope inside is a Ritchey-Chretien system with the primary mirror of 231 mm in diameter
and a focal length of 1500 mm. The InSb 1k × 1k infrared array detector (Aladdin II) has a FoV of 1 square degree
and a resolution of 3'' × 3''/pixel. We can install 5 filters whose wavelengths range from 1 μm to 5 μm.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.